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Shane Ryan [34]Shane Gavin Ryan [1]
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Shane Ryan
City University of Hong Kong
  1. Wisdom: Understanding and the Good Life.Shane Ryan - 2016 - Acta Analytica 31 (3):235-251.
    I argue that a necessary condition for being wise is: understanding how to live well. The condition, by requiring understanding rather than a wide variety of justified beliefs or knowledge, as Ryan and Whitcomb respectively require, yields the desirable result that being wise is compatible with having some false beliefs but not just any false beliefs about how to live well—regardless of whether those beliefs are justified or not. In arguing for understanding how to live well as a necessary condition (...)
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  2.  83
    Skilful reflection as a master virtue.Chienkuo Mi & Shane Ryan - 2020 - Synthese 197 (6):2295-2308.
    This paper advances the claim that skilful reflection is a master virtue in that skilful reflection shapes and corrects the other epistemic and intellectual virtues. We make the case that skilful reflection does this with both competence-based epistemic virtues and character-based intellectual virtues. In making the case that skilful reflection is a master virtue, we identify the roots of ideas central to our thesis in Confucian philosophy. In particular, we discuss the Confucian conception of reflection, as well as different levels (...)
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  3. Epistemic Environmentalism.Shane Ryan - 2018 - Journal of Philosophical Research 43:97-112.
    I motivate and develop a normative framework for undertaking work in applied epistemology. I set out the framework, which I call epistemic environmentalism, explaining the role of social epistemology and epistemic value theory in the framework. Next, I explain the environmentalist terminology that is employed and its usefulness. In the second part of the paper, I make the case for a specific epistemic environmentalist proposal. I argue that dishonest testimony by experts and certain institutional testifiers should be liable to the (...)
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  4.  90
    Paternalism: An Analysis.Shane Ryan - 2016 - Utilitas 28 (2):123-135.
    In this article I argue for a particular analysis of paternalism. I start by examining Dworkin's conditions for the paternalist act and make a case for alternative conditions. I argue that the paternalist actor acts irrespective of what she believes the wishes of the target of her action are and the paternalist actor acts because she has a positive epistemic standing that the act may or will improve the welfare of the target of her action. I also argue that it (...)
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  5.  40
    Who Is a Wise Person? Zhuangzi and Epistemological Discussions of Wisdom.Shane Ryan & Karyn Lai - 2021 - Philosophy East and West 71 (3):665-682.
    This essay articulates the contribution that the Zhuangzi can make to contemporary epistemological discussions of wisdom. It suggests that wisdom in the Zhuangzi involves, in part, correctly distinguishing the "heavenly" (or the naturally given) from human artifice. It is important for humanity to understand naturally given conditions (e.g., seasons, climate, forces, mortality) to grasp what is within, and what beyond, our initiatives. To enable this, we need to be openly engaged with the world, rather than approach it with rigid convictions (...)
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  6.  27
    Trust: A recipe.Shane Ryan - 2018 - Think 17 (50):113-125.
    Trust is relevant to discussions across a range of areas in philosophy, including social epistemology, ethics, political theory, and action theory. It’s also the sort of thing that tends to matter a lot in our personal lives. We want romantic partners, friends, employers, and others to trust us. I argue that trust requires belief on the part of the trustor in the competence of the trustee to perform the relevant action, as well as the trustor's approval of what she believes (...)
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  7.  16
    An Epistemological Disjunctivist Account of Memory Knowledge.Chung Him Kwok, Shane Ryan & Chienkuo Mi - 2022 - Episteme:1-14.
    This paper explores the prospects for a Pritchardean epistemological disjunctivist account of memory knowledge. We begin by providing an overview of Duncan Pritchard's epistemological disjunctivist account of perceptual knowledge, as well as the theoretical advantages of such an account. Drawing on that account, we present and motivate our own Pritchardean epistemological disjunctivist account of memory knowledge. After distinguishing different sorts of memory and the different roles that memory can play in knowledge acquisition, we set out our account and argue that (...)
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  8.  2
    Skilful Reflection as an Epistemic Virtue.Chienkuo Mi & Shane Ryan - 2015 - In Chienkuo Mi, Michael Slote & Ernest Sosa (eds.), Moral and Intellectual Virtues in Western and Chinese Philosophy. Routledge. pp. 34-48.
    This paper advances the claim that skilful reflection is a master virtue in that skilful reflection shapes and corrects the other epistemic and intellectual virtues. We make the case that skilful reflection does this with both competence-based epistemic virtues and character-based intellectual virtues. In making the case that skilful reflection is a master virtue, we identify the roots of ideas central to our thesis in Confucian philosophy. In particular, we discuss the Confucian conception of reflection, as well as different levels (...)
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  9. Wisdom and The Good Life.Shane Ryan & Sharon Ryan - forthcoming - In Jennifer Lackey & Aidan McGlynn (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Social Epistemology.
  10.  21
    Smart Environments.Shane Ryan, S. Orestis Palermos & Mirko Farina - forthcoming - Social Epistemology.
    This paper proposes epistemic environmentalism as a novel framework for accounting for the contribution of the environment – broadly construed – to epistemic standings and which can be used to improve or protect epistemic environments. The contribution of the environment to epistemic standings is explained through recent developments in epistemology and cognitive science, including embodied cognition, embedded cognition, extended cognition and distributed cognition. The paper examines how these developments support epistemic environmentalism, as well as contributes theoretical resources to make epistemic (...)
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  11.  7
    The Contribution of Confucius to Virtue Epistemology.Shane Ryan & Chienkuo Mi - 2018 - In Masaharu Mizumoto, Stephen Stich & Eric McCready (eds.), Epistemology for the rest of the world. Oxford, UK: pp. 65-76.
    Scholars have typically regarded Confucius as an ethical thinker broadly construed and not as an epistemological thinker. This chapter seeks to overturn that view and, in doing so, has three basic goals. The first goal is to make the case that Confucian thought is of epistemological significance. Goal two is to locate the significance of Confucian thought within epistemology while accounting for the past overlooking of this significance. The third goal is to show that Confucian thought is not only of (...)
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  12.  1
    State Epistemic Environmentalism.Shane Ryan - 2021 - In Karyn L. Lai (ed.), Knowers and Knowledge in East-West Philosophy: Epistemology Extended. Springer Nature. pp. 275-292.
    The chapter begins by providing an overview of epistemic environmentalism, a meta-theory in applied epistemology. The Greater Value Thesis and the Greater Value Activism Thesis are offered in support of epistemic environmentalism. This leads to a discussion of the significance of epistemic value theory to epistemic environmentalism. Based on this examination, the case is made for the permissibility of state intervention in the epistemic environment. The permissibility of state intervention in the epistemic environment is defended against two liberal challenges.
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  13.  13
    Fake News, Epistemic Coverage and Trust.Shane Ryan - 2021 - The Political Quarterly.
    This article makes the case that a deficit or absence of trust in media sources to report on news- worthy items facilitates acceptance of fake news. The article begins by identifying the sort of fake news that is of interest for the purposes of this article. Epistemic cove rage is then explained—in particular, how an individual’s expectations about their epistemic environment can lead them to accepting or rejecting claims. The article explains that when an individual believes that main- stream media (...)
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  14.  21
    Reflective Knowledge: Knowledge Extended.Chienkuo Mi & Shane Ryan - 2018 - In J. Adam Carter, Andy Clark, Jesper Kallestrup, S. Orestis Palermos & Duncan Pritchard (eds.), Extended Epistemology. Oxford, UK: pp. 162-176.
    In this paper, we defend the claim that reflective knowledge is necessary for extended knowledge. We begin by examining a recent account of extended knowledge provided by Palermos and Pritchard (2013). We note a weakness with that account and a challenge facing theorists of extended knowledge. The challenge that we identify is to articulate the extended cognition condition necessary for extended knowledge in such a way as to avoid counterexample from the revamped Careless Math Student and Truetemp cases. We consider (...)
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  15.  9
    Virtuous testimonial belief in young children.Shane Ryan - 2019 - South African Journal of Philosophy 38 (3):263-272.
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  16.  59
    Libertarian paternalism is hard paternalism.Shane Ryan - 2018 - Analysis 78 (1):65-73.
    I argue that libertarian paternalism is in fact paternalism, or hard paternalism, rather than a form of soft paternalism. I do so on the basis of an analysis of the paternalist act according to which the paternalist act needn’t violate the will of the agent who is the target of that act and the paternalist actor need only suspect that her action may improve the welfare of that target. The paper considers and rejects interpretations of libertarian paternalism as soft paternalism. (...)
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  17.  22
    Confucius, Wisdom, and Political Participation: Benevolence and Timeliness in the Analects.Sydney Morrow & Shane Ryan - 2023 - Philosophy Compass 18 (2):e12895.
    This paper aims to address when the wise person should participate in politics. The question is addressed through engagement with the Analects. Rather than provide interpretations of key terms in the Analects, we provide an account of wisdom that draws from themes in the Analects. The case is made that the wise person is committed to participating in politics primarily because of the connection between wisdom and benevolence (ren 仁 in the Analects). We address challenges to the Confucian approach from (...)
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  18.  65
    Why Knowledge is Special.Shane Ryan - 2017 - Philosophy 92 (2):249-269.
    I argue against Greco's account of the value of knowledge, according to which knowledge is distinctively valuable vis-à-vis that which falls short of knowledge in virtue of its status as an achievement and achievements being finally valuable. Instead, I make the case that virtuous belief is also an achievement. I argue that the nature of knowledge is such that knowledge is finally valuable in a way that virtuous belief is not, precisely because knowledge is not simply a success from ability. (...)
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  19. Zagzebski on Rationality.Duncan Pritchard & Shane Ryan - 2014 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 6 (4):39--46.
    This paper examines Linda Zagzebski’s account of rationality, as set out in her rich, wide-ranging, and important book, Epistemic Authority: A Theory of Trust, Authority, and Autonomy in Belief. We briefly describe the account that she offers and then consider its plausibility. In particular, in the first section we argue that a number of Zagzebski’s claims with regard to rationality require more support than she offers for them. Moreover, in the second section, we contend that far from offering Zagzebski a (...)
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  20.  10
    An Epistemological Disjunctivist Account of Memory Knowledge.Chung Him Kwok, Shane Ryan & Chienkuo Mi - 2023 - Episteme 20 (3):584-597.
    This paper explores the prospects for a Pritchardean epistemological disjunctivist account of memory knowledge. We begin by providing an overview of Duncan Pritchard's epistemological disjunctivist account of perceptual knowledge, as well as the theoretical advantages of such an account. Drawing on that account, we present and motivate our own Pritchardean epistemological disjunctivist account of memory knowledge. After distinguishing different sorts of memory and the different roles that memory can play in knowledge acquisition, we set out our account and argue that (...)
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  21.  57
    A HUMEAN ACCOUNT OF TESTIMONIAL JUSTIFICATION.Shane Ryan - 2014 - Logos and Episteme 5 (2):209-219.
    I argue that a Humean account can make sense of the phenomenology associated with testimonial justification; the phenomenology being that in standard cases hearers regularly simply accept a testifier’s assertions as true – hearers don't engage in monitoring. The upshot is that a Humean account is in a better position dialectically than is usually supposed. I provide some background to the debate before setting out two challenges facing accounts of testimonial justification. The first challenge is to provide an account that (...)
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  22.  28
    Standard Gettier Cases: A Problem for Greco?Shane Ryan - 2014 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 90 (1):201-212.
    I argue that Greco’s handling of barn-façade cases is unsatisfactory as it is at odds with his treatment of standard Gettier cases. I contend that this is so as there is no salient feature of either type of case such that that feature provides a ground to grant, as Greco argues, that there is an exercising of ability in one type of case, standard Gettier cases, but not in the other, barn-façade cases. The result, I argue, is that either Greco (...)
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  23.  30
    The Value of Knowledge.Shane Ryan - 2014 - Dialogue and Universalism 24 (3):84-88.
    In this paper I make the case that we should reject an argument that even knowledge of pointless truths has pro tanto final value. The argument draws on Greco’s virtue epistemological account of knowledge, according to which knowledge is an achievement and achievements have final value in virtue of being constitutive of the good life. I argue for my position by drawing on a case of knowledge of a pointless truth unlike previous cases of pointless truths discussed in the literature. (...)
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  24.  24
    Regret Is Born Where Choice Dies.Shane Ryan - 2022 - Philosophical Papers 51 (2):319-332.
    This paper analyses regret. On the basis of a number of examples, the case is made that regret is a negative affective state that has a perceived past choice as its object. More precisely, S regret...
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  25.  30
    Famine, Action, and the Normative.Shane Ryan & Fei Song - 2021 - Journal of Value Inquiry 57 (1):59-69.
    It has been 46 years since the publication of “Famine, Affluence, and Morality” by Peter Singer. In the paper Singer famously challenges readers to radically change their lives to save the lives of others, often in distant lands. With this paper, Peter Singer, perhaps the most famous living philosopher today, made his name and spawned the field of global justice. Although there have been improvements and successes, easily preventable deaths from poverty still occur in large numbers today. Philosophically the paper (...)
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  26.  8
    Testimony, credit, and blame.Shane Ryan, Chienkuo Mi Mi & Masaharu Mizumoto - unknown
    This paper examines ordinary people’s responses to Jennifer Lackey’s Chicago Visitor case. In particular it examines responses regarding the case from participants with Taiwanese backgrounds and US backgrounds. The Chicago Visitor case is one of the most influential cases in epistemology in recent years and plays a significant role in a number of debates in epistemology. First, the case is used to suggest that the Credit View is mistaken. Second, the case seems to pose a problem for a virtue epistemological (...)
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  27.  2
    Law and epistemology: An account of judgement.Chienkuo Mi & Shane Ryan - 2021 - In Baosheng Zhang, Shijun Tong, Jing Cao & Chuanming Fan (eds.), Facts and evidence.
    Three key components of a legal case are evidence, fact and judgement. In a well conducted judgement there will be an appropriate relation between these three components. Epistemologists investigating the nature of knowledge have been concerned with an analogous three components and their relation. More specifically, epistemologists have been concerned with justification, truth, and belief and how these three components need to be related if there is to be knowledge. Given the analogy, the research of epistemologists plausibly has insights to (...)
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  28.  7
    Virtue Epistemology and Confucian Philosophy.Chienkuo Mi & Shane Ryan - 2018 - In Heather Battaly (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Virtue Epistemology.
    This chapter focuses on the epistemic significance of Confucian ideas, rather than the ideas of Chinese philosophy more generally. It describes how Confucian philosophy has traditionally been seen by scholars of Chinese philosophy. The chapter introduces the reader to epistemologically significant Confucian ideas. Within the field of virtue epistemology there are two basic strands, virtue reliabilism and virtue responsibilism. Both have roots in Aristotelian philosophy and have been revived and developed within post-Gettier epistemology. Virtue responsibilists often list and discuss intellectual (...)
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  29.  2
    Autonomy, Reflection, and Education.Shane Ryan - 2021 - In Jonathan Matheson & Kirk Lougheed (eds.), Epistemic Autonomy.
    I argue that if we accept the promotion of autonomy as an aim of education, then we should accept the promotion of skillful reflection as an aim of education. I set out the Dual Process Hypothesis of Reflection (DPHR), according to which both Type 1 and Type 2 cognitive processes play a role in an agent’s reflection. Next, I discuss how an agent’s reflection may be skillful, and how such reflection contributes to superior autonomy. I argue, however, that on the (...)
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  30.  6
    A Virtue Theoretic Ethics of Intellectual Agency.Shane Ryan - 2021 - Logos and Episteme 12 (4):437-452.
    There is a well-established literature on the ethics of belief. Our beliefs, however, are just one aspect of our intellectual lives with which epistemology should be concerned. I make the case that epistemologists should be concerned with an ethics of intellectual agency rather than the narrower category of ethics of belief. Various species of normativity, epistemic, moral, and so on, that may be relevant to the ethics of belief are laid out. An account adapted from virtue ethics for an ethics (...)
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  31.  7
    State Epistemic Environmentalism.Shane Ryan - 2022 - In Karyn Lai (ed.), Who knows? Agency and Epistemic Environments in East-West Philosophy.
    The chapter begins by providing an overview of epistemic environmentalism, a meta-theory in applied epistemology. The Greater Value Thesis and the Greater Value Activism Thesis are offered in support of epistemic environmentalism. This leads to a discussion of the significance of epistemic value theory to epistemic environmentalism. Based on this examination, the case is made for the permissibility of state intervention in the epistemic environment. The permissibility of state intervention in the epistemic environment is defended against two liberal challenges.
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  32.  38
    Vanishing into Things: Knowledge in Chinese Tradition by Barry Allen.Shane Ryan & Chienkuo Mi - 2017 - Philosophy East and West 67 (4):1299-1305.
    Barry Allen's Vanishing into Things discusses intellectual traditions of Chinese philosophy through the thematic thread of knowledge. The thread takes us chapter by chapter from Confucianism, Daoism, and The Art of War to Chan Buddhism and The Investigation of Things. The final chapter discusses "resonance" and the part it has played in Chinese intellectual history.It wouldn't be surprising if such an ambitious work, covering the range of intellectual traditions that Allen covers, became fragmentary and disparate. After all, such traditions vary (...)
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  33.  10
    Wisdom, not Veritism.Shane Ryan - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (4):60-67.
    In this response to Pritchard’s “In Defence of Veritism”, I defend the view that it is wisdom rather than truth that is fundamental in epistemology. Given that recent philosophical discussions of the nature of wisdom may be unfamiliar to some epistemologists, a brief overview of these discussions is provided and that which is relevant for the subsequent discussion in this piece is highlighted. I explain that scholars working on the topic tend to accept that wisdom comprises at least one familiar (...)
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  34.  53
    Nature and value of knowledge: epistemic environmentalism.Shane Gavin Ryan - 2013 - Dissertation, University of Edinburgh
    My thesis examines the nature and value of knowledge and normative implications of its value. With this in mind I examine Greco’s account of knowledge in detail and consider whether it convinces. I argue against the account on a number of fronts; in particular I argue against Greco’s treatment of the Barney and Jenny cases. In doing so I draw on the dialectic in the literature and go beyond it by showing how his treatment of those cases is such as (...)
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  35.  30
    Real-Time Democracy.Shane Ryan - 2016 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 30 (2):301-312.
    Standard representative democracy is criticised on democratic grounds and the case is made for an alternative system of democratic governance. The paper discusses ways in which representative democracy falls short of the democratic ideal of self-governance. Referendum and initiative are examined as mechanisms that further self-governance, but are argued not to go far enough. Direct democracy is considered as an alternative to representative democracy, but the case is made that even on democratic grounds direct democracy is unnecessarily demanding. It is (...)
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