Results for 'Shane Littrell'

469 found
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  1.  14
    Overconfidently Underthinking: Narcissism Negatively Predicts Cognitive Reflection.Shane Littrell, Jonathan Fugelsang & Evan F. Risko - 2019 - Thinking and Reasoning 26 (3):352-380.
    There exists a large body of work examining individual differences in the propensity to engage in reflective thinking processes. However, there is a distinct lack of empirical research examining th...
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  2.  52
    Automated Vehicles and Transportation Justice.Shane Epting - 2019 - Philosophy and Technology 32 (3):389-403.
    Despite numerous ethical examinations of automated vehicles, philosophers have neglected to address how these technologies will affect vulnerable people. To account for this lacuna, researchers must analyze how driverless cars could hinder or help social justice. In addition to thinking through these aspects, scholars must also pay attention to the extensive moral dimensions of automated vehicles, including how they will affect the public, nonhumans, future generations, and culturally significant artifacts. If planners and engineers undertake this task, then they will have (...)
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  3. Universal Intelligence: A Definition of Machine Intelligence.Shane Legg & Marcus Hutter - 2007 - Minds and Machines 17 (4):391-444.
    A fundamental problem in artificial intelligence is that nobody really knows what intelligence is. The problem is especially acute when we need to consider artificial systems which are significantly different to humans. In this paper we approach this problem in the following way: we take a number of well known informal definitions of human intelligence that have been given by experts, and extract their essential features. These are then mathematically formalised to produce a general measure of intelligence for arbitrary machines. (...)
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  4.  12
    Measuring Mainstream US Cultural Values.Caroline Josephine Doran & Romie Frederick Littrell - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 117 (2):261-280.
    To determine and describe ‘mainstream US culture’ responses to the Schwartz Values Survey version 57 were collected and analyzed amongst two samples, one from 49 states, disregarding state of residence, and another from 27 US states comparing samples by state, with the 27-state populations representing about 82 % of the total US population. Statistical comparisons indicate that the responses of the samples categorised by the total US and state of residence samples and Schwartz’ ten individual cultural values show a cohesive (...)
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  5.  66
    The Moral Dimensions of Infrastructure.Shane Epting - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (2):435-449.
    Moral issues in urban planning involving technology, residents, marginalized groups, ecosystems, and future generations are complex cases, requiring solutions that go beyond the limits of contemporary moral theory. Aside from typical planning problems, there is incongruence between moral theory and some of the subjects that require moral assessment, such as urban infrastructure. Despite this incongruence, there is not a need to develop another moral theory. Instead, a supplemental measure that is compatible with existing moral positions will suffice. My primary goal (...)
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  6.  47
    What is Working, What is Not, and What We Need to Know: A Meta-Analytic Review of Business Ethics Instruction.Shane Connelly, Michael Mumford, Logan Steele, Tyler Mulhearn, Logan Watts & Kelsey Medeiros - 2017 - Journal of Academic Ethics 15 (3):245-275.
    Requirements for business ethics education and organizational ethics trainings mark an important step in encouraging ethical behavior among business students and professionals. However, the lack of specificity in these guidelines as to how, what, and where business ethics should be taught has led to stark differences in approaches and content. The present effort uses meta-analytic procedures to examine the effectiveness of current approaches across organizational ethics trainings and business school courses. to provide practical suggestions for business ethics interventions and research. (...)
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  7.  45
    A Managerial in-Basket Study of the Impact of Trait Emotions on Ethical Choice.Shane Connelly, Whitney Helton-Fauth & Michael D. Mumford - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 51 (3):245-267.
    This paper explores the relationship of various trait emotions to the ethical choices of 189 college students who completed a managerial decision-making task as part of an in-basket exercise in a laboratory setting. Prior research regarding emotion influences on ethical decision-making and linkages between emotions and cognition informed hypotheses about how different types of emotions impact ethical choices. Findings supported our expectations that positive and negative emotions classified as active would be more strongly related to interpersonally-directed ethical choices than to (...)
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  8.  57
    The Current Link Between Management Behavior and Ethical Philosophy.Shane R. Premeaux - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 51 (3):269-278.
    The current linkages between ethical theory and management behavior are investigated. The vignettes used in this investigation represent ethical dilemmas in the areas of coercion and control, conflict of interest, physical environment, and personal integrity. Overall, even with heightened ethical awareness the link between ethical philosophy and management behavior remains similar to that of the early 1990s. Generally, practitioners still rely heavily on the utilitarian ethical philosophy when making business decisions. However, more managers are now likely to select ethically appropriate (...)
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  9.  32
    Grounded Disease: Constructing the Social From the Biological in Medicine.Shane N. Glackin - 2019 - Philosophical Quarterly 69 (275):258-276.
    Social Constructivism about the disease concept has generally been taken to ignore the fundamental biological reality underlying diseases, as well as to fall foul of several apparently compelling objections. In this paper, I explain how the metaphysical relation of grounding can be used to tie a socially constructed account of diseases and their classification to their underlying biological and behavioural states. I then generalize the position by disambiguating several varieties of normativism, including a particularly strong ‘placeholder’ version of social constructivism, (...)
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  10.  41
    Linking Management Behavior to Ethical Philosophy.Shane R. Premeaux & R. Wayne Mondy - 1993 - Journal of Business Ethics 12 (5):349 - 357.
    This study investigates current linkages between ethical theory and management behavior. The vignettes used in this investigation represent ethical dilemmas in the areas of coercion and control, conflict of interest, physical environment, and personal integrity. The results indicate that even with the heightened state of ethical awareness that has evolved in recent years the link between ethical philosophy and management behavior remains basically the same as it was in the mid 1980s. Specifically, practitioners still rely almost totally on the utilitarian (...)
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  11.  16
    On Moral Prioritization in Environmental Ethics.Shane Epting - 2017 - Environmental Ethics 39 (2):131-146.
    Developing a way to address troublesome issues in areas such as urban planning is a chal-lenging undertaking. It includes making decisions that involve humans, nonhumans, future generations, and historical and cultural artifacts. All of these groups deserve consideration, but not equally. Figuring out how to approach this topic involves overcoming the problem of moral prioritization. The structure of weak anthropocentrism can help with this problem, suggesting that future research on the environmental aspects of metropolitan regions should make use of its (...)
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  12.  65
    The Link Between Management Behavior and Ethical Philosophy in the Wake of the Enron Convictions.Shane Premeaux - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 85 (1):13-25.
    The current linkages between ethical theory and management behavior are investigated in the wake of the much-publicized convictions of Enron executives. The vignettes used in this investigation represent ethical dilemmas in the areas of coercion and control, conflict of interest, physical environment, and personal integrity. Since 2003, and after the successful prosecution of Enron executives, the link between ethical philosophy and management behavior has shifted somewhat dramatically. There has been a significant change in the rational basis for managerial decision making. (...)
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  13.  51
    A Different Trolley Problem: The Limits of Environmental Justice and the Promise of Complex Moral Assessments for Transportation Infrastructure.Shane Epting - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (6):1781-1795.
    Transportation infrastructure tremendously affects the quality of life for urban residents, influences public and mental health, and shapes social relations. Historically, the topic is rich with social and political controversy and the resultant transit systems in the United States cause problems for minority residents and issues for the public. Environmental justice frameworks provide a means to identify and address harms that affect marginalized groups, but environmental justice has limits that cannot account for the mainstream population. To account for this condition, (...)
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  14.  42
    Individualism and the Medical: What About Somatic Externalism?Shane N. Glackin - 2017 - Analysis 77 (2):287-293.
    If mental illnesses are externally constituted, then so are somatic illnesses. Will Davies makes a persuasive case for externalism in psychiatry; as I show here, parallel examples exist in somatic medicine.
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  15.  72
    Why Paraphrase Nihilism Fails.Shane Wilkins - 2016 - Synthese 193 (8):2619--2632.
    Nihilists cannot square their position with common sense simply by paraphrasing away apparent ontological commitments in ordinary language. I argue for this claim by analogy. Paraphrase atheism says there is no God, but tries to square the truth of atheism with ordinary religious sentences by paraphrasing away apparent ontological commitments. Obviously, paraphrase does not reconcile atheism with ordinary language about God. I discuss two different reasons that paraphrase can fail and suggest that both reasons afflict paraphrase nihilism. Hence, paraphrase nihilism (...)
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  16.  69
    Paternalism: An Analysis.Shane Ryan - 2016 - Utilitas 28 (2):123-135.
    In this article I argue for a particular analysis of paternalism. I start by examining Dworkin's conditions for the paternalist act and make a case for alternative conditions. I argue that the paternalist actor acts irrespective of what she believes the wishes of the target of her action are and the paternalist actor acts because she has a positive epistemic standing that the act may or will improve the welfare of the target of her action. I also argue that it (...)
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  17.  68
    Was Hume an Atheist?Shane Andre - 1993 - Hume Studies 19 (1):141-166.
  18.  32
    Three Aristotelian Accounts of Disease and Disability.Shane N. Glackin - 2016 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (3):311-326.
    The question of whether medical and psychiatric judgements involve a normative or evaluative component has been a source of wide and vehement disagreement. But among those who think such a component is involved, there is considerable further disagreement as to its nature. In this article, I consider several versions of Aristotelian normativism, as propounded by Christopher Megone, Michael Thompson and Philippa Foot, and Martha Nussbaum. The first two, I claim, can be persuasively rebutted by different modes of liberal pluralist challenge (...)
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  19.  40
    Anxiety and Working Memory Capacity.Shane Darke - 1988 - Cognition and Emotion 2 (2):145-154.
  20.  16
    Placebo Treatments, Informed Consent and ‘the Grip of a False Picture’.Shane Nicholas Glackin - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (8):669-672.
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  21.  37
    Hobbesian Right to Healthcare.Shane D. Courtland - 2017 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 34 (1):99-113.
    Over the last few years we have had a debate regarding the role of government in providing healthcare. There has been a question as to whether or not the state's proper role requires protection of its subjects from the calamities associated with a lack of healthcare. In this article, I will argue that straightforward Hobbesian principles require the state to provide healthcare. It might seem odd that such a positive right can be justified by a philosopher who famously conceives of (...)
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  22.  91
    Wisdom: Understanding and the Good Life.Shane Ryan - 2016 - Acta Analytica 31 (3):235-251.
    I argue that a necessary condition for being wise is: understanding how to live well. The condition, by requiring understanding rather than a wide variety of justified beliefs or knowledge, as Ryan and Whitcomb respectively require, yields the desirable result that being wise is compatible with having some false beliefs but not just any false beliefs about how to live well—regardless of whether those beliefs are justified or not. In arguing for understanding how to live well as a necessary condition (...)
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  23. Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology.Shane J. Lopez & C. R. Snyder (eds.) - 2009 - Oxford University Press USA.
    The Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology, Second Edition is the seminal reference in the burgeoning field of positive psychology, which, in recent years, has transcended academia to capture the imagination of the general public. The handbook provides a roadmap for the psychology needed by the majority of the population--those who don't need treatment, but want to achieve the lives to which they aspire. The 65 chapters summarize all of the relevant literature in the field, and each of the international slate (...)
     
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  24.  72
    Epistemic Environmentalism.Shane Ryan - 2018 - Journal of Philosophical Research 43:97-112.
    I motivate and develop a normative framework for undertaking work in applied epistemology. I set out the framework, which I call epistemic environmentalism, explaining the role of social epistemology and epistemic value theory in the framework. Next, I explain the environmentalist terminology that is employed and its usefulness. In the second part of the paper, I make the case for a specific epistemic environmentalist proposal. I argue that dishonest testimony by experts and certain institutional testifiers should be liable to the (...)
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  25.  59
    An Applied Mereology of the City: Unifying Science and Philosophy for Urban Planning.Shane Epting - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (5):1361-1374.
    Based on their research showing that growing cities follow basic principles, two theoretical physicists, Luis Bettencourt and Geoffrey West, call for researchers and professionals to contribute to a grand theory of urban sustainability. In their research, they develop a ‘science of the city’ to help urban planners address problems that arise from population increases. Although they provide valuable insights for understanding urban sustainability issues, they do not give planners a manageable way to approach such problems. I argue that developing an (...)
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  26. Ideas and Confusion in Leibniz.Shane Duarte - 2009 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 17 (4):705-733.
    According to Margaret Wilson, Leibniz is inconsistent when it comes to the question of whether one can have distinct ideas of sensible qualities, and this because he sometimes conceives of sensible qualities as sensations and sometimes conceives of them as complexes of primary qualities. When he conceives of them as sensations, he denies that we can have distinct ideas of sensible qualities; when he conceives of them as complexes of primary qualities, he asserts that we can. In this paper I (...)
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  27. Aristotle's Theology and its Relation to the Science of Being Qua Being.Shane Duarte - 2007 - Apeiron 40 (3):267-318.
    The paper proposes a novel understanding of how Aristotle’s theoretical works complement each other in such a way as to form a genuine system, and this with the immediate (and ostensibly central) aim of addressing a longstanding question regarding Aristotle’s ‘first philosophy’—namely, is Aristotle’s first philosophy a contribution to theology, or to the science of being in general? Aristotle himself seems to suggest that it is in some ways both, but how this can be is a very difficult question. My (...)
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  28.  7
    A Scale Distortion Theory of Anchoring.Shane W. Frederick & Daniel Mochon - 2012 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 141 (1):124-133.
  29. A Sensemaking Approach to Ethics Training for Scientists: Preliminary Evidence of Training Effectiveness.Michael D. Mumford, Shane Connelly, Ryan P. Brown, Stephen T. Murphy, Jason H. Hill, Alison L. Antes, Ethan P. Waples & Lynn D. Devenport - 2008 - Ethics and Behavior 18 (4):315 – 339.
    In recent years, we have seen a new concern with ethics training for research and development professionals. Although ethics training has become more common, the effectiveness of the training being provided is open to question. In the present effort, a new ethics training course was developed that stresses the importance of the strategies people apply to make sense of ethical problems. The effectiveness of this training was assessed in a sample of 59 doctoral students working in the biological and social (...)
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  30.  25
    Back to Bundles: Deflating Property Rights, Again.Shane Nicholas Glackin - 2014 - Legal Theory 20 (1):1-24.
    Following Wesley Hohfeld's pioneering analyses, which demonstrated that the concept of ownership conflated a variety of distinct legal relations, a deflationary regarding those relations as essentially unconnected held sway for much of the subsequent century. In recent decades, this theory has been thought too diffuse; it seems counterintuitive to insist, for instance, that rights of possession and alienation over a property are associated only contingently. Accordingly, scholars such as James Penner and James Harris have advanced theories that revive the concept (...)
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  31.  26
    Pain as Metaphor: Metaphor and Medicine.Shane Neilson - 2016 - Medical Humanities 42 (1):3-10.
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  32.  54
    Leibniz and Prime Matter.Shane Duarte - 2015 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 53 (3):435-460.
    I argue that the prime matter that Leibniz posits in every created monad is understood by him to be a mere defect or negation, and not something real and positive. Further, I argue that Leibniz’s talk of prime matter in every created monad is inspired by the thirteenth-century doctrine of spiritual matter, but that such talk is simply one way in which Leibniz frames a point that he frequently makes elsewhere—namely, that each creaturely essence incorporates a limitation that is the (...)
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  33.  18
    Philosophy of the City and Environmental Ethics.Shane Epting - 2018 - Environmental Ethics 40 (2):99-100.
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  34.  16
    Participatory Budgeting and Vertical Agriculture: A Thought Experiment in Food System Reform.Shane Epting - 2016 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 29 (5):737-748.
    While researchers have identified numerous problems with food systems, sustainable, just, and workable solutions remain scarce. Recent developments in the food justice literature, however, show which local food movements favor sustainability and justice as problem-solving measures. Yet, some of the ways that these approaches could work in concert are overlooked. Through focusing on how they are compatible, we can understand how such endeavors can improve the conditions for community control and reduce the detrimental effects of agribusiness. In this paper, the (...)
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  35.  22
    Can Pragmatists Be Constitutionalists? Dewey, Jefferson and the Experimental Constitution.Shane Ralston - forthcoming - Contemporary Pragmatism.
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  36.  29
    An Evaluation of Early and Late Stage Attentional Processing of Positive and Negative Information in Dysphoria.Matthew S. Shane & Jordan B. Peterson - 2007 - Cognition and Emotion 21 (4):789-815.
  37.  10
    Familiarity and Recollection in Heuristic Decision Making.Shane R. Schwikert & Tim Curran - 2014 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 143 (6):2341-2365.
  38.  18
    Managing the Risks of Corporate Political Donations: A Utilitarian Perspective.Shane Leong, James Hazelton & Cynthia Townley - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 118 (2):429-445.
    This paper applies a utilitarian analysis to corporate political donations. Unlike the more common rights-based analyses, it is argued that the optimal policy is the one that best satisfies society’s rational preferences concerning donor influence, adequate financing, donor pressure and the cost of maintaining and enforcing the democratic system. This analysis suggests that a ban is best if it would be generally observed and sufficient financing from other sources is available, otherwise a donation cap is a better option. Further, lobbyists (...)
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  39. Defending Lewis’s Local Miracle Compatibilism.Shane Oakley - 2006 - Philosophical Studies 130 (2):337-349.
    Helen Beebee has recently argued that David Lewis’s account of compatibilism, so-called local miracle compatibilism, allows for the possibility that agents in deterministic worlds have the ability to break or cause the breaking of a law of nature. Because Lewis’s LMC allows for this consequence, Beebee claims that LMC is untenable and subsequently that Lewis’s criticism of van Inwagen’s Consequence Argument for incompatibilism is substantially weakened. I review Beebee’s argument against Lewis’s thesis and argue that Beebee has not refuted LMC (...)
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  40.  29
    Kinship, Family, and Gender Effects in the Ultimatum Game.Shane J. Macfarlan & Robert J. Quinlan - 2008 - Human Nature 19 (3):294-309.
    Kinship and reciprocity are two main predictors of altruism. The ultimatum game has been used to study altruism in many small-scale societies. We used the ultimatum game to examine effects of individuals’ family and kin relations on altruistic behavior in a kin-based horticultural community in rural Dominica. Results show sex-specific effects of kin on ultimatum game play. Average coefficient of relatedness to the village was negatively associated with women’s ultimatum game proposals and had little effect on men’s proposals. Number of (...)
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  41. A Model of Heuristic Judgment.Daniel Kahneman & Shane Frederick - 2005 - In K. Holyoak & B. Morrison (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning. Cambridge University Press. pp. 267--293.
    The program of research now known as the heuristics and biases approach began with a study of the statistical intuitions of experts, who were found to be excessively confident in the replicability of results from small samples. The persistence of such systematic errors in the intuitions of experts implied that their intuitive judgments may be governed by fundamentally different processes than the slower, more deliberate computations they had been trained to execute. The ancient idea that cognitive processes can be partitioned (...)
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  42.  9
    Against Thatcherite Linguistics: Rule‐Following, Speech Communities, and Biolanguage.Shane N. Glackin - 2018 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 56 (2):163-192.
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  43. Representativeness Revisited: Attribute Substitution in Intuitive Judgment.Daniel Kahneman & Shane Frederick - 2002 - In . Cambridge University Press. pp. 49-81.
    The first section introduces a distinction between 2 families of cognitive operations, called System 1 and System 2. The second section presents an attribute-substitution model of heuristic judgment, which elaborates and extends earlier treatments of the topic. The third section introduces a research design for studying attribute substitution. The fourth section discusses the controversy over the representativeness heuristic. The last section situates representativeness within a broad family of prototype heuristics, in which properties of a prototypical exemplar dominate global judgments concerning (...)
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  44.  18
    Guidelines to Prevent Malevolent Use of Biomedical Research.Shane K. Green, Sara Taub, Karine Morin & Daniel Higginson - 2006 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 15 (4):432-439.
    In February 1975, a group of leading scientists, physicians, and policymakers convened at Asilomar, California, to consider the safety of proceeding with recombinant DNA research. The excitement generated by the promise of this new technology was counterbalanced by concerns regarding dangers that might arise from it, including the potential for accidental release of genetically modified organisms into the environment. Guidelines developed at the conference to direct future research endeavors had several consequences. They permitted research to resume, bringing to an end (...)
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  45.  96
    Case-Based Knowledge and Ethics Education: Improving Learning and Transfer Through Emotionally Rich Cases.Chase E. Thiel, Shane Connelly, Lauren Harkrider, Lynn D. Devenport, Zhanna Bagdasarov, James F. Johnson & Michael D. Mumford - 2013 - Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (1):265-286.
    Case-based instruction is a stable feature of ethics education, however, little is known about the attributes of the cases that make them effective. Emotions are an inherent part of ethical decision-making and one source of information actively stored in case-based knowledge, making them an attribute of cases that likely facilitates case-based learning. Emotions also make cases more realistic, an essential component for effective case-based instruction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of emotional case content, and complementary (...)
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  46.  47
    A Meta-Analysis of Ethics Instruction Effectiveness in the Sciences.Lynn D. Devenport, Shane Connelly, Ryan P. Brown, Michael D. Mumford, Ethan P. Waples, Alison L. Antes & Stephen T. Murphy - 2009 - Ethics and Behavior 19 (5):379-402.
    Scholars have proposed a number of courses and programs intended to improve the ethical behavior of scientists in an attempt to maintain the integrity of the scientific enterprise. In the present study, we conducted a quantitative meta-analysis based on 26 previous ethics program evaluation efforts, and the results showed that the overall effectiveness of ethics instruction was modest. The effects of ethics instruction, however, were related to a number of instructional program factors, such as course content and delivery methods, in (...)
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  47. Leibniz and Monadic Domination.Shane Duarte - 2013 - Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy 6:209-48.
    In this paper, I aim to offer a clear explanation of what monadic domination, understood as a relation obtaining exclusively among monads, amounts to in the philosophy of Leibniz (and this insofar as monadic domination is conceived by Leibniz not to account for the substantial unity of composite substances). Central to my account is the Aristotelian notion of a hierarchy of activities, as well as a particular understanding of the relations that obtain among the perceptions of monads that stand in (...)
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  48.  16
    Science Sublime: The Philosophy of the Sublime, Dewey's Aesthetics, and Science Education.Shane Cavanaugh - 2014 - Education and Culture 30 (1):57-77.
    Due to the historic separation of cognition and emotion, the affective aspects of learning are often seen as trivial in comparison to the more ‘essential’ cognitive qualities—particularly in science. We are taught that science should objectively scrutinize the world in search of answers, and science educators have been taught to look to scientists to guide their teaching of content and processes.2 As a result, science pedagogy characteristically instructs students to step back from objects and events in order to dispassionately observe (...)
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  49.  33
    Self‐Induced Memory Distortions and the Allocation of Processing Resources at Encoding and Retrieval.Matthew Shane & Jordan Peterson - 2004 - Cognition and Emotion 18 (4):533-558.
  50.  68
    Universal Grammar and the Baldwin Effect: A Hypothesis and Some Philosophical Consequences.Shane Nicholas Glackin - 2011 - Biology and Philosophy 26 (2):201-222.
    Grammar is now widely regarded as a substantially biological phenomenon, yet the problem of language evolution remains a matter of controversy among Linguists, Cognitive Scientists, and Evolutionary Theorists alike. In this paper, I present a new theoretical argument for one particular hypothesis—that a Language Acquisition Device of the sort first posited by Noam Chomsky might have evolved via the so-called Baldwin Effect . Close attention to the workings of that mechanism, I argue, helps to explain a previously mysterious feature of (...)
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