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  1.  43
    Self-Reflection and the Temporal Focus of the Wandering Mind.Jonathan Smallwood, Jonathan W. Schooler, David J. Turk, Sheila J. Cunningham, Phebe Burns & C. Neil Macrae - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1120-1126.
    Current accounts suggest that self-referential thought serves a pivotal function in the human ability to simulate the future during mind-wandering. Using experience sampling, this hypothesis was tested in two studies that explored the extent to which self-reflection impacts both retrospection and prospection during mind-wandering. Study 1 demonstrated that a brief period of self-reflection yielded a prospective bias during mind-wandering such that participants’ engaged more frequently in spontaneous future than past thought. In Study 2, individual differences in the strength of self-referential (...)
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  2.  80
    Yours or Mine? Ownership and Memory.Sheila J. Cunningham, David J. Turk, Lynda M. Macdonald & C. Neil Macrae - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (1):312-318.
    An important function of the self is to identify external objects that are potentially personally relevant. We suggest that such objects may be identified through mere ownership. Extant research suggests that encoding information in a self-relevant context enhances memory , thus an experiment was designed to test the impact of ownership on memory performance. Participants either moved or observed the movement of picture cards into two baskets; one of which belonged to self and one which belonged to another participant. A (...)
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  3.  43
    Self-Memory Biases in Explicit and Incidental Encoding of Trait Adjectives.David J. Turk, Sheila J. Cunningham & C. Neil Macrae - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (3):1040-1045.
    An extensive literature has demonstrated that encoding information in a self-referential manner enhances subsequent memory performance. This ‘self-reference effect’ is generally elicited in paradigms that require participants to evaluate the self-descriptiveness of personality characteristics. Extending work of this kind, the current research explored the possibility that explicit evaluative processing is not a necessary precondition for the emergence of this effect. Rather, responses to self cues may enhance item encoding even in the absence of explicit evaluative instructions. We explored this hypothesis (...)
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  4.  12
    Culture Modulates Implicit Ownership-Induced Self-Bias in Memory.Samuel Sparks, Sheila J. Cunningham & Ada Kritikos - 2016 - Cognition 153:89-98.
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  5.  23
    Context and Perceptual Salience Influence the Formation of Novel Stereotypes Via Cumulative Cultural Evolution.Jacqui Hutchison, Sheila J. Cunningham, Gillian Slessor, James Urquhart, Kenny Smith & Douglas Martin - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S1):186-212.
    We use a transmission chain method to establish how context and category salience influence the formation of novel stereotypes through cumulative cultural evolution. We created novel alien targets by combining features from three category dimensions—color, movement, and shape—thereby creating social targets that were individually unique but that also shared category membership with other aliens. At the start of the transmission chains each alien was randomly assigned attributes that described it. Participants were given training on the alien-attribute assignments and were then (...)
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  6.  5
    Survival of the Selfish: Contrasting Self-Referential and Survival-Based Encoding.Sheila J. Cunningham, Mirjam Brady-Van den Bos, Lucy Gill & David J. Turk - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):237-244.
    Processing information in the context of personal survival scenarios elicits a memory advantage, relative to other rich encoding conditions such as self-referencing. However, previous research is unable to distinguish between the influence of survival and self-reference because personal survival is a self-referent encoding context. To resolve this issue, participants in the current study processed items in the context of their own survival and a familiar other person’s survival, as well as in a semantic context. Recognition memory for the items revealed (...)
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