RESUMO Entre a vasta produção de Eduardo Coutinho, destaca-se o documentário Jogo de cena, celebrado como “objeto solar” da filmografia do cineasta, no qual a entrevista ocupa um lugar central. O objetivo deste artigo é refletir discursivamente sobre ela a partir de cenas de fala postas a circular em relação às escolhas estéticas e à materialidade do documentário; natureza da relação entrevistador-entrevistadas, marcada pela recusa a uma “suposta neutralidade” e produção de agenciamentos, cenografias e mundo ético. Para isso, são acionados (...) conceitos basilares da Análise do Discurso, como interdiscurso, cenografia, agenciamento e ethos discursivo, conforme formulados por Dominique Maingueneau. Os resultados mostram que é possível estabelecer diálogos profícuos com os dispositivos metodológicos de Coutinho e conceitos da Análise do Discurso. A partir de uma aura mística do seu silêncio acolhedor, pode-se depreender um ethos respeitoso e atencioso do entrevistador em relação às falas das personagens. ABSTRACT Among Eduardo Coutinho’s vast production, the documentary Jogo de cena stands out and is celebrated as being the centerpiece of the filmmaker's filmography, in which the interviews occupy a central place. The purpose of this article is to reflect upon these interviews, discursively, based on: speech scenes put in perspective and in relation to the aesthetic choices and materiality of the documentary; nature of the interviewer-interviewee relationship, marked by the refusal of an “alleged neutrality” and the production of settings, scenographies, and ethical worlds. For this, we articulated basic concepts of Discourse Analysis, as theorized by Dominique Maingueneau, such as interdiscourse, scenography, setting and discursive ethos. The results demonstrate that it is possible to establish a dialogue between Coutinho’s methodological apparatus and concepts of Discourse Analysis. From a mystical aura of his welcoming silence, the interviewer’s respectful and considerate ethos in relation to the characters' speeches can be inferred. (shrink)
ABSTRACT Among Eduardo Coutinho’s vast production, the documentary Jogo de cena stands out and is celebrated as being the centerpiece of the filmmaker's filmography, in which the interviews occupy a central place. The purpose of this article is to reflect upon these interviews, discursively, based on: speech scenes put in perspective and in relation to the aesthetic choices and materiality of the documentary; nature of the interviewer-interviewee relationship, marked by the refusal of an “alleged neutrality” and the production of settings, (...) scenographies, and ethical worlds. For this, we articulated basic concepts of Discourse Analysis, as theorized by Dominique Maingueneau, such as interdiscourse, scenography, setting and discursive ethos. The results demonstrate that it is possible to establish a dialogue between Coutinho’s methodological apparatus and concepts of Discourse Analysis. From a mystical aura of his welcoming silence, the interviewer’s respectful and considerate ethos in relation to the characters' speeches can be inferred. RESUMO Entre a vasta produção de Eduardo Coutinho, destaca-se o documentário Jogo de cena, celebrado como “objeto solar” da filmografia do cineasta, no qual a entrevista ocupa um lugar central. O objetivo deste artigo é refletir discursivamente sobre ela a partir de cenas de fala postas a circular em relação às escolhas estéticas e à materialidade do documentário; natureza da relação entrevistador-entrevistadas, marcada pela recusa a uma “suposta neutralidade” e produção de agenciamentos, cenografias e mundo ético. Para isso, são acionados conceitos basilares da Análise do Discurso, como interdiscurso, cenografia, agenciamento e ethos discursivo, conforme formulados por Dominique Maingueneau. Os resultados mostram que é possível estabelecer diálogos profícuos com os dispositivos metodológicos de Coutinho e conceitos da Análise do Discurso. A partir de uma aura mística do seu silêncio acolhedor, pode-se depreender um ethos respeitoso e atencioso do entrevistador em relação às falas das personagens. (shrink)
To investigate the effects of two different modes of physical activity on body composition, physical fitness, cardiometabolic risk, and psychological responses in female adolescents participating in a multi-disciplinary program. The 12-week randomized intervention included 25-adolescents with overweight divided into two groups: sports practice-SPG and functional training-FTG. The SPG intervention was divided into three sports: basketball, handball, and futsal. SPG participants performed one sport 3-times/week, over the course of 1 month. The FTG performed concurrent exercises 3-times/week. This study was registered in (...) Clinical Trials Registry Platform under number: RBR-45ywtg and registered in Local Ethics Committee number: 2,505.200/2018. The intensity of physical exercises-PE was matched between groups by the rating of perceived exertion. The primary outcome was body composition, and secondary outcomes were physical fitness, cardiometabolic risk, and psychological responses. There was a significant time-effect for body mass, body mass index, and low-density lipoprotein, all being reduced. There were increases over time for musculoskeletal mass, aerobic fitness, and high-density lipoprotein. There was a group time interaction with body fat percentage being lower post-intervention in the SPG. No significant differences were observed for the other variables. Both physical activity models were effective in improving a subset of obesity-related health parameters. The findings should be extended by further investigation using more sophisticated measures of energy expenditure.Clinical Trial Registration:https://ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/, identifier: RBR-45ywtg. (shrink)
O presente estudo, levado a efeito em 2012, teve por objetivo investigar as tendências da pesquisa educacional no que se refere aos chamados “distúrbios de aprendizagem”. Por meio da análise de 183 resumos de teses e dissertações que abordaram as dificuldades de aprendizagem, depositadas no banco de teses da CAPES entre 1987 e 2010 e, com base nas contribuições de Williams e Bourdieu, analisamos essas produções, das quais foram coletados os seguintes dados: Quem foram os autores institucionais? Quando se deram (...) as defesas? Como as investigações foram produzidas? Por fim, procuramos recolher dados que pudessem evidenciar se a tendência de imputar o baixo rendimento escolar a pretensos “distúrbios de aprendizagem” prevaleceu durante todo o período investigado ou se a perspectiva crítica, representada pelos estudos de Patto e Collares & Moysés, passou a influir sobre essa produção. Os resultados apontam que, apesar da disseminação da perspectiva contrária à prática de atribuir aos alunos as causas do seu baixo rendimento escolar, ainda prevalece a concepção tradicional, embora a produção com base na perspectiva crítica tenha crescido no período analisado. (shrink)
_The first major biography in English in over thirty years of the seminal modern Jewish thinker Martin Buber_ An authority on the twentieth‑century philosopher Martin Buber, Paul Mendes-Flohr offers the first major biography in English in thirty years of this seminal modern Jewish thinker. The book is organized around several key moments, such as his sudden abandonment by his mother when he was a child of three, a foundational trauma that, Mendes-Flohr shows, left an enduring mark on Buber’s (...) inner life, attuning him to the fragility of human relations and the need to nurture them with what he would call a “dialogical attentiveness.” Buber’s philosophical and theological writings, most famously _I and Thou,_ made significant contributions to religious and Jewish thought, philosophical anthropology, biblical studies, political theory, and Zionism. In this accessible new biography, Mendes-Flohr situates Buber’s life and legacy in the intellectual and cultural life of German Jewry as well as in the broader European intellectual life of the first half of the twentieth century. (shrink)
Modern slavery is a major topic of concern in international law and global governance, in civil society, and in academic debates. Yet, what does modern slavery mean, and can its highly different forms be covered in a single concept? This paper discusses these questions in three steps: First, it develops common definitions of modern slavery. Second, it discusses critical rejections of these definitions. The two camps that adhere to the definitions of modern slavery, and that reject them, respectively, face certain (...) limits. In a third step, the paper takes up with the limits and the strengths of both. It suggests that the limits of definitions of modern slavery can be overcome by critical approaches; and that the limits of critical approaches can be overcome by definitions of modern slavery. The key is their integration into a human rights frame. Ultimately, the paper proposes an approach to modern slavery that neither relies on a binary distinction between slavery and non-slavery, nor does it strive for the abolishment of the concept of modern slavery. Rather, the paper calls for a normatively and contextually embedded approach within the human rights frame. (shrink)
_Mending the World_ provides a blueprint for making a difference in the intractable social issues that exist today. It presents the compelling drama of thirteen stories of people on the firing lines in countries in Africa, Europe, Scandinavia, as well as Brazil, Cambodia, North of Ireland, and the USA. The cases involve diverse real world issues, such as AIDS reduction, poverty, political conflict, natural disasters, and dilemmas in supporting the aged. The stories are framed by the editors with theory and (...) historical data, and offer the hope of effective change using Gestalt principles and methods. In these complex issues, you need unique skills to bring people together to work toward a common solution, and to empower yourselves to influence people with positional power, _Mending the World_ shows how use of these skills leads to high-impact outcomes. (shrink)
International studies investigate the governance authority of state versus non-state actors in terms of their public or private authority. However, the public–private distinction does not sufficiently capture the variety of governance actors, or the forms of their authority, beyond that distinction. Focussing on businesses, this paper argues that certain governance actors assume public and private roles, as well as a third category of roles it calls ‘societal’ that transcend notions of public and private. To understand these roles and how they (...) affect governance authority, this paper treats the public–private relationship as mediated and extends it with the ‘societal’ category, then translates it into the concept of business authority, which constitutes a particular form of governance authority alongside public and private authority. It does so by operationalising governance authority as a triadic concept composed of power, legitimacy and a connection to public interests. In all three components, business authority escapes the binary distinction between public and private without simply merging the two. (shrink)
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education, Volume 21, Issue 3, Page 223-239, July 2022. Contributing to the debate on decolonising the curriculum, this reflective article questions: What does a safe space in a decolonised classroom mean? For whom is it safe? And at what cost? Must we redraw the parameters of ‘safe’? Prompted by a real-life ‘n-word incident’ in the classroom, this article unpacks the collision of decolonising the curriculum to continue making teaching and learning more pluriversal and inclusive, with (...) the enactment of the ‘wounded attachments’ of identitarian politics and the playing of ‘Privilege or Oppression Olympics’. Using snippets from British parody and satire on decolonising the university, we query how far wokeness in a university setting can become political correctness taken to extremes that threaten decolonising efforts. In its concluding reflections, the article makes tentative recommendations for setting up safe spaces, away from self-silencing or censoring, and backing away from contention and provocation in the classroom. (shrink)
Heyes suggests that selective social learning comes in two varieties. One is common, domain general, and associative. The other is rare, domain specific, and metacognitive. We argue that this binary distinction cannot quite do the work she assigns it and sketch a framework in which additional strategies for selective social learning might be accommodated.
Neste trabalho, apresenta-se a análise das matrículas e da implementação da Lei Federal n. 12.711/2012, conhecida como Lei de Cotas e Ações Afirmativas, para ingresso nos Cursos Técnicos de Agropecuária e Informática na forma Integrada ao Ensino Médio, no Instituto Federal do Tocantins – Campus Dianópolis, no período de 2014 a 2018. A partir do estudo dessa Lei, do Decreto n. 7.824/2012, da Portaria Normativa do Ministério da Educação n. 18/2012 e dos editais publicados pelo Instituto, foi realizado um levantamento (...) do número de estudantes beneficiados pela Lei nos processos seletivos para ingresso nesses cursos, por meio dos dados do Sistema Integrado de Gestão Acadêmica. Ao analisar os editais e as matrículas, concluiu-se que, apesar da oferta de vagas prevista na Lei n. 12.711/2012, apenas nos anos de 2014 e 2015 houve alunos aprovados. Nos demais anos analisados, os estudantes não alcançaram a nota mínima para aprovação no vestibular. Assim, os alunos ingressantes pelo sistema de cotas, em 2014, compuseram a maioria dos que concluíram os cursos. (shrink)
The concept of faith has remained inscrutable to thinkers for centuries. The late Nathan Rotenstreich believed that faith was such a difficult topic for so many because of its inextricable links to theology and religion. _On Faith_, Rotenstreich's last work which was edited and prepared for publication by Paul Mendes-Flohr, attempts to detach the concept from its religious underpinnings and consider it in its own right, as a human phenomenon and cognitive attitude. Faith, Rotenstreich contends, should not be confused (...) with its historical manifestations. By making faith a philosophical rather than a theological matter, he explores its essence as an awareness of how we relate within mundane reality to all that is beyond the human world. Arguing for the intentionality of faith, Rotenstreich shows how it structures a variety of relations that range from the experience of the holy to the nature of cults, traditional religion, and the idea of servitude to God. Rotenstreich's phenomenological study will be of great importance for religious scholars as well as for philosophers. Nathan Rotenstreich was professor of philosophy at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. He was elected to the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, and his works include _Jews and German Philosophy_ and _Reason and Its Manifestations: A Study of Kant and Hegel_. (shrink)
La recesión económica mundial de 2008 afectó el nivel de bienestar, provocó que la acción de gobierno entrara en una severa crisis de legitimidad, con desafección política que deterioró la imagen democrática de los gobiernos. Por lo anterior, surge en la conversación pública el tema del Gobierno Abierto como una alternativa para mejorar el grado de gobernabilidad mediante la conducción transparente, inclusiva y colaborativa más allá del ámbito político, pues exige también un cambio en los valores y acciones bajo las (...) que están cimentadas las diversas interacciones entre los actores estatales y no estatales. El objetivo es realizar un diagnóstico sobre el grado de implementación de acciones y programas en el marco del GA en los municipios del Estado de México con mayor y menor Índice de Desarrollo Humano, considerando su índice de Capacidades Funcionales Municipales. La pregunta de investigación ¿Por qué unos municipios del Estado de México desarrollan con mayor éxito sus acciones encaminadas a promover el gobierno abierto y por qué otros no tanto? La recopilación de información y de valores, se realizó mediante la observación exhaustiva de los gobiernos municipales a través de sus páginas web y redes sociales entre los meses de febrero, marzo y abril de 2022, analizados con diversas técnicas estadísticas. La muestra fue de seis municipios del Estado de México, divididos en dos estratos: el primero, con Índice de Desarrollo Humano muy alto y, el segundo, con Índice bajo. Como resultado, se puede afirmar que el grado de gobierno abierto municipal está vinculado al Grado de Desarrollo Humano que han alcanzado las sociedades de los diversos municipios, dotando a sus gobiernos y ciudadanos de mayores recursos económicos y socioculturales, además del grado en el que se encuentra su Índice de Capacidades Funcionales Municipales. (shrink)
Logical omniscience states that the knowledge set of ordinary rational agents is closed for its logical consequences. Although epistemic logicians in general judge this principle unrealistic, there is no consensus on how it should be restrained. The challenge is conceptual: we must find adequate criteria for separating obvious logical consequences from non-obvious ones. Non-classical game-theoretic semantics has been employed in this discussion with relative success. On the one hand, with urn semantics , an expressive fragment of classical game semantics that (...) weakens the dependence relations between quantifiers occurring in a formula, we can formalize, for a broad array of examples, epistemic scenarios in which an individual ignores the validity of some first-order sentence. On the other hand, urn semantics offers a disproportionate restriction of logical omniscience. Therefore, an improvement of this system is needed to obtain a better solution of the problem. In this paper, I argue that our linguistic competence in using quantifiers requires a sort of basic hypothetical logical knowledge that can be formulated as follows: when inquiring after the truth-value of ∀xφ, an individual might be unaware of all substitutional instances this sentence accepts, but at least she must know that, if an element a is given, then ∀xφ holds only if φ is true. This thesis accepts game-theoretic formalization in terms of a refinement of urn semantics. I maintain that the system so obtained affords an improved solution of the logical omniscience problem. To do this, I characterize first-order theoremhood in US+. As a consequence of this result, we will see that the ideal reasoner depicted by US+ only knows the validity of first-order formulas whose Herbrand witnesses can be trivially found, a fact that provides strong evidence that our refinement of urn semantics captures a relevant sense of logical obviousness. (shrink)
The valence–space metaphor research area investigates the metaphorical mapping of valenced concepts onto space. Research findings from this area indicate that positive, neutral, and negative concepts are associated with upward, midward, and downward locations, respectively, in the vertical plane. The same research area has also indicated that such concepts seem to have no preferential location on the horizontal plane. The approach–avoidance effect consists in decreasing the distance between positive stimuli and the body and increasing the distance between negative stimuli and (...) the body. Thus, the valence–space metaphor accounts for the mapping of valenced concepts onto the vertical and horizontal planes, and the approach–avoidance effect accounts for the mapping of valenced concepts onto the “depth” plane. By using a cube conceived for the study of allocation of valenced concepts onto 3D space, we show in three studies that positive concepts are placed in upward locations and near the participants’ body, negative concepts are placed in downward locations and far from the participants’ body, and neutral concepts are placed in between these concepts in both planes. (shrink)
Mediante un examen crítico de los ensayos publicados en Ideas y Valores acerca de la filosofía de Ludwig Wittgenstein, el escrito busca establecer qué tan rica es nuestra asimilación del pensamiento de uno de los grandes filósofos de la historia, si tal trabajo muestra una evolución a lo largo del devenir de la revista y si el examen que hago aquí puede darnos algún indicio acerca de nuestro desarrollo filosófico. Finalmente, se hacen algunas breves consideraciones acerca de lo que significa (...) hacer filosofía desde la periferia y algunas posibles ventajas que eso tiene, así como señalar la necesidad de realizar una labor más colectiva. (shrink)
An article about the claims and reality of traditional spiritual and rational philosophy, how they have set back, damaged, and obstructed improvements of the human condition, and how we can overcome these impediments to a thriving existence and find a new beginning.
The sensible and conflicting scenario of the pandemic postulated many challenges to societies around the world in 2020. Part of this problem refers to how the differences between politics and science are not comprehended in their particularities. The recognition of limits and power of science and politics can not only contribute to reaching the actions and strategies facing novel coronavirus but also optimized many domains of society.
O autor realça a dicotomia entre asidéias de Homem e de Deus, igualmente enfocadaem J. P. Sartre e em Nietzsche. O conteúdo axiológicoem Deus contém a afirmação absoluta doHomem, logo, não são idéias contrárias, uma vezque o homem tende para Deus. As metas humanasestão contidas na idéias de Deus, portanto,não nos é lícito proclamar "a morte de Deus" antesque o homem se transforme em Deus...
O presente trabalho tem como objetivo fazer uma reflexão da ditadura civil militar brasileira com os conceitos filosóficos políticos de Giorgio Agamben. Procuramos analisar os conceitos de vida nua, estado de exceção e campo os quais serão elementos essências que nos permitirão fazer uma reflexão sobre a Ditadura civil militar brasileira sobre um ponto de vista filosófico político.
Metaphors are cognitive and linguistic tools that allow reasoning. They enable the understanding of abstract domains via elements borrowed from concrete ones. The underlying mechanism in metaphorical mapping is the manipulation of concepts. This article proposes another view on what concepts are and their role in metaphor and reasoning. That is, based on current neuroscientific and behavioural evidence, it is argued that concepts are grounded in perceptual and motor experience with physical and social environments. This definition of concepts is then (...) embedded in the Structure-Mapping Theory, a model for metaphorical processing and reasoning. The blended view of structure-mapping and embodied cognition offers an insight into the processes through which the target domain of a metaphor is embodied or realised in terms of its base domain. The implications of the proposed embodied SMT model are then discussed and future topics of investigation are outlined. (shrink)
I teach a workshop on mending and repair at a local haberdashery shop called RayStitch in North London, and I usually begin each session by describing how my interest started. It was because of a sweater that was all worn out and full of holes, with thin and threadbare knitting in its forearms. It had already been repaired in several places, and that repair was visible. The thick white sweater had belonged to my great-uncle Roland and had been mended over (...) the years by his sister, my great-aunt Elizabeth. My great-uncle was a painter, and in old age he used to sit with a board across the arms of his chair and lean forward drawing on paper taped to the board.Roly and Elizabeth.The sleeves on Roly's sweater... (shrink)
Aspects of phronetic social science and phronetic organization research have been much debated over the recent years. So far, the visual aspects of communicating phronesis have gained little attention. Still organizations try to convey a desirable image of respectability and success, both internally and externally to the public. A channel for such information is corporate reporting, and particularly CSR reporting embrace values like fairness, goodness, and sustainability. This study explores how visual portrayals of supposedly wise and discerning values (phronesis) are (...) used to reinforce the verbal features of CSR reporting. The two propositions underlying this study is (1) that visual images form some of the major parts of the structures of contemporary corporate reporting (particularly CSR reporting) and (2) that phronetic action in organizations is subjected not only to textual documentation, but also to visual expressions. This study also discusses how the Aristotelian concept of phronesis can be linked to contemporary concerns about responsibility, and how this is visually represented in CSR reporting. Finally, this study addresses the symbolic and contextual signification of images in corporate accounts of wisdom and responsibility. (shrink)
O Autor confronta as noções de pecado com os anseios da nova Axiologia. Ressalta os pecados sociais e os da essência estrutural, concluindo serem os pecados um afastamento entre o como-é, e o como-poderia ou deveria ser. A medida do pecado é a Afirmação, síntese dos valores contidos em Deus.
A obra cultural, política e social de Leonardo Coimbra é a temática principal deste livro. De permeio é dada nota dos grandes traços e momentos da história da Primeira República Portuguesa, isso na justa dimensão em que tal ajuda à contextualização e melhor compreensão do objecto principal. O estudo desta extraordinária e multifacetada personalidade – filósofo, homem de ciência, escritor, orador exímio, pedagogo, político – e a análise da sua relação crítica com os poderes instituídos durante o período histórico (...) em apreço, dá-nos conta da enorme distância entre os projectos e intenções do movimento republicano e a obra social efectivamente conseguida pelo regime, ao mesmo tempo que se retratam as vicissitudes e os condicionamentos que a um tal resultado conduziram. Republicano de todas as horas, Leonardo nunca deixou de verberar no republicanismo aquilo que considerava serem erros de essência e de forma, desde os postulados positivistas até às lutas fratricidas em que, insensatamente, se empenharam os filhos da República. Mas também a sua palavra, celebrando momentos de heroicidade, de união, de glória, sobretudo um tributo ao povo republicano, ao povo humilde das grandes cidades, que tão abnegadamente amou a República e por ela se bateu. Uma chamada de atenção para um trajecto espiritual percorrido por esta figura de livre-pensador que, pouco a pouco, se foi aproximando de um cristianismo católico, acabando por se converter oficialmente a esta fé, uma semana antes da sua trágica morte. Fica-nos, por fim, o conhecimento da obra cultural de Leonardo e a perpetuação da mesma, primeiramente através de uma geração de discípulos que, de perto, privou com o Mestre e depois os discípulos dos discípulos, ou seja, uma segunda geração de seguidores, todos unidos pela figura e pelo legado cultural de Leonardo Coimbra, a quem alguém chamou, com felicidade, “Mestre dos Mestres”. (shrink)
Fixing Frege is one of the most important investigations to date of Fregean approaches to the foundations of mathematics. In addition to providing an unrivalled survey of the technical program to which Frege's writings have given rise, the book makes a large number of improvements and clarifications. Anyone with an interest in the philosophy of mathematics will enjoy and benefit from the careful and well-informed overview provided by the first of its three chapters. Specialists will find the book an indispensable (...) reference and an invaluable source of insights and new results. Although Frege is widely regarded as the father of analytic philosophy, his work on the foundations of mathematics was for a long time rather peripheral to ongoing research. The main reason for this is no doubt Russell's discovery in 1901 that the paradox now bearing his name can be derived in Frege's logical system. But recent decades have seen a huge surge of interest in Fregean approaches to the foundations of mathematics. A variety of consistent theories have been discovered that can be salvaged from Frege's inconsistent system, and foundational and philosophical claims have been made on behalf of many of these theories. Burgess claims quite plausibly that the significance of any such modified Fregean theory will in large part depend on how much of ordinary mathematics it enables us to develop. His book is accordingly 'a survey of various modified Fregean systems, attempting to determine the scope and limits of each'. The book's agenda is thus predominantly technical, and its spirit open-minded and experimental. (shrink)
The goal of this work is writing about the importance of the poetic art, especially the tragedy to understand the psyche. The literature, besides showing an epoch, represents in a clear and poetic way the human conflicts. To reach this goal, we went through some literary works – Edipo King, by Sofocles, Hamlet and Macbeth by Shakespeare; Goriot Father by Balzac; Twenty Four Hours in a Woman’s Life by Stefan Zweig – extracting from them some fragments in which human sufferings (...) are explicit. We checked the importance of the speech in the emotions relief. We verified in the psychoanalytic and literary speeches that the poetic art seems to illuminate Freud’s steps in such a way that the poets anticipated the technical and psychoanalytic theory. (shrink)
Mathematical explanations are poorly understood. Although mathematicians seem to regularly suggest that some proofs are explanatory whereas others are not, none of the philosophical accounts of what such claims mean has become widely accepted. In this paper we explore Wilkenfeld’s suggestion that explanations are those sorts of things that generate understanding. By considering a basic model of human cognitive architecture, we suggest that existing accounts of mathematical explanation are all derivable consequences of Wilkenfeld’s ‘functional explanation’ proposal. We therefore argue that (...) the explanatory criteria offered by earlier accounts can all be thought of as features that make it more likely that a mathematical proof will generate understanding. On the functional account, features such as characterising properties, unification, and salience correlate with explanatoriness, but they do not define explanatoriness. (shrink)