Euthanasia in China is gaining increasing acceptance among physicians, intellectuals, and even the people. This paper surveys current attitudes towards euthanasia and suggests why it should be legalized. Keywords: euthanasia, euthanasia in China CiteULike Connotea Del.icio.us What's this?
Salt boundary interpretation is important for the understanding of salt tectonics and velocity model building for seismic migration. Conventional methods consist of computing salt attributes and extracting salt boundaries. We have formulated the problem as 3D image segmentation and evaluated an efficient approach based on deep convolutional neural networks with an encoder-decoder architecture. To train the model, we design a data generator that extracts randomly positioned subvolumes from large-scale 3D training data set followed by data augmentation, then feed a large (...) number of subvolumes into the network while using salt/nonsalt binary labels generated by thresholding the velocity model as ground truth labels. We test the model on validation data sets and compare the blind test predictions with the ground truth. Our results indicate that our method is capable of automatically capturing subtle salt features from the 3D seismic image with less or no need for manual input. We further test the model on a field example to indicate the generalization of this deep CNN method across different data sets. (shrink)
Using two national culture dimensions, we show that the influence of firms’ corporate social performance on corporate financial performance hinges on culture. Specifically, CFP is higher in those firms where CSR initiatives are congruent with the cultural environment. CSP has a negative impact on CFP for those firms domiciled in countries which are individualistic and favor flexibility. These findings are amplified for those firms with low levels of foreign influence in terms of institutional ownership and sales. Using a dataset covering (...) 5334 firms from 41 different countries, our results indicate that culture and CSR initiatives have a powerful interaction effect in determining CFP, suggesting that CSP’s impact is dependent upon the culture of the country where the firm resides. (shrink)
Research indicates that religious values and ethical behavior are closely associated, yet, at a firm level, the processes by which this association occurs are poorly understood. Family firms are known to exhibit values-based behavior, which in turn can lead to specific firm-level outcomes. It is also known that one’s family is an important incubator, enabler, and perpetuator of religious values across successive generations. Our study examines the experiences of a single, multigenerational business family that successfully enacted their religious values in (...) their business. Drawing upon intergenerational solidarity and values-based leadership theory, and by way of an interpretive, qualitative analysis, we find that the family’s religious values enhanced their cohesion and were manifested in their leadership style, which, in turn, led to outcomes for the business. Our findings highlight the processes that underlie the relationship between religious values and organizational outcomes in family firms and offer insights into the role of solidarity in values-based leadership. (shrink)
Rising economic inequality has put capitalism on trial globally. At the same time, existential environmental threats worsen while corporations continue to pollute and distort government policy. These twin crises have converged in calls to revamp government and economic systems and to revisit socialism, given up for dead only 30 years ago. In Capitalism and the Environment, Shi-Ling Hsu argues that such an impulse, if enacted, will ultimately harm the environment. Hsu argues that inequality and environmental calamities are political failures – (...) the result of bad decision-making – and not a symptom of capitalism. Like socialism, capitalism is composed of political choices. This book proposes that we make a different set of choices to better harness the transformative power of capitalism, which will allow us to reverse course and save the environment. (shrink)
Hrushovski originated the study of “flat” stable structures in constructing a new strongly minimal set and a stable 0-categorical pseudoplane. We exhibit a set of axioms which for collections of finite structure with dimension function δ give rise to stable generic models. In addition to the Hrushovski examples, this formalization includes Baldwin's almost strongly minimal non-Desarguesian projective plane and several others. We develop the new case where finite sets may have infinite closures with respect to the dimension function δ. In (...) particular, the generic structure need not be ω-saturated and so the argument for stability is significantly more complicated. We further show that these structures are “flat” and do not interpret a group. (shrink)
This study empirically investigated the impact of ethical leadership on employee burnout, deviant behavior and task performance through two psychological mechanisms: developing higher levels of employee trust in leaders and demonstrating lower levels of surface acting toward their leaders. Our theoretical model was tested using data collected from employees of a pharmaceutical retail chain company. Analyses of multisource time-lagged data from 45 team leaders and 247 employees showed that employees’ trust in leaders and surface acting significantly mediated the relationships between (...) ethical leadership and employee burnout, deviant behavior and task performance. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our findings for understanding how ethical leaders influence employees’ attitudes and behavior. (shrink)
This study empirically examined the propositions that ethical leadership is related to employees’ organizational citizenship behavior through two psychological mechanisms: a social learning mechanism, where employees emulate their supervisor’s behavior such as caring about their organization; and a social exchange mechanism that links ethical leadership to perceived procedural justice and employee’s organizational concern. Our theoretical model was tested using data collected from employees in a pharmaceutical retail chain company. Analyses of multisource time-lagged data from 93 team supervisors and 486 employees (...) showed that supervisors’ and employees’ organizational concern sequentially mediated the relationship between ethical leadership and employee OCB. It was also found that the link between ethical leadership and employee OCB was sequentially mediated by perceived procedural justice and employee’s organizational concern. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. (shrink)
This paper investigates the hesitant fuzzy linguistic multiple attribute group decision-making problem with the heterogeneous relationship among the attribute variables that cannot be solved by most existing decision-making methods. To address this problem, a new operator is introduced based on partitioning attribute variables into different sets according to their interrelationship. This operator is called the extended Heronian mean operator. To obtain each expert’s comprehensive values of the alternatives in the hesitant fuzzy linguistic MAGDM problem, we investigate the EHM operator under (...) a hesitant fuzzy linguistic environment and propose the hesitant fuzzy linguistic EHM operator and the hesitant fuzzy linguistic linear support degree weighted EHM operator. In addition, the axiom definition of a linguistic type similarity measure of hesitant fuzzy linguistic term sets is proposed. The weight of the experts can be determined based on this type similarity measure. Finally, a practical case is presented to demonstrate the steps of our method, and a comparison analysis illustrates its feasibility and effectiveness. (shrink)
Inspired by the nonlinear weighted average operator, this paper proposes several generalized power average operators to aggregate hesitant fuzzy linguistic decision information. It is worth noting that the new operators take both the location and date weight information and the relative closeness of the decision-making information into consideration, a characteristic that results in objectivity and fairness in a group decision making. Moreover, we demonstrate some useful properties of the operators and discuss their associations. A new approach based on the designed (...) operators is then proposed for hesitant fuzzy linguistic multiple attribute group decision-making problems, in which the attribute weights are known or unknown. Finally, this paper demonstrates the efficiency and feasibility of the proposed method through a numerical example. (shrink)
This article explores the conceptual and practical gap existing between the developed and developing countries in relation to corporate social responsibility (CSR), or the North-South ' CSR Divide', through the analysis of possible impact on the competitiveness of developing countries' and economies' SMEs and MNEs in globalization. To do so, this article first reviewed the traditional wisdom on the concept of strategic CSR developed in the North and the role that CSR engagement can play in corporate competitiveness, and compare with (...) the impact on the competitive advantage of the South through the supply chains. It points out that among the many factors that could explain the ' CSR Divide', the negative impact of CSR on comparative advantage is the final resort where developing countries are reluctant and defensive toward western-style CSR. It did point out that developing countries are changing their approaches to make CSR work in favor of their competitive position in global trade, such as China who has started to adopt proactive approach by becoming CSR standards-setter. This article concludes with two policy proposals that aim to bridge the CSR gap, the first is to improve CSR standard-setting participation from both sides, and the second to search for solutions in the international investment legal framework which will define corporate obligations in relating to CSR in a more explicit way. (shrink)
A fuzzy predictive fault-tolerant control scheme is proposed for a wide class of discrete-time nonlinear systems with uncertainties, interval time-varying delays, and partial actuator failures as well as unknown disturbances, in which the main opinions focus on the relevant theory of FPFTC based on Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model description of these systems. The T-S fuzzy model represents the discrete-time nonlinear system in the form of the discrete uncertain time-varying delay state space, which is firstly constructed by a set of local linear (...) models and the nonlinear membership functions. The novel improved state space model can be further obtained by extending the output tracking error to the constructed model. Then the fuzzy predictive fault-tolerant control law based on this extended model is designed, which can increase more control degrees of freedom. Utilizing Lyapunov-Krasovskill theory, less conservative delay-range-dependent stable conditions in terms of linear matrix inequality constraints are given to ensure the asymptotically robust stability of closed-loop system. Meanwhile, the optimized cost function and H-infinity performance index are introduced to the stable conditions to guarantee the robust performance and antidisturbance capability. The simulation results on the temperature control of a strong nonlinear continuous stirred tank reactor show that the proposed control scheme is feasible and effective. (shrink)
In this paper, we explore the relation between an agent’s doxastic attitude and her arguments in support of a given claim. Our main contribution is the design of a logical setting that allows us reason about binary arguments which are either in favour or against a certain claim. This is a setting in which arguments and propositions are the basic building blocks so that the concept of argument-based belief emerges in a straightforward way. We work against the background of Dung’s (...) abstract argumentation framework, extending it to a new setting in which we can study the formal properties of binary arguments as well as the larger structures they establish. This paper introduces a formal ‘two-dimensional’ language to talk about propositions and arguments, for which a sound and complete axiom system is provided. (shrink)
This study empirically examines the proposition that ethical leadership may affect individuals’ task performance through enhancing employees’ promotive voice. Our theoretical model was tested using data collected from employees and supervisors in a high-tech company located in South China. Analyses of multisource three-wave data from 37 team supervisors and 176 employees showed that ethical leadership could significantly affect individuals’ task performance through promotive voice. Further, it was found that the relationship between ethical leadership and promotive voice was moderated by leader–leader (...) exchange. Specifically, ethical leadership may significantly enhance employees’ promotive voice when leader–leader exchange is low. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. (shrink)
This paper examines the effect of corporate social responsibility on the number of bond covenants. We find that a high CSR score has a negative association with the number of bond covenants. Moreover, our results are more pronounced for firms with a high bid-ask spread and high agency costs. Our analysis highlights the effect of the good stakeholder relationship on the bond contracts.
The present study examined the behavioral effects of the first-person possessive pronoun. In each trial, a noun was presented to participants after visual presentation of a possessive pronoun “wo de” or “ta de” , which formed ownership. Half participants were assigned to contextual encoding condition in which they were required to judge whether they liked the item expressed by a noun from the first or third-person perspective. The rest were assigned to perceptual encoding condition in which they were asked to (...) judge what color the noun was. A subsequent recall test was performed. The results showed that there were significant memory and response advantages for nouns in “my” ownership under both conditions. The results were discussed with reference to self-specificity and other effects in the current study. (shrink)