Given that women CEOs are usually more risk averse, engage less in opportunistic behavior, and provide higher quality earnings than men CEOs, we argue that firms with women CEOs are likely to face lower operational and information risk and thus enjoy cheaper external funds. Using a large sample of Chinese A-share listed firms operating from 2006 to 2012, we find consistent evidence that Chinese banks tend to impose lower loan costs on firms with women CEOs compared to firms with men (...) CEOs. This effect is more pronounced for non-state-owned enterprises than for state-owned enterprises, for firms without political connections than for firms with political connections, and during non-crisis periods. We do not find any significant effects for firms with women chairpersons, CFOs, or directors. (shrink)
Firms worldwide are increasingly required to disclose their carbon emissions due to the environmental damage associated with climate change. Because there has been no previous literature focusing on the determinants of corporate carbon disclosure integrating environmental legitimacy and green innovation, the present study attempted to develop an original framework to fill the research gap. This study explored the influence of environmental legitimacy on corporate carbon disclosure, and investigated the role of green innovation as a mediator. With the samples of Carbon (...) Disclosure Project in China from 2008 to 2012, the results demonstrate that environmental legitimacy significantly negatively influences the likelihood of corporate carbon disclosure, and that green process innovation mediates the relationship, while green product innovation has no significant mediating effect. It means that environmental legitimacy not only directly affects the likelihood of corporate carbon disclosure, but also indirectly affects it via green process innovation. Hence, companies must increase both informal and formal mechanisms, i.e., external environmental legitimacy and internal green process innovation, to engage in carbon information disclosure and ensure sustainability. (shrink)
Synthesizing insights from a dynamic capability perspective and social network theory, this study identifies the factors influencing green innovation and examines the relationships between influencing factors, green innovation, and performance. This study uses structural equation modeling to test the research hypotheses. The results indicate that dynamic capability, coordination capability, and social reciprocity are significant drivers of green innovation, including green product innovation and green process innovation. Green product and process innovation have positive effects on environmental performance and organizational performance. These (...) findings are relevant to firms in quest of green management and innovation. (shrink)
In this paper, a new chaotic system is proposed based on mixing three-dimensional Chen chaotic system with a chaotic tactics. This new system is proved to be chaotic under Wiggins’ chaos definition and can generate chaotic sequences with high complexity. Furthermore, we propose a new pseudorandom bit generator based on this new system. A coding algorithm is used to make the sequences uniform. Both statistical and security tests are provided to show the generated sequences are with good randomness and high (...) complexity to withstand attacks. (shrink)
One of the major divergences between dynamical systems theory and symbolism lies in their views on the role of representation in cognition. From the perspective of development, the cognitive development could be divided into three levels: sensorimotor, imagery representation and linguistic representation. It is claimed that representation is not a sufficient condition though it is necessary for cognition. However, it does not mean that the authors agree with the notion of strong coupling in dynamicism that completely rejects representation.
Coherence is widely used for detecting faults in reservoir characterization. However, faults detected from coherence may be contaminated by some other discontinuities that are unrelated to faults. To further improve the accuracy and efficiency of coherence, preprocessing or postprocessing techniques are required. We developed an enhanced fault-detection method with adaptive scale highlighting and high resolution, by combining adaptive spectral decomposition and super-resolution deep learning into coherence calculation. As a preprocessing technique, adaptive spectral decomposition is first proposed and applied on seismic (...) data to get a dominant-frequency-optimized amplitude spectrum, which has features of scale focus and multiple resolution. Eigenstructure-based coherence with dip correction is then calculated to delineate fault discontinuities. Following the remarkable success of SR deep learning in image reconstruction, a convolutional neural network model is built and it then takes fault-detection images as the input to achieve enhanced results. The effectiveness of our proposed method is validated on a seismic survey acquired from Eastern China. Examples demonstrate that coherence from adaptive amplitude spectrum without dip correction is comparable to the dip-corrected one from seismic amplitude data at a certain degree, and they even highlight the specific scale of fault targets. Comparing fault detections from adaptive spectrum and some specific-frequency components, it can be concluded that adaptive spectral-based coherence highlights the primary scale of faults at various depths with only one single volume of data, thus improving the interpretation efficiency and reducing storage cost. Furthermore, with the trained CNN model, the resolution and signal-to-noise ratio of coherence images are effectively improved and the continuity of detected fault is promisingly enhanced. (shrink)
This study investigated whether and how a person's varied series of lexical categories corresponding to different discriminatory characteristics of the same colors affect his or her perception of colors. In three experiments, Chinese participants were primed to categorize four graduated colors—specifically dark green, light green, light blue, and dark blue—into green and blue; light color and dark color; and dark green, light green, light blue, and dark blue. The participants were then required to complete a visual search task. Reaction times (...) in the visual search task indicated that different lateralized categorical perceptions of color corresponded to the various priming situations. These results suggest that all of the lexical categories corresponding to different discriminatory characteristics of the same colors can influence people's perceptions of colors and that color perceptions can be influenced differently by distinct types of lexical categories depending on the context. (shrink)
The changing milieu of research—increasingly global, interdisciplinary and collaborative—prompts greater emphasis on cultural context and upon partnership with international scholars and diverse community groups. Ethics training, however, tends to ignore the cross-cultural challenges of making ethical choices. This paper confronts those challenges by presenting a new curricular model developed by an international team. It examines ethics across a very broad range of situations, using case studies and employing the perspectives of social science, humanities and the sciences. The course has been (...) developed and taught in a highly collaborative way, involving researchers and students at Zhejiang University, the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay and Brown University. The article presents the curricular modules of the course, learning outcomes, an assessment framework developed for the project, and a discussion of evaluation findings. (shrink)