In this paper we examine how English and Mandarin speakers think about time, and we test how the patterns of thinking in the two groups relate to patterns in linguistic and cultural experience. In Mandarin, vertical spatial metaphors are used more frequently to talk about time than they are in English; English relies primarily on horizontal terms. We present results from two tasks comparing English and Mandarin speakers’ temporal reasoning. The tasks measure how people spatialize time in three-dimensional space, including (...) the sagittal (front/back), transverse (left/right), and vertical (up/down) axes. Results of Experiment 1 show that people automatically create spatial representations in the course of temporal reasoning, and these implicit spatializations differ in accordance with patterns in language, even in a non-linguistic task. Both groups showed evidence of a left-to-right representation of time, in accordance with writing direction, but only Mandarin speakers showed a vertical top-to-bottom pattern for time (congruent with vertical spatiotemporal metaphors in Mandarin). Results of Experiment 2 confirm and extend these findings, showing that bilinguals’ representations of time depend on both long-term and proximal aspects of language experience. Participants who were more proficient in Mandarin were more likely to arrange time vertically (an effect of previous language experience). Further, bilinguals were more likely to arrange time vertically when they were tested in Mandarin than when they were tested in English (an effect of immediate linguistic context). (shrink)
A trapaça heroica está entre as memórias mais persistentes da Copa do Mundo de Futebol de 1986. Enquanto o brilhante segundo gol de Diego Maradona contra a Inglaterra foi apelidada por jornalistas desportivos de todos os lugares de “o gol do século”, o seu primeiro, de mão, é diferentemente lembrado pelos jornalistas e outros escritores em Londres e em Buenos Aires. A trapaça de Maradona, testemunhada por milhões em todo o mundo, não foi observada nem pelo árbitro tunisiano e tampouco (...) por seus assistentes durante o jogo. Na corrida dos jogos fúnebres de Pátroclo descrita na Ilíada, há até mesmo uma trapaça divina: a deusa Atena intervém, em resposta à oração de Odisseu, lançando Ajax, rosto ao chão, nos restos imundos dos sacrifícios de touros para impedi-lo de ganhar e assim, dar a vitória a Odisseu. Se os deuses trapaceiam para ajudar aos seus humanos favoritos, pode a própria trapaça ser totalmente inaceitável, mesmo em uma ocasião solene, que homenageia um guerreiro morto? Quando Ajax percebe o papel de Atena em sua derrota e reclama com seus companheiros, eles apenas riem dele. Este artigo analisa a representação da trapaça nas artes e nas poesias gregas e romanas e conclui que a “ mano de dios ” de Maradona é comparativamente trivial. (shrink)
This dissertation is intended to provide a formalism for those generics that trigger nonmonotonic inferences. The formalism is to reflect intentionality and exception-tolerating features of generics, and has an emphasis on the axiomatization of generic reasoning that encodes nonmonotonicity. ;A modal conditional approach is taken to formalize the nonmonotonic reasoning in general at the level of object language. A serial of logic systems---MN, NID, NCUM, N STCUM---are constructed in an increasing strength of the characterized nonmonotonic inference relation. In these systems, (...) two binary modal operators ⩾ and > are introduced in their syntax, and a ⊛ function lifted from the traditional * function is deployed in their semantics. These systems are shown to be sound and complete with respect to certain classes of frames defined in the semantics. They are decidable as well. The nonmonotonic inference is argued to be a ternary relation "[phi], Gamma |∼ alpha", and is defined in the system NSTCUM. Many widely discussed nonmonotonic inference patterns such as Defeasible Modus Ponens, Defeasible Transitivity, the Penguin Principle etc. are justified. The specificity rule is proved to be a theorem of the system N STCUM. The impact of negated defaults on an inference is also investigated and accounted for. ;A canonical form to read off generics is proposed: All generic sentences with subject-predicate structure can be re-written into their canonical form S . If S is a plural noun phrase, it can be further refined to be . Normal objects are selected based on the "meaning" of the subject and predicate terms. The second parameter provides an aspect with respect to which certain objects of a kind are considered normal. Due to such a way to select normal objects, the drowning problem is solved. ;The inference behaviors of generics are axiomatized in the system G, which is a quantificational extension of the system NSTCUM. It is proved to be sound and complete with respect to the class of L⩾,G -frames. Those benchmark examples of generic inferences are examined in the system G. (shrink)
This essay contends that individual liberty, understood as the permissibility of making choices about one’s own health care in support of one’s own good and the good of one’s family utilizing private resources, is central to the moral foundations of a health care system. Such individual freedoms are important not only because they often support more efficient and effective health care services, but because they permit individuals to fulfill important moral duties. A comparative study of the health care systems in (...) Hong Kong and mainland China is utilized to illustrate the conceptual and moral concerns at stake. Both regions have implemented two-tier health care systems with a public tier of basic health care services together with a second tier of privately purchased health care. As we document, Hong Kong permits patients and doctors significantly greater opportunities to choose private health care of typically higher medical quality than their mainland counterparts. As a result, individuals are able to obtain higher quality health care while also fulfilling important moral duties for themselves and their families. In this sense, Hong Kong’s health care system is morally superior to mainland China’s. In each case, Confucianism’s concerns regarding equality are partly satisfied through the provision of public health care services on the basic tier, while appropriate use of private resources in support of oneself and one’s family is permissibly exercised on the private tier. Although it is true that inequalities in health care access and outcome are inevitable within a system that permits such individual freedoms, we argue that such inequalities are morally justifiable in terms of Confucian ethical thought. (shrink)
Three misleading notions of post-Mao dynamics pervade thinking on recent reforms in China. In one, a tragic defeat has been suffered by true third-world revolutionaries, Maoists, who were in the process of emancipating the rural poor. In place of Maoism, China is said to be emplanting or re-emplanting a Soviet style system, rationalized Stalinism. In another understanding of China's reforms, self-reliant socialism has been replaced by dependent capitalism. Post-Mao China has decollectivized agriculture, made price, market and material incentives more central (...) to the economy, accepted the idea of a capitalist Hong Kong as part of China, opened ports and special economic zones to the laws, investments and logic of the capitalist world market and, in search of advanced science and technology. (shrink)
When participants observed a rubber hand being touched, their sense of touch was activated . While this illusion might be caused by multi-modal integration, it may also be related to empathic function, which enables us to simulate the observed information. We examined individual differences in the RHI, including empathic and schizotypal personality traits, as previous research had suggested that schizophrenic patients would be more subject to the RHI. The results indicated that people who experience a stronger RHI might have stronger (...) empathic and schizotypal personalites simultaneously. We discussed these relationships in terms of self-other representations. (shrink)
In studying and researching Mao Zedong's philosophical thought, it is necessary not only to study the relationship between it and Marxist philosophy, but also to study its relationship to China's traditional philosophy.
The resource-based model of self-regulation provides a pessimistic view of self-regulation that people are destined to lose their self-control after having engaged in any act of self-regulation because these acts deplete the limited resource that people need for successful self-regulation. The cognitive control theory, however, offers an alternative explanation and suggests that the depletion effect reflects switch costs between different cognitive control processes recruited to deal with demanding tasks. This account implies that the depletion effect will not occur once people (...) have had the opportunity to adapt to the self-regulatory task initially engaged in. Consistent with this idea, the present study showed that engaging in a demanding task led to performance deficits on a subsequent self-regulatory task only when the initial demanding task was relatively short but not when it was long enough for participants to adapt. Our results were unrelated to self-efficacy, mood, and motivation. (shrink)
Rights do not feature prominently in the writings of Mao Zedong . Mao did not view rights as innate or natural; they were instead merited on the basis of class and political view, as we see in this document. Whether rights should be given to any group also depended on the historical moment, as can be inferred from the context in which they are invoked in this essay on the policies appropriate at a particular point in the revolutionary struggle. Readers (...) should thus keep in mind the situation China faced in 1940, the date of the essay: The Chinese Communist Party and the Guomindang had nominally joined in a United Front against the Japanese, who controlled large parts of China. Given the contingent nature of rights for Mao, finally, we find it inappropriate to translate the lone use of renquan here as "human rights": it seems instead to refer to "rights of the person". (shrink)
This paper considers the trajectory of Althusser's Spinozism pre- and post-May ‘68. Where Althusser's application of Spinoza would often lead him into unknown or non-Marxist territory, one alternative way to think this relation is through the figure of Mao, whose concept of non-antagonistic contradiction I propose to read in terms of Spinoza's “determinate negation.” Although not going so far as to suggest that a certain combination of Mao and Spinoza would have enabled Althusser to “complete” Marx, this paper speculates on (...) this omission from his work and what positive insights we can draw from it retrospectively for developing Althusser's political philosophy. (shrink)
Though complex networks have been widely applied in the research of chemistry, there is hardly any introduction about the establishment of networks using chemical bonds. In this paper, we consider chemical elements as a system linked by chemical bonds and create the undirected chemical bond network by abstracting nodes from elements and undirected edges from bonds. Connectivity, heterogeneity, small world and disassortativity of this network show the macro structural rationality of this system. The degree and k-order neighbors of an element, (...) which represent the micro topology of this network, can be used to measure its chemical reactivity and detect how many kinds of compounds it can form. The similarity between two elements is measured by the Jaccard index and the VOS mapping technique, results of which are similar to well-known similarities between elements shown by the periodic table. The establishment and topological analysis of this network provide another way to understand and study elements and bonds, and more chemical properties of elements and bonds can be studied by complex networks. (shrink)
Since the twentieth century, it has been an era of rapid development of information technology; the scale of data is almost the growth rate of the blowout type; no matter what it is, a large number of enterprises or departments are increasing a large number of cost data. However, the current cost management model still remains in the traditional management method and lacks a smarter big data analysis method. In addition, there is a lot of research on big data applications, (...) and there are few e-commerce supply chains. Therefore, the research purpose of this study is to use big data technology to explore a series of practical operation methods for supply chain Cultural Communication Enterprises and summarize the operation mode of building SCC control by using big data technology. In terms of research methods, this study combined bibliographic review and empirical analysis, explored cost-based mobile e-commerce cost control related to big data information, used smart and digital analysis methods to thoroughly analyze CCE business issues from internal and external supply chains, established an e-commerce business supply chain cost control model based on big data technology and elaborated cost control procedures and measures. Finally, it summarized the research results and drew conclusions to provide a theoretical basis for promoting enterprises products products to reduce supply chain costs. The research in this study has achieved a breakthrough in the cost management and control of EE; it provides empirical guidance and theoretical reference for EE to adopt big data technology for cost command of supply chain, could help EE to reduce cost of supply chain management to gain higher profit margins, and promote e-commerce industry as a whole to the next level eventually. This study concluded that the use of big data technology for cost command can solve a series of problems effectively, such as the lack of systematic analysis of cost, the lack of contractual partners, the serious waste of sales links, and the policy errors of logistics links, and continuously improve the enterprise management level and the decline of comprehensive cost. The application mode of supply chain CCE enterprises using big data technology constructed in this study has universal applicability. (shrink)
Aiming at the problem of insufficient health monitoring of the elderly in the existing home care system, this paper designs a health information analysis and early warning system based on the Internet of Things technology, which can monitor the physiological data of the elderly in real time. It also can be based on the elderly real-time monitoring data, physical examination data, and other types of health data, which can be used to predict diseases, so as to achieve “early detection and (...) early treatment” of diseases. First, analyse and design the architecture and content of the home care monitoring system based on the Internet of Things. Secondly, based on the collected heart rate, blood pressure, and three-axis acceleration information of the elderly, it is analysed to determine whether the elderly are in danger of falling, and the designed system is used for early warning. Finally, this paper analyses the prediction algorithm theory of the disease prediction module in the health monitoring software of the home care system. In order to improve the accuracy of prediction, the DS evidence theory is used to optimize the traditional BP neural network algorithm and conduct experimental tests. The test results show that the health information analysis and early warning software of the home care system meet actual needs and achieve the expected goals. (shrink)
For knowledge- and invention-based industries, scholars have introduced the firm value, which is composed of traditional financial capital and intangible intellectual capital, and Tobin’s Q, which is the commonly used approach for intellectual capital valuation. Scholars have thus evaluated firm valuation appropriately by considering corporate governance. This study applies the multi-regression model to present a discussion on the value relevance of intellectual capital and corporate governance concerning the tourism industry in Taiwan. The results show that intellectual capital is positively related (...) to firm valuation, and that corporate governance influences the positive relationship between intellectual capital and firm valuation. The tourism industry must focus on intellectual capital and corporate governance. (shrink)
Knowledge of the world is for the purpose of transforming the world; the history of humankind is created by humankind itself. However, if one has no knowledge of the world then the world cannot be transformed; "without revolutionary theory there can be no revolutionary movement."1 Our high-and-mighty dogmatists 2 are ignorant of this point. It is through the two processes of knowledge and transformation that the realm of necessity will be changed into the realm of freedom. The European philosophers of (...) the past comprehended the truth that "freedom is knowledge of necessity." Marx's contribution lay not in the rejection of this truth, but in recognizing that this truth was incomplete, and his addition of the truth that "the transformation of the world" is founded on knowledge of necessity. "Freedom is knowledge of necessity"-this is the proposition of the philosophers of the past. "Freedom is knowledge of necessity and the transformation of the world"-this is Marx's proposition. It is a poor Marxist who does not understand that knowledge of the world is premised on the transformation of the world, and that the transformation of the world is premised on knowledge of the world. Any Chinese Marxist who does not understand that knowledge of China is premised on the desire to transform China, and that the transformation of China is premised on knowledge of China, is indeed a poor Chinese Marxist. Marx said that man differs from the honeybee in that man has in his mind a design for his house prior to constructing it.3 The house that we will construct is the house of the Chinese Revolution, and we too must firstly have a design for the Chinese Revolution. Not only must we have a grand design, a general plan, we must also have many designs which are subdivisions of the grand design, which are designs on a smaller scale. And these designs can be nothing but the active reflection attained in the practice of the Chinese Revolution of objective, real situations . The reason why our high-and-mighty dogmatists are subjectivists is because their entire design for the revolution, whether on a large or small scale, general or subdivided, is not based on and nor does it conform to objective reality. They have only the subjective aspiration to transform the world, or China, or Northern China, or the cities; they have no presentable plan. Their plan is not scientific, but is subjective and arbitrary, is a complete muddle. Since they have no knowledge whatever of the world and wish to transform it in a rash way, the consequence will not only be that they suffer cracked skulls themselves, but that the masses will also meet the same fate under their leadership. Since these high-and-mighty dogmatists are blind when it comes to the realm of necessity of the Chinese revolution, their presumptuous desire to play the part of the leaders of the people would truly be a case of "a blind man riding a blind horse at the edge of a deep gorge at midnight.". (shrink)
This law is the basic law of dialectics. Lenin said: "Dialectics in the proper sense is the study of contradictions in the very essence of objects." Therefore, Lenin often called this law the essence of dialectics; he also called it the kernel of dialectics. Because of this, in our study of dialectics, discussion should commence from this problem, and moreover should receive somewhat closer attention than other problems.