45 found
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  1.  18
    Patenting Foundational Technologies: Lessons From CRISPR and Other Core Biotechnologies.Oliver Feeney, Julian Cockbain, Michael Morrison, Lisa Diependaele, Kristof Van Assche & Sigrid Sterckx - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (12):36-48.
    In 2012, a new and promising gene manipulation technique, CRISPR-Cas9, was announced that seems likely to be a foundational technique in health care and agriculture. However, patents have been granted. As with other technological developments, there are concerns of social justice regarding inequalities in access. Given the technologies’ “foundational” nature and societal impact, it is vital for such concerns to be translated into workable recommendations for policymakers and legislators. Colin Farrelly has proposed a moral justification for the use of patents (...)
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  2.  29
    Citizen science or scientific citizenship? Disentangling the uses of public engagement rhetoric in national research initiatives.J. Patrick Woolley, Michelle L. McGowan, Harriet J. A. Teare, Victoria Coathup, Jennifer R. Fishman, Richard A. Settersten, Sigrid Sterckx, Jane Kaye & Eric T. Juengst - 2016 - BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):1.
    The language of “participant-driven research,” “crowdsourcing” and “citizen science” is increasingly being used to encourage the public to become involved in research ventures as both subjects and scientists. Originally, these labels were invoked by volunteer research efforts propelled by amateurs outside of traditional research institutions and aimed at appealing to those looking for more “democratic,” “patient-centric,” or “lay” alternatives to the professional science establishment. As mainstream translational biomedical research requires increasingly larger participant pools, however, corporate, academic and governmental research programs (...)
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  3.  70
    On Defining Moral Enhancement: A Clarificatory Taxonomy.Kasper Raus, Farah Focquaert, Maartje Schermer, Jona Specker & Sigrid Sterckx - 2014 - Neuroethics 7 (3):263-273.
    Recently there has been some discussion concerning a particular type of enhancement, namely ‘ moral enhancement ’. However, there is no consensus on what precisely constitutes moral enhancement, and as a result the concept is used and defined in a wide variety of ways. In this article, we develop a clarificatory taxonomy of these definitions and we identify the criteria that are used to delineate the concept. We think that the current definitions can be distinguished from each other by the (...)
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  4.  42
    The Ethical Desirability of Moral Bioenhancement: A Review of Reasons. [REVIEW]Jona Specker, Farah Focquaert, Kasper Raus, Sigrid Sterckx & Maartje Schermer - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):67.
    The debate on the ethical aspects of moral bioenhancement focuses on the desirability of using biomedical as opposed to traditional means to achieve moral betterment. The aim of this paper is to systematically review the ethical reasons presented in the literature for and against moral bioenhancement.
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  5.  68
    Is Continuous Sedation at the End of Life an Ethically Preferable Alternative to Physician-Assisted Suicide?Kasper Raus, Sigrid Sterckx & Freddy Mortier - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (6):32 - 40.
    The relatively new practice of continuous sedation at the end of life (CS) is increasingly being debated in the clinical and ethical literature. This practice received much attention when a U.S. Supreme Court ruling noted that the availability of CS made legalization of physician-assisted suicide (PAS) unnecessary, as CS could alleviate even the most severe suffering. This view has been widely adopted. In this article, we perform an in-depth analysis of four versions of this ?argument of preferable alternative.? Our goal (...)
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  6.  61
    Putting Sustainability Into Sustainable Human Development.Wouter Peeters, jo Dirix & Sigrid Sterckx - 2013 - Journal of Human Development and Capabilities 1 (14):58-76.
    Abating the threat climate change poses to the lives of future people clearly challenges our development models. The 2011 Human Devel- opment Report rightly focuses on the integral links between sustainability and equity. However, the human development and capabilities approach emphasizes the expansion of people’s capabilities simpliciter, which is ques- tionable in view of environmental sustainability. We argue that capabilities should be defined as triadic relations between an agent, constraints and poss- ible functionings. This triadic syntax particularly applies to climate (...)
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  7.  70
    Coercion, Incarceration, and Chemical Castration: An Argument From Autonomy.Thomas Douglas, Pieter Bonte, Farah Focquaert, Katrien Devolder & Sigrid Sterckx - 2013 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 (3):393-405.
    In several jurisdictions, sex offenders may be offered chemical castration as an alternative to further incarceration. In some, agreement to chemical castration may be made a formal condition of parole or release. In others, refusal to undergo chemical castration can increase the likelihood of further incarceration though no formal link is made between the two. Offering chemical castration as an alternative to further incarceration is often said to be partially coercive, thus rendering the offender’s consent invalid. The dominant response to (...)
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  8.  15
    “You Hoped We Would Sleep Walk Into Accepting the Collection of Our Data”: Controversies Surrounding the UK Care.Data Scheme and Their Wider Relevance for Biomedical Research.Sigrid Sterckx, Vojin Rakic, Julian Cockbain & Pascal Borry - 2016 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 19 (2):177-190.
    An ‘Information Centre’ has recently been established by law which has the power to collect, collate and provide access to the medical information forall patients treated by the National Health Service in England, whether in hospitals or by General Practitioners. This so-called ‘care.data’ scheme has given rise to major and ongoing controversies. We will sketch the background of the scheme and look at the responses it has elicited from citizens and medical professionals. In Autumn 2013, NHS England set up a (...)
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  9.  60
    Continuous Deep Sedation at the End of Life and the 'Natural Death' Hypothesis.Kasper Raus, Sigrid Sterckx & Freddy Mortier - 2012 - Bioethics 26 (6):329-336.
    Surveys in different countries (e.g. the UK, Belgium and The Netherlands) show a marked recent increase in the incidence of continuous deep sedation at the end of life (CDS). Several hypotheses can be formulated to explain the increasing performance of this practice. In this paper we focus on what we call the ‘natural death’ hypothesis, i.e. the hypothesis that acceptance of CDS has spread rapidly because death after CDS can be perceived as a ‘natural’ death by medical practitioners, patients' relatives (...)
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  10.  20
    Moral Disengagement and the Motivational Gap in Climate Change.Wouter Peeters, Lisa Diependaele & Sigrid Sterckx - 2019 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 22 (2):425-447.
    Although climate change jeopardizes the fundamental human rights of current as well as future people, current actions and ambitions to tackle it are inadequate. There are two prominent explanations for this motivational gap in the climate ethics literature. The first maintains that our conventional moral judgement system is not well equipped to identify a complex problem such as climate change as an important moral problem. The second explanation refers to people’s reluctance to change their behaviour and the temptation to shirk (...)
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  11.  40
    Governing the Postmortem Procurement of Human Body Material for Research.Kristof Van Assche, Laura Capitaine, Guido Pennings & Sigrid Sterckx - 2015 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 25 (1):67-88.
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  12.  43
    Towards an Integration of the Ecological Space Paradigm and the Capabilities Approach.Wouter Peeters, Jo Dirix & Sigrid Sterckx - 2015 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (3):479-496.
    In order to develop a model of equitable and sustainable distribution, this paper advocates integrating the ecological space paradigm and the capabilities approach. As the currency of distribution, this account proposes a hybrid of capabilities and ecological space. Although the goal of distributive justice should be to secure and promote people’s capabilities now and in the future, doing so requires acknowledging that these capabilities are dependent on the biophysical preconditions as well as inculcating the ethos of restraint. Both issues have (...)
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  13. Patents and Access to Drugs in Developing Countries: An Ethical Analysis.Sigrid Sterckx - 2004 - Developing World Bioethics 4 (1):58–75.
    ABSTRACTMore than a third of the world's population has no access to essential drugs. More than half of this group of people live in the poorest regions of Africa and Asia. Several factors determine the accessibility of drugs in developing countries. Hardly any medicines for tropical diseases are being developed, but even existing drugs are often not available to the patients who need them.One of the important determinants of access to drugs is the working of the patent system. This paper (...)
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  14.  78
    Patenting and Licensing of University Research: Promoting Innovation or Undermining Academic Values?Sigrid Sterckx - 2011 - Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (1):45-64.
    Since the 1980s in the US and the 1990s in Europe, patenting and licensing activities by universities have massively increased. This is strongly encouraged by governments throughout the Western world. Many regard academic patenting as essential to achieve ‘knowledge transfer’ from academia to industry. This trend has far-reaching consequences for access to the fruits of academic research and so the question arises whether the current policies are indeed promoting innovation or whether they are instead a symptom of a pro-intellectual property (...)
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  15.  7
    Similar or the Same? Why Biosimilars Are Not the Solution.Lisa Diependaele, Julian Cockbain & Sigrid Sterckx - 2018 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 46 (3):776-790.
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  16. Athletic Enhancement, Human Nature and Ethics: Threats and Opportunities of Doping Technologies.Jan Tolleneer, Sigrid Sterckx & Pieter Bonte - unknown
    The book provides an in-depth discussion on the human nature concept from different perspectives and from different disciplines, analyzing its use in the doping debate and researching its normative overtones. The relation between natural talent and enhanced abilities is scrutinized within a proper conceptual and theoretical framework: is doping to be seen as a factor of the athlete’s dehumanization or is it a tool to fulfill his/her aspirations to go faster, higher and stronger? Which characteristics make sports such a peculiar (...)
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  17.  8
    Forensic Practitioners’ Views on Stimulating Moral Development and Moral Growth in Forensic Psychiatric Care.Jona Specker, Farah Focquaert, Sigrid Sterckx & Maartje H. N. Schermer - 2020 - Neuroethics 13 (1):73-85.
    In the context of debates on psychiatry issues pertaining to moral dimensions of psychiatric health care are frequently discussed. These debates invite reflection on the question whether forensic practitioners have a role in stimulating patients’ moral development and moral growth in the context of forensic psychiatric and psychological treatment and care. We conducted a qualitative study to examine to what extent forensic practitioners consider moral development and moral growth to be a part of their current professional practices and to what (...)
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  18.  8
    Controversies Surrounding Continuous Deep Sedation at the End of Life: The Parliamentary and Societal Debates in France.Kasper Raus, Kenneth Chambaere & Sigrid Sterckx - 2016 - BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):1.
    Continuous deep sedation at the end of life is a practice that has been the topic of considerable ethical debate, for example surrounding its perceived similarity or dissimilarity with physician-assisted dying. The practice is generally considered to be legal as a form of symptom control, although this is mostly only assumed. France has passed an amendment to the Public Health Act that would grant certain terminally ill patients an explicit right to continuous deep sedation until they pass away. Such a (...)
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  19. Euthanasia for Mental Suffering.Sigrid Sterckx & Kasper Raus - 1st ed. 2015 - In Jukka Varelius & Michael Cholbi (eds.), New Directions in the Ethics of Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia. Springer Verlag.
     
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  20.  4
    Patenting Foundational Technologies: Recent Developments in the CRISPR Patent Struggle.Julian Cockbain & Sigrid Sterckx - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (4):11-12.
    Volume 20, Issue 4, May 2020, Page 11-12.
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  21.  27
    May the Blessed Man Win: A Critique of the Categorical Preference for Natural Talent Over Doping as Proper Origins of Athletic Ability.Pieter Bonte, Sigrid Sterckx & Guido Pennings - 2014 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 39 (4):368-386.
    Doping scandals can reveal unresolved tensions between the meritocratic values of equal opportunity + reward for effort and the “talentocratic” love of hereditary privilege. Whence this special reverence for talent? We analyze the following arguments: (1) talent is a unique indicator of greater potential, whereas doping enables only temporary boosts (the fluke critique); (2) developing a talent is an authentic endeavor of “becoming who you are,” whereas reforming the fundamentals of your birth suit via artifice is an act of alienation (...)
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  22.  32
    Emissions Trading Ethics.Jo Dirix, Wouter Peeters & Sigrid Sterckx - 2016 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 19 (1):60-75.
    Although emissions trading is embraced as a means to curb carbon emissions and to incentivize the use of renewable energy, it is also heavily contested on ethical grounds. We will assess the main fundamental objections and possible counterarguments. Although we sympathize with some of these arguments, we argue that they are unpersuasive when an emissions trading system is well designed: emissions should be accounted ‘upstream,’ on the production rather than the consumer level. Moreover, allowances should be auctioned, and regulatory measures (...)
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  23.  7
    Climate Change and Individual Responsibility. Agency, Moral Disengagement and the Motivational Gap.Wouter Peeters, Andries De Smet, Lisa Diependaele, Sigrid Sterckx, R. H. McNeal & A. D. Smet - 2015 - Palgrave MacMillan.
    If climate change represents a severe threat to humankind, why then is response to it characterized by inaction at all levels? The authors argue there are two complementary explanations for the lack of motivation. First, our moral judgment system appears to be unable to identify climate change as an important moral problem and there are pervasive doubts about the agency of individuals. This explanation, however, is incomplete: Individual emitters can effectively be held morally responsible for their luxury emissions. Second, doubts (...)
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  24.  35
    The Moral Justifiability of Patents.Sigrid Sterckx - 2006 - Ethical Perspectives 13 (2):249-265.
    Three attempts are usually made to justify patents: natural rights, distributive justice, and consequentialist arguments, all of which I contest.The natural rights argument is traced back to John Locke, defender of the ‘labour theory of property,’ who essentially holds that persons have a right to property insofar as they have mixed their labour with it, and insofar as they have appropriated natural things without exhausting them or taking more than their share. Yet, the inventor’s mixing of labour is often the (...)
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  25.  9
    Controversies Surrounding Continuous Deep Sedation at the End of Life: The Parliamentary and Societal Debates in France.Kasper Raus, Kenneth Chambaere & Sigrid Sterckx - forthcoming - Most Recent Articles: Bmc Medical Ethics.
    Continuous deep sedation at the end of life is a practice that has been the topic of considerable ethical debate, for example surrounding its perceived similarity or dissimilarity with physician-assisted dying...
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  26.  12
    How Defining Clinical Practices May Influence Their Evaluation: The Case of Continuous Sedation at the End of Life.Kasper Raus & Sigrid Sterckx - 2016 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 22 (3):425-432.
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  27. The Delegated Authority Model Misused as a Strategy of Disengagement in the Case of Climate Change.Andries De Smet, Wouter Peeters & Sigrid Sterckx - 2016 - Ethics and Global Politics 9 (1):29299.
    The characterisation of anthropogenic climate change as a violation of basic human rights is gaining wide recognition. Many people believe that tackling this problem is exclusively the job of governments and supranational institutions (especially the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). This argument can be traced back to the delegated authority model, according to which the legitimacy of political institutions depends on their ability to solve problems that are difficult to address at the individual level. Since the institutions created (...)
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  28.  19
    Access to Human Tissues for Research and Product Development.Jean‐Paul Pirnay, Etienne Baudoux, Olivier Cornu, Alain Delforge, Christian Delloye, Johan Guns, Ernst Heinen, Etienne Van den Abbeel, Alain Vanderkelen, Caroline Van Geyt, Ivan van Riet, Gilbert Verbeken, Petra De Sutter, Michiel Verlinden, Isabelle Huys, Julian Cockbain, Christian Chabannon, Kris Dierickx, Paul Schotsmans, Daniel De Vos, Thomas Rose, Serge Jennes & Sigrid Sterckx - unknown
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  29.  19
    Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “Patenting Foundational Technologies: Lessons From CRISPR and Other Core Biotechnologies”.Sigrid Sterckx, Kristof Van Assche, Lisa Diependaele, Michael Morrison, Julian Cockbain & Oliver Feeney - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (1):W10-W13.
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  30.  22
    Continuous Sedation Until Death: The Everyday Moral Reasoning of Physicians, Nurses and Family Caregivers in the UK, The Netherlands and Belgium.Kasper Raus, Jayne Brown, Clive Seale, Judith Ac Rietjens, Rien Janssens, Sophie Bruinsma, Freddy Mortier, Sheila Payne & Sigrid Sterckx - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):14.
    Continuous sedation is increasingly used as a way to relieve symptoms at the end of life. Current research indicates that some physicians, nurses, and relatives involved in this practice experience emotional and/or moral distress. This study aims to provide insight into what may influence how professional and/or family carers cope with such distress.
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  31.  19
    Is There a Moral Obligation to Conceive Children Under the Best Possible Conditions? A Preliminary Framework for Identifying the Preconception Responsibilities of Potential Parents.Pieter Bonte, Guido Pennings & Sigrid Sterckx - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):5.
    The preventative paradigm of preconception care is receiving increasing attention, yet its boundaries remain vague in three respects: temporally; agentially; and instrumentally. Crucially, it remains unclear just who is to be considered a ‘potential parent’, how soon they should take up preconception responsibilities, and how weighty their responsibilities should be.
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  32.  46
    Can Drug Patents Be Morally Justified?Sigrid Sterckx - 2005 - Science and Engineering Ethics 11 (1):81-92.
    This paper offers a few elements of an answer to the question to what extent drug patents can be morally justified. Justifications based on natural rights, distributive justice and utilitarian arguments are discussed and criticized. The author recognizes the potential of the patents to benefit society but argues that the system is currently evolving in the wrong direction, particularly in the field of drugs. More than a third of the world’s population has no access to essential drugs. The working of (...)
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  33.  18
    Why Jecker's Capabilities Approach to Age-Based Rationing Is Incapable of Containing Health Care Costs.Laura Capitaine, Guido Pennings & Sigrid Sterckx - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (8):22-23.
  34.  11
    Patents and Access to Drugs in Developing Countries: An Ethical Analysis.Sigrid Sterckx - 2004 - Developing World Bioethics 4 (1):58-75.
    ABSTRACTMore than a third of the world's population has no access to essential drugs. More than half of this group of people live in the poorest regions of Africa and Asia. Several factors determine the accessibility of drugs in developing countries. Hardly any medicines for tropical diseases are being developed, but even existing drugs are often not available to the patients who need them.One of the important determinants of access to drugs is the working of the patent system. This paper (...)
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  35. Strengthening Bottom-Up and Top-Down Climate Governance.Jo Dirix, Wouter Peeters, Johan Eyckmans, Peter Tom Jones & Sigrid Sterckx - 2013 - Climate Policy 3 (13):363-383.
    Although the UN and EU focus their climate policies on the prevention of a 2 8C global mean temperature rise, it has been estimated that a rise of at least 4 8C is more likely. Given the political climate of inaction, there is a need to instigate a bottom-up approach so as to build domestic support for future climate treaties, empower citizens, and motivate leaders to take action. A review is provided of the predominant top-down cap-and-trade policies in place – (...)
     
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  36.  31
    Taking Citizens Seriously.Sigrid Sterckx & Tom MacMillan - 2006 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 19 (3):219-223.
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  37.  41
    A Critique of the Utilitarian Argument for the Patent System.Sigrid Sterckx - 2004 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 11 (2):81-88.
    Attempts to justify the patent system can be based on three grounds: (1) natural rights; (2) distributive justice; and (3) utilitarian (economic) arguments. Each of these arguments is problematic in many ways. The first two are dealt with very briefly. The utilitarian argument is discussed more in depth.
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  38.  20
    Living Organ Procurement From the Mentally Incompetent: The Need for More Appropriate Guidelines.Kristof Van Assche, Gilles Genicot & Sigrid Sterckx - 2014 - Bioethics 28 (3):101-109.
    With the case of Belgium as a negative example, this paper will evaluate the legitimacy of using mentally incompetents as organ sources. The first section examines the underlying moral dilemma that results from the necessity of balancing the principle of respect for persons with the obligation to help people in desperate need. We argue for the rejection of a radical utilitarian approach but also question the appropriateness of a categorical prohibition. Section two aims to strike a fair balance between the (...)
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  39.  23
    The New Belgian Law on Biobanks: Some Comments From an Ethical Perspective.Sigrid Sterckx & Kristof Van Assche - 2011 - Health Care Analysis 19 (3):247-258.
    On 19 December 2008 the Official Journal of Belgium published the ‘Law regarding the procurement and use of human body material destined for human medical applications or for scientific research purposes’. This paper will comment on various aspects of the Law: its scope of application (what is understood by ‘body material’?); its concept of ‘residual human body material’ (with far-reaching implications for the type of consent required for research); the nature of actions with and uses of human body material that (...)
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  40.  9
    Introduction: Human Nature as a Promising Concept to Make Sense of the Spirit of Sport.Pieter Bonte, Jan Tolleneer, Paul Schotsmans & Sigrid Sterckx - unknown
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  41.  7
    The Capabilities Approach and Environmental Sustainability: The Case for Functioning Constraints.Wouter Peeters, Jo Dirix & Sigrid Sterckx - 2015 - Environmental Values 24 (3):367-389.
    The capabilities approach of Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum has become an influential viewpoint for addressing issues of social justice and human de- velopment. It has not yet, however, given adequate theoretical consideration to the requirements of environmental sustainability. Sen has focussed on the instrumental importance of human development for achieving sustainability, but has failed to consider the limits of this account, especially with respect to consumption-reduction. Nussbaum has criticised constraining material consumption for its paternalistic prescription of one particular conception (...)
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  42. Is the Clean Development Mechanism Delivering Benefits to the Poorest Communities in the Developing World? A Critical Evaluation and Proposals for Reforms.Jo Dirix, Wouter Peeters & Sigrid Sterckx - 2016 - Environment, Development and Sustainability 1 (18):839-855.
    This paper explores whether the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), a flexibility mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol, has contributed to poverty alleviation in countries that host CDM projects. We argue that the CDM should deliver pro-poor benefits to the communities in which projects are established, since poverty alleviation is integral to sustainable development, which is one of the main purposes of the CDM. After briefly discussing the background of the CDM, we discuss assessment difficulties to which research is prone when evaluating (...)
     
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  43. Is the EU ETS a Just Climate Policy?Jo Dirix, Wouter Peeters & Sigrid Sterckx - 2015 - New Political Economy 5 (20):702-724.
    The European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is in dire straits. Prone to design problems and suffering from the effects of the economic crises the scheme is criticised for its poor achievements. In this paper we will analyse some of the features of this situation from an ethical perspective. The major part is dedicated to the complications within each phase of the EU ETS and to the recent developments it has undergone. We will briefly discuss the remedies suggested by (...)
     
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  44. Continuous Sedation at the End of Life: Ethical, Clinical and Legal Perspectives.Sigrid Sterckx, Kasper Raus & Freddy Mortier (eds.) - 2013 - Cambridge University Press.
    Continuous sedation until death is an increasingly common practice in end-of-life care. However, it raises numerous medical, ethical, emotional and legal concerns, such as the reducing or removing of consciousness, the withholding of artificial nutrition and hydration, the proportionality of the sedation to the symptoms, its adequacy in actually relieving symptoms rather than simply giving onlookers the impression that the patient is undergoing a painless 'natural' death, and the perception that it may be functionally equivalent to euthanasia. This book brings (...)
     
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  45. Personalised Medicine, Individual Choice and the Common Good.Britta van Beers, Sigrid Sterckx & Donna Dickenson (eds.) - 2018 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    This is a volume of twelve essays concerning the fundamental tension in personalised medicine between individual choice and the common good.
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