Results for 'Shira Kritchman'

59 found
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  1.  6
    Ritual Sites and Religious Rivalries in Late Roman North Africa by Shira L. Lander.Ann Marie Yasin - 2018 - Classical World: A Quarterly Journal on Antiquity 112 (1):732-734.
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  2. Ethical Ambiguity in the Hebrew Bible : Philosophical Analysis of Scriptural Narrative.Shira Weiss - 2018 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this book, Shira Weiss elucidates the moral tradition of the Hebrew Bible by subjecting ethically challenging biblical texts to moral philosophical analysis. Examining the most essential questions of Jewish Thought, she uses contemporary philosophy to decipher Scriptural ethics as uncovered from a variety of biblical stories. Aided by ancient, medieval, and contemporary resources, Weiss presents a comprehensive discussion of enduring ethical questions that arise from biblical narrative and continue to be contested in modern times. She shows how such (...)
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  3. Subtracting “Ought” From “Is”: Descriptivism Versus Normativism in the Study of Human Thinking.Shira Elqayam & Jonathan St B. T. Evans - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (5):251-252.
    We propose a critique of normativism, defined as the idea that human thinking reflects a normative system against which it should be measured and judged. We analyze the methodological problems associated with normativism, proposing that it invites the controversial “is-ought” inference, much contested in the philosophical literature. This problem is triggered when there are competing normative accounts (the arbitration problem), as empirical evidence can help arbitrate between descriptive theories, but not between normative systems. Drawing on linguistics as a model, we (...)
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  4.  12
    Subtracting “Ought” From “Is”: Descriptivism Versus Normativism in the Study of Human Thinking.Shira Elqayam & Jonathan St B. T. Evans - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (5):233-248.
    We propose a critique ofnormativism, defined as the idea that human thinking reflects a normative system against which it should be measured and judged. We analyze the methodological problems associated with normativism, proposing that it invites the controversial “is-ought” inference, much contested in the philosophical literature. This problem is triggered when there are competing normative accounts, as empirical evidence can help arbitrate between descriptive theories, but not between normative systems. Drawing on linguistics as a model, we propose that a clear (...)
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  5.  24
    Rational Decision Making in Medicine: Implications for Overuse and Underuse.Benjamin Djulbegovic, Shira Elqayam & William Dale - 2018 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 24 (3):655-665.
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  6.  12
    Many Faces of Rationality: Implications of the Great Rationality Debate for Clinical Decision-Making.Benjamin Djulbegovic & Shira Elqayam - 2017 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 23 (5):915-922.
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  7.  31
    New Paradigm Psychology of Reasoning: An Introduction to the Special Issue Edited by Elqayam, Bonnefon, and Over.Shira Elqayam & David E. Over - 2013 - Thinking and Reasoning 19 (3-4):249-265.
  8.  23
    Conditionals and Inferential Connections: Toward a New Semantics.Igor Douven, Shira Elqayam, Henrik Singmann & Janneke van Wijnbergen-Huitink - 2019 - Thinking and Reasoning 26 (3):311-351.
    In previous published research, we investigated experimentally what role the presence and...
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  9.  65
    Grounded Rationality: Descriptivism in Epistemic Context.Shira Elqayam - 2012 - Synthese 189 (S1):39-49.
    Normativism, the approach that judges human rationality by comparison against normative standards, has recently come under intensive criticism as unsuitable for psychological enquiry, and it has been suggested that it should be replaced with a descriptivist paradigm. My goal in this paper is to outline and defend a meta-theoretical framework of such a paradigm, grounded rationality, based on the related principles of descriptivism and (moderate) epistemic relativism. Bounded rationality takes into account universal biological and cognitive limitations on human rationality. Grounded (...)
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  10. Conditionals and Inferential Connections: A Hypothetical Inferential Theory.Igor Douven, Shira Elqayam, Henrik Singmann & Janneke van Wijngaarden-Huitink - 2018 - Cognitive Psychology 101:50-81.
  11.  33
    Rationality in the New Paradigm: Strict Versus Soft Bayesian Approaches.Shira Elqayam & Jonathan St B. T. Evans - 2013 - Thinking and Reasoning 19 (3-4):453-470.
  12.  35
    Towards a Descriptivist Psychology of Reasoning and Decision Making.Jonathan St Bt Evans & Shira Elqayam - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (5):275-290.
    Our target article identified normativism as the view that rationality should be evaluated against unconditional normative standards. We believe this to be entrenched in the psychological study of reasoning and decision making and argued that it is damaging to this empirical area of study, calling instead for a descriptivist psychology of reasoning and decision making. The views of 29 commentators (from philosophy and cognitive science as well as psychology) were mixed, including some staunch defences of normativism, but also a number (...)
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  13.  37
    Probabilities, Beliefs, and Dual Processing: The Paradigm Shift in the Psychology of Reasoning.Shira Elqayam & David Over - 2012 - Mind and Society 11 (1):27-40.
    In recent years, the psychology of reasoning has been undergoing a paradigm shift, with general Bayesian, probabilistic approaches replacing the older, much more restricted binary logic paradigm. At the same time, dual processing theories have been gaining influence. We argue that these developments should be integrated and moreover that such integration is already underway. The new reasoning paradigm should be grounded in dual processing for its algorithmic level of analysis just as it uses Bayesian theory for its computational level of (...)
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  14.  17
    When Choices Are Not Personal: The Effect of Statistical and Social Cues on Children's Inferences About the Scope of Preferences.Gil Diesendruck, Shira Salzer, Tamar Kushnir & Fei Xu - 2015 - Journal of Cognition and Development 16 (2):370-380.
    Individual choices are commonly taken to manifest personal preferences. The present study investigated whether social and statistical cues influence young children's inferences about the generalizability of preferences. Preschoolers were exposed to either 1 or 2 demonstrators’ selections of objects. The selected objects constituted 18%, 50%, or 100% of all available objects. We found that children took a single demonstrator's choices as indicative only of his or her personal preference. However, when 2 demonstrators made the same selection, then children inferred that (...)
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  15.  50
    The Probability of Iterated Conditionals.Janneke Wijnbergen‐Huitink, Shira Elqayam & David E. Over - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (4):788-803.
    Iterated conditionals of the form If p, then if q, r are an important topic in philosophical logic. In recent years, psychologists have gained much knowledge about how people understand simple conditionals, but there are virtually no published psychological studies of iterated conditionals. This paper presents experimental evidence from a study comparing the iterated form, If p, then if q, r with the “imported,” noniterated form, If p and q, then r, using a probability evaluation task and a truth-table task, (...)
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  16. Conditionals and Non-Constructive Reasoning.David Over, Jonathan Evans, & Elqayam & Shira - 2010 - In Mike Oaksford & Nick Chater (eds.), Cognition and Conditionals: Probability and Logic in Human Thinking. Oxford University Press.
     
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  17. Signs and Portents: No Parking in the Courtroom.Shira Leibowitz & Roald Hoffmann - 1991 - Diacritics 21 (1):2-23.
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  18.  6
    Coding Modality Vs. Input Modality in Hypermnesia: Is a Rose a Rose a Rose?Matthew Hugh Erdelyi, Shira Finkelstein, Nadeanne Herrel, Bruce Miller & Jane Thomas - 1976 - Cognition 4 (4):311-319.
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  19.  13
    Access for the Terminally Ill to Experimental Medical Innovations: A Three-Pronged Threat.Shira Bender, Lauren Flicker & Rosamond Rhodes - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (10):3 – 6.
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  20. Moral Decision-Making in Real Life: Factors Affecting Moral Orientation and Behaviour Justification.Shira Haviv & Patrick J. Leman - 2002 - Journal of Moral Education 31 (2):121-140.
    The study addresses two separate but related issues in connection with people's real-life moral decisions and judgements. First, the notion of moral orientation is examined in terms of its consistency across varying contexts, its relation to gender and to gender role. Secondly, a new aspect of moral reasoning is explored--the influence on moral decision-making of considering the consequences of an action. Fifty-eight undergraduate students were asked to discuss two personal and two impersonal real-life moral dilemmas. The results reveal a significant (...)
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  21.  16
    Editorial: From Is to Ought: The Place of Normative Models in the Study of Human Thought.Shira Elqayam & David E. Over - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  22.  40
    The Collapse Illusion Effect: A Semantic-Pragmatic Illusion of Truth and Paradox.Shira Elqayam - 2006 - Thinking and Reasoning 12 (2):144 – 180.
    Two Experiments demonstrate the existence of a “collapse illusion”, in which reasoners evaluate Truthteller-type propositions (“I am telling the truth”) as if they were simply true, whereas Liar-type propositions (“I am lying”) tend to be evaluated as neither true nor false. The second Experiment also demonstrates an individual differences pattern, in which shallow reasoners are more susceptible to the illusion. The collapse illusion is congruent with philosophical semantic truth theories such as Kripke's (1975), and with hypothetical thinking theory's principle of (...)
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  23. Infidel.Shira Wolosky - 2008 - Common Knowledge 14 (1):171-171.
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  24.  4
    Norm, Error, and the Structure of Rationality: The Case Study of the Knight-Knave Paradigm.Shira Elqayam - 2003 - Semiotica 2003 (147).
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  25.  2
    Alfred Wallace’s Baby Orangutan: Game, Pet, Specimen.Shira Shmuely - forthcoming - Journal of the History of Biology:1-23.
    Alfred Russell Wallace’s The Malay Archipelago, published in 1869, is a classic text in natural history and the theory of evolution. Amidst heroic hunting narratives and picturesque descriptions of local fauna and flora, stands out a curious episode in which Wallace describes adopting a baby orangutan, whose mother he had killed. Wallace, a British naturalist and collector, cultivated an affectionate relationship with the orphaned orangutan, often referring to her as his “baby.” This paper examines how the orangutan was transformed from (...)
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  26.  3
    The Crosslinguistic Acquisition of Sentence Structure: Computational Modeling and Grammaticality Judgments From Adult and Child Speakers of English, Japanese, Hindi, Hebrew and K'iche'.Ben Ambridge, Tomoko Tatsumi, Laura Doherty, Ramya Maitreyee, Colin Bannard, Soumitra Samanta, Stewart McCauley, Inbal Arnon, Shira Zicherman, Dani Bekman, Amir Efrati, Ruth Berman, Bhuvana Narasimhan, Dipti Misra Sharma, Rukmini Bhaya Nair, Kumiko Fukumura, Seth Campbell, Clifton Pye, Pedro Mateo Pedro, Sindy Fabiola Can Pixabaj, Mario Marroquín Pelíz & Margarita Julajuj Mendoza - 2020 - Cognition 202:104310.
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  27.  89
    Response to Elqayam, Nottelmann, Peels and Vahid on My Paper 'Perspectivism, Deontologism and Epistemic Poverty'.Robert Lockie - 2016 - Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 5 (3):21-47.
    I here respond to four SERRC commentators on my paper ‘Perspectivism, Deontologism and Epistemic Poverty’: Shira Elqayam, Nikolaj Nottelmann, Rik Peels and Hamid Vahid. I maintain that all accounts of epistemic justification must be constrained by two limit positions which have to be avoided. One is Conceptual Limit Panglossianism. The other is Conceptual Limit meliorism. Within these bounds one may offer an account of rationality or epistemic justification that is closer to Meliorism or Panglossianism. Remarked upon are my respondents’ (...)
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  28.  47
    Models of Dependence and Independence: A Two-Dimensional Architecture of Dual Processing.Shira Elqayam - 2009 - Thinking and Reasoning 15 (4):377-387.
    This theoretical note proposes a two-dimensional cognitive architecture for dual-process theories of reasoning and decision making. Evans (2007b, 2008a, 2009) distinguishes between two types of dual-processing models: parallel-competitive , in which both types of processes operate in parallel, and default-interventionist , in which heuristic processes precede the analytic processes. I suggest that this temporal dimension should be enhanced with a functional distinction between interactionist architecture, in which either type of process influences the content and valence of the other, and independent (...)
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  29.  18
    Learning General Phonological Rules From Distributional Information: A Computational Model.Shira Calamaro & Gaja Jarosz - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (3):647-666.
    Phonological rules create alternations in the phonetic realizations of related words. These rules must be learned by infants in order to identify the phonological inventory, the morphological structure, and the lexicon of a language. Recent work proposes a computational model for the learning of one kind of phonological alternation, allophony . This paper extends the model to account for learning of a broader set of phonological alternations and the formalization of these alternations as general rules. In Experiment 1, we apply (...)
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  30.  8
    Structural and Interpersonal Benefits and Risks of Participation in HIV Research: Perspectives of Female Sex Workers in Guatemala.Shira M. Goldenberg, Monica Rivera Mindt, Teresita Rocha Jimenez, Kimberly Brouwer, Sonia Morales Miranda & Celia B. Fisher - 2015 - Ethics and Behavior 25 (2):97-114.
    This study explored perceived benefits and risks of participation in HIV research among 33 female sex workers in Tecún Umán, Guatemala. Stigma associated with sex work and HIV was a critical barrier to research participation. Key benefits of participation included access to HIV/sti prevention and testing, as well as positive and trusting relationships between sex workers and research teams. Control exerted by managers had mixed influences on perceived research risks and benefits. Results underscore the critical need for HIV investigators to (...)
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  31.  31
    Evaluation of Programmatic Changes to an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program with House Officer Feedback.Steven Y. Hong, Lauren H. Epstein, Kenneth Lawrence, Lisa Davidson, Ying Taur, Lauren Nadkarni & Shira Doron - 2013 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (2):388-392.
  32.  27
    How and Why We Reason From is to Ought.Jonathan St B. T. Evans & Shira Elqayam - 2020 - Synthese 197 (4):1429-1446.
    Originally identified by Hume, the validity of is–ought inference is much debated in the meta-ethics literature. Our work shows that inference from is to ought typically proceeds from contextualised, value-laden causal utility conditional, bridging into a deontic conclusion. Such conditional statements tell us what actions are needed to achieve or avoid consequences that are good or bad. Psychological research has established that people generally reason fluently and easily with utility conditionals. Our own research also has shown that people’s reasoning from (...)
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  33.  4
    Physiological Plausibility and Boundary Conditions of Theories of Risk Sensitivity.Davide Marchiori & Shira Elqayam - 2012 - Frontiers in Psychology 3.
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  34.  52
    Mental Models, Model-Theoretic Semantics, and the Psychosemantic Conception of Truth.Shira Elqayam - 2005 - Philosophia Scientiae 9 (2):259-278.
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  35.  16
    How Do You Donate Life When People Are Not Dying: Transplants in the Age of Autonomous Vehicles.Zoe Corin, Roee Furman, Shira Lifshitz, Ophir Samuelov & Dov Greenbaum - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (7):27-29.
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  36.  9
    Early Environments Shape Neuropeptide Function: The Case of Oxytocin and Vasopressin.Adi Perry-Paldi, Gilad Hirschberger, Ruth Feldman, Orna Zagoory-Sharon, Shira Buchris Bazak & Tsachi Ein-Dor - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  37.  65
    Dual-Processing Explains Base-Rate Neglect, but Which Dual-Process Theory and How?Jonathan St B. T. Evans & Shira Elqayam - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (3):261-262.
    We agree that current evolutionary accounts of base-rate neglect are unparsimonious, but we dispute the authors' account of the effect in terms of parallel associative and rule-based processes. We also question their assumption that cueing of nested set relations facilitates performance due to recruitment of explicit reasoning processes. In our account, such reasoning is always involved, but usually unsuccessful.
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  38.  6
    Using Patient‐Reported Outcomes to Understand the Effectiveness of Guideline‐Concordant Care for Post‐Traumatic Stress Disorder in Clinical Practice.Brian Shiner, Jiang Gui, Christine Leonard Westgate, Paula P. Schnurr, Bradley V. Watts, Sarah L. Cornelius & Shira Maguen - forthcoming - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice.
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  39.  29
    The Jewish Annotated New Testament Ed. By Amy-Jill Levine and Marc Zvi Brettler (Review).Shira Wolosky - 2013 - Common Knowledge 19 (2):390-390.
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  40.  4
    Myopic Reactivity in Repeated-Choice: The Case of Competing with Others for a Scarce, Unevenly Distributed Resource.Yaakov Kareev, Judith Avrahami, Ayelet Goldzweig, Daniel Hadar & Shira Klein - forthcoming - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.
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  41.  33
    The Jewish Annotated New Testament.Shira Wolosky - 2013 - Common Knowledge 19 (2):390-390.
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  42.  30
    Children's Literature: A Reader's History From Aesop to Harry Potter.Shira Wolosky - 2010 - Common Knowledge 16 (1):160-160.
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  43.  17
    Would a Gentleman Belt a Lady? Chastity Belts (and Knots) in Marie de France's Guigemar.Shira Schwam-Baird - 1999 - Mediaevalia 22 (2):323-342.
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  44.  15
    The Ethics of Price Gouging.Shira Weiss - 2017 - Journal of Religious Ethics 45 (1):142-163.
    An analysis of the contemporary moral debate over price gouging can advance multiple readings of the challenging biblical episode which depicts Jacob's purchase of the birthright. Ethical considerations, such as the maximization of welfare, preservation of choice, and promotion of virtue are evaluated and then applied to the biblical text recounting the sale of Esau's birthright. Did Jacob act ethically in his purchase of ravenous Esau's birthright, or did he seize a propitious opportunity to exploit Esau's predicament? Is Esau responsible (...)
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  45.  19
    Socrates and the Fat Rabbis.Shira Wolosky - 2011 - Common Knowledge 17 (1):195-196.
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  46.  22
    The Irresistible Fairy Tale: The Cultural and Social History of a Genre.Shira Wolosky - 2013 - Common Knowledge 19 (3):579-579.
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  47.  17
    Emily Dickinson: Reclusion Against Itself.Shira Wolosky - 2006 - Common Knowledge 12 (3):443-459.
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  48.  7
    Implicit Motivation Improves Executive Functions of Older Adults.Shira Cohen-Zimerman & Ran R. Hassin - 2018 - Consciousness and Cognition 63:267-279.
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  49.  10
    Of More Than One Mind: Obstetrician-Gynecologists' Approaches to Morally Controversial Decisions in Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare.Farr A. Curlin, Shira N. Dinner & Stacy Tessler Lindau - 2008 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 19 (1):11.
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  50.  9
    Independent Voices, Social Insight, and Action: An Analysis of a Social Action Project.Shira Eve Epstein - 2013 - Journal of Social Studies Research 37 (3):123-136.
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