A new construction of a certain conceptual space is presented. Elements of this conceptual space correspond to concept elements of reality, which potentially comprise an infinite number of qualities. This construction of a conceptual space solves a problem stated by Dietz and his co-authors in 2013 in the context of Voronoi diagrams. The fractal construction of the conceptual space is that this problem simply does not pose itself. The concept of convexity is discussed in this new conceptual space. Moreover, the (...) meaning of convexity is discussed in full generality, for example when space is deprived of it, its substitutes for concept domains are considered. (shrink)
Author: Mróz Tomasz Title: TWO IMAGES OF PLATO IN THE WORKS OF WŁADYSŁAW TATARKIEWICZ (Dwa wizerunki Platona w twórczości Władysława Tatarkiewicza) Source: Filo-Sofija year: 2011, vol:.13/14, number: 2011/2-3, pages: 535-557 Keywords: WŁADYSŁAW TATARKIEWICZ, PLATO, NEO-KANTIAN, PAUL NATORP, RECEPTION OF THE PLATO IN POLAND, THE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY IN THE 20TH CENTURY Discipline: PHILOSOPHY Language: POLISH Document type: ARTICLE Publication order reference (Primary author’s office address): E-mail: www:The paper discusses two different approaches of W. Tatarkiewicz to Plato and Platonism. As (...) a former student of the neo-Kantian school in Marburg he shared Paul Natorp’s reading of Plato’s theory of ideas. Tatarkiewicz expressed his agreement with Natorp’s interpretation of the ideas as laws and explanations, in a paper titled A Dispute about Plato (Spór o Platona, 1911). Twenty years later, however, while working on his academic textbook of the history of philosophy, Tatarkiewicz presented Plato’s philosophy in a more balanced manner. In his History of Philosophy two interpretations of the theory of ideas – traditional, Aristotelian and neo-Kantian – were both presented as well-founded. The differences between these two images of Plato in Tatarkiewicz’s works are emphasized. Moreover, some remarks on the reception of the neo-Kantian interpretation of Plato in Poland are presented, as well as the early reaction on the monumental Tatarkiewicz’s History of Philosophy. (shrink)
Artykuł poruszać będzie zagadnienia dotyczące sposobu definiowania artysty oraz istnienie artystów w kontekście historycznym, ontologicznym i filozoficznym. Autor rozważy także dylematy moralne i etyczne, dotyczące statusu dzieła, jak i problemy estetyczne odniesione do „standaryzacji” dzieł według wzorca produktów i języka biznesowego. Udowodni, że żaden współczesny człowiek w istocie nie potrafi zrobić „kanapki” jako jednostka. Wytwory artystyczne są w podobnej sytuacji. Status quo jest w procesie przewartościowania. W artykule postawiona będzie teza, że współczesny artysta jest nauczycielem, który stymuluje bądź angażuje działalność (...) osób – korzystając z nowych rozwiązań technologicznych – do powstających w sposób zbiorowy dzieł sztuki. Te nowe realia wymagają ogólnego dostępu do zasobów koniecznych dla nowego społeczeństwa. Rozwój technologii spowodował, że wśród artystów i odbiorców znacznie zradykalizował się sposób tworzenia i recepcji sztuki. Nie jest to bynajmniej tajemnicą, szczególnie biorąc pod uwagę konflikty między własnością autorską a prywatną (piractwo) oraz historię tego „problemu” – począwszy od pojawienia się prasy drukarskiej. W świetle nowej technologii nasuwa się pytanie, czy usiłujemy utrzymać przestarzały model? Czy komputer może być artystą? Czy może nim być tłum? A zwierzęta? Czy twory sztuki mogą być własnością publiczną? Co w przypadku powszechnego dostępu do edukacji artystycznej? Jaki paradygmat wprowadzić? Jaka powinna być polityka wobec zasobu energii kreatywnej? (shrink)
Aesthetics is thought of as not only a theory of art or beauty, but also includes sensibility, experience, judgment, and relationships. This paper is a study of Bernard Stiegler’s notion of Aesthetic War (stasis) and symbolic misery. Symbolic violence is ensued through a loss of individuation and participation in the creation of symbols. As a struggle between market values against spirit values human life and consciousness within neoliberal hyperindustrial society has become calculable, which prevents people from creating affective and meaningful (...) attachments to symbols in relation to our retentional apparatuses, technology and memory. Such tension can be thought of as a dissonance between overlapping domains of social life, private and public. New Media is a reflection of aesthetic dissonance, an experience such as being bored and entertained at the same time, between antagonistic experiences, values, and behavior. Moreover, new media is at once a medium of customizing aesthetic experience individually as well as the threat and practice of prioritizing calculability and modeling of consumer behavior in favor of capitalistic effectiveness, which results in the simultaneous categorization of an individual as a data point, putting those who do not fit an algorithm’s premises at a disadvantage. (shrink)
The dynamism between otherness and differences with identity and equivalence provides key ideas for analyzing the process of gender individuation by artistic works. In this article I discuss the problem of artistic and aesthetic reactions to homogeneous cultural patterns of masculinity, which is characterized by the concept of "toxic masculinity" in pop-cultural, sociological, psychological and gender studies discourses. One common theme is that "toxic masculinity" encompasses harmful standards that generate antagonisms and diminish multi-figure masculinity to a singular "socially acceptable" level (...) at the expense of children, women and men - and thus society as a whole. The artist's task is to reveal this noxiousness, and to highlight the value of the coexistence of a variety of forms of masculinity in terms of its diversity, thereby helping to mitigate the consequences of disruptive gender relations. (shrink)
By drawing on the philosophy of Bernard Stiegler, the phenomena of mechanical (a.k.a. artificial, digital, or electronic) intelligence is explored in terms of its real significance as an ever-repeating threat of the reemergence of stupidity (as cowardice), which can be transformed into knowledge (pharmacological analysis of poisons and remedies) by practices of care, through the outlook of what researchers describe equivocally as “artificial stupidity”, which has been identified as a new direction in the future of computer science and machine problem (...) solving as well as a new difficulty to be overcome. I weave together of web of “artificial stupidity”, which denotes the mechanic (1), the human (2), or the global (3). With regards to machine intelligence, artificial stupidity refers to: 1a) Weak A.I. or a rhetorical inversion of designating contemporary practices of narrow task-based procedures by algorithms in opposition to “True A.I.”; 1b) the restriction or employment of constraints that weaken the effectiveness of A.I., which is to say a “dumbing-down” of A.I. by intentionally introducing mistakes by programmers for safety concerns and human interaction purposes; 1c) the failure of machines to perform designated tasks; 1d) a lack of a noetic capacity, which is a lack of moral and ethical discretion; 1e) a lack of causal reasoning (true intelligence) as opposed to statistical associative “curve fitting”; or 2) the phenomenon of increasing human “stupidity” or drive-based behaviors, which is considered as the degradation of human intelligence and/or “intelligent human behavior” through technics; and finally, 3) the global phenomenon of increasing entropy due to a black-box economy of closed systems and/or industry consolidation. (shrink)
This paper focuses on the question of filtration through the perspective of “too much information”. It concerns Western society within the context of new media and digital culture. The main aim of this paper is to apply a philosophical reading on the video game concept of Selection for Societal Sanity within the problematics of cultural filtration, control of behaviors and desire, and a problematization of trans-individuation that the selected narrative conveys. The idea of Selection for Societal Sanity, which derives from (...) the first postmodern video game Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty (2001), is applied into a philosophical framework based on select concepts from Bernard Stiegler’s writing and incorporating them with current events such as post-truth or fake news in order to explore the role of techne and filtration within social organizations and individual psyches. Alternate forms of behavior, which contest cultural paradigms, are re-problematized as tension between calculability and incalculability, or market value versus social bonding. (shrink)
While drawing from the philosophy of Bernard Stiegler throughout the paper, I commence by highlighting Zoltan Istvan’s representation of transhumanism in the light of its role in politics. I continue by elaborating on the notion of the promise of eternal life. After that I differentiate between subjects that are proper for philosophy (such as the mind or whether life is worth living) and science (measurable and replicable). The arguments mostly concern mind-uploading and at the same time I elaborate on a (...) simple critique of mind-body dualism, which is one of the key imagined orders exploitable by technologies in the narratives of transhumanism present in popular culture. This is reframed as a problem of action. The focus of this article is on the claim that certain transhumanisms are dangerous forms of Neo-Darwinism. It comes from a critical assessment of capital and the exploitation of bodies through market forces. Entropy is a process of growing disorder, while neganthropy is an anthropological struggle against exploitation, not only of bodies, but of all ecosystems of the Earth. The arguments of Stiegler from a collection of lectures are recapitulated, and his claims are presented through the prism of transhuman narrative, with a particular focus on Christian Salmon's position in the book Storytelling: Bewitching the Modern Mind. (shrink)
This article presents a new approach to studying aesthetics by weaving together a thread of ideas based on investigating the problematics of the philosophy of art from a behavioral paradigm in order to exceed the margins of aesthetics. I claim that it makes no sense to ask if something is art, but rather we should be looking out into the manners in which art subsists, consists, and insists itself. Several notions of what I call behavioral aesthetics are proposed such as (...) observation, aesthetic experience and aesthetic conditioning, behavioral materialism, out-comes, behavioral memory and replication or acquisition, interaction and intra-action, emotional engineering, artificial instincts, aesthetic dissonance, and the problem of measurement. The proposed goal of behavioral aesthetics consists in studying the process of individuation as constitutive of art with the methods of Bernard Stiegler’s general organology and genealogy of the sensible. The article presents a behavioral stance as a borderline mode for approaching the genealogy of aesthetics. I mostly refer to Tania Bruguera’s Behavior Art School and Wright Judson’s Behavioral Art, and the paradigm of new materialism, notably agential realism of Karan Barad. (shrink)
The process of decision making is predictable and irrational according to Daniel Ariely and other economic behaviorists, historians, and philosophers such as Daniel Kahneman or Yuval Noah Harari. Decisions made anteriorly can be, but don’t have to be, present in the actions of a person. Stories and shared belief in myths, especially those that arise from a system of human norms and values and are based on a belief in a “supernatural” order (religion) are important. Because of this, mass cooperation (...) amongst strangers is possible. (shrink)
Seeing with Ears, Hearing with Eyes. How Technology Molds Synesthesia Within Us -/- The subject of consideration within this lecture is the contribution of existing scientific discoveries on the visual and musical connection within the perceptual plane. Points of reference are the studies of Amir Amedi, Jacob Jolij and Maaieke Meurs, Harry McGurk, as well as, the works of Iwona Sowińska, Roger Scruton, Oliver Sacks, and a cultural analysis of Joshua Bell’s performance. I will also consider how the senses effect (...) each other, pursuing the diversified reception of vision, which consists of the sense of hearing [sic!], on which I would like to focus attention. -/- Paper structure: Introduction to key concepts in the fields of research and development, The visual outlook on hearing, The aural perspective on vision, Relationships to related sciences, Summary of multimedia examples, An attempt to extend the “techno-view” to the auditory senses within synesthesia. (shrink)
Regarding the place of humans in a time of post-media I take into consideration the function of new technology and fictional information on human, embodied, and consequentially emotive forms of evaluating truth and messages conveyed, especially ones sent via the Internet. The main aim of this essay is to argue for the critical role played by post-media understood as digital technology in disseminating and co-creating post-truth conditions mediating human relationships horizontally (peer-to-peer, rather than vertically or from older generations to younger (...) ones) with each other and with information posted online. (shrink)
The attributes of gender in the media are disputable. This can be explained by a conflict generated by culturally acquired alternative imagined hierarchies which are not compatible or may be even contradictory. This article is a philosophical enquiry that examines the representation of gender and the environment in which it is conditioned.
This article regards the field of neuroscience and indicates on the proper or erroneous functioning of the human brain. Intellectual virtues, especially practical wisdom play a significant role in capturing the truth and implementing it in life. The agile formation of the cognitive function of man encompasses both his reason as well as the sensual judgment of utility with all the bodily backup. The brain possesses great plasticity in the production of neuronal connections. Habit as a permanent wont utilizes the (...) reactions being developed to the construction of often inappropriate mechanisms, that in turn are not easy or completely impossible to eliminate. When practical reason is introduced into a false ethos, the brain responds by forming “ruts” of neuronal connections which seem difficult to consider as something appropriate. The reparation of the existing situation and the removal of the wrong habit require relevant virtues so as to unblock the psychological resistance that is deeply rooted within the physiological neuronal substrate. The learning about the virtues of St. Thomas Aquinas is the best warranty not only for theoretical explanations, but also for the practical application of virtues in dealing with the arised situation. Only well-formed virtues give the opportunity to correct the false instinctive cognition and liberate from erroneous actions. (shrink)
This paper discusses an example of Scottish-Polish cooperation on research, undertaken at the turn of the twentieth century, into the dialogues and philosophy of Plato. Two scholars were involved in this research: the Scottish classical scholar and historian of ancient philosophy, Lewis Campbell, and the Polish Plato scholar and philosopher, Wincenty Lutosławski. Their research on the chronology of Plato's dialogues is analysed and the reception of their works discussed. The paper is enriched with some excerpts from their correspondence.
The relations between Russell and three Polish philosophers are considered. Each of them exchanged letters with Russell but their professional interests in philosophy, their meta-philosophical views and their worldviews profoundly varied. Nevertheless, Russell’s wide intellectual horizon enabled him to have fruitful discussions with each of them. Chwistek’s philosophical aim was to improve Russell’s theory of types but he failed to publish his own book in English with Russell’s preface and he never met Russell in person. The English philosopher, however, helped (...) Chwistek in obtaining the post at Lvov University. Lutosławski was unable to develop the professional philosophical discussion with Russell, whom he met at a philosophical congress, but he expressed positive opinion on the chapters on Plato in Russell’s History of Western Philosophy. This opinion was helpful for Russell in his further cooperation with the publishing house. The last of the Poles under discussion was Themerson, rather a writer, artist and a thinker than a philosopher. He met Russell after the WW II in London, while they both lived there. Themerson edited some minor works of Russell, who wrote a preface to Themerson’s novel. Their letters provide evidence that they shared general attitude towards religion, philosophy and the outlook on the world. Key words RUSSEL, CHWISTEK, LUTOSLAWSKI, THEMERSON. (shrink)
The study examined the importance of cognitive and emotional variables for state and trait forgiveness. One hundred and thirty nine participants completed six inventories in Polish version: HFS, TRIM, P-Scale, BHI-12, SUPIN, CECS. Results showed that dispositional forgiveness was associated with cognitive and emotional predictors, whereas episodic forgiveness primarily with certain emotional variables. In addition, the results indicated that emotional predictors merely participate in the process of reducing unforgiveness, whereas cognitive and emotional variables were shown to be necessary for full (...) forgiveness. (shrink)
The paper aims to clarify and develop some of the issues raised by S. Rudenko & S. Yosypenko who reviewed the author’s book Selected Issues in the History of Polish Philosophy. It focuses mostly on methodological questions in the historiography of national philosophies, and on interdisciplinary approach which is presented as useful and fruitful for researching less influential philosophical traditions.
RADIO ADAPTATION OF THE PLATO’S DIALOGUES’ TRANSLATED BY W. WITWICKI AND ITS RECEPTION AT H. JAKUBANIS’ PHILOSOPHICAL SEMINAR IN THE CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF LUBLIN S u m m a r y The paper presents a little-known episode in the reception of Plato’s dialogues in Polish culture in the interwar period, namely the radio adaptation of the dialogues. The adaptation was based on four dialogues: Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Phaedo, all of them translated by WMadysMaw Witwicki. This radio drama was very popular (...) and was broadcasted several times. Its popularity followed the fact that the forefront of the Polish actors interpreted the outstanding Polish texts delivered by Witwicki. The paper presents the reception of the four mentioned above dialogues by the professional readers, philologists and the classic languages’ teachers. The radio drama constitutes entirely separate field of the influence of Plato’s works. Radio made Plato’s Socrates accessible to the unprofessional wide audience. There was, however, a peculiar case of reception of the radio drama among the listeners. It was applied for the didactic purposes by Henryk Jakubanis at his philosophical seminar which was carried in the interwar period in the Catholic University of Lublin. (shrink)
Zapoznanie się z nieznanym tekstem filozoficznym zawsze budzi u historyka emocje, wiąże się z poznaniem nowego fragmentu historycznej rzeczywistości, rzuceniem nowego światła na obraz przeszłości, jaki był dotychczas niedostępny. Z pewnością takim tekstem jest Metafizyka W. Lutosławskiego. Warto zadać sobie zatem pytanie, co nowo wydany tekst wnosi do naszej wiedzy o filozofie, jego poglądach, filozoficznej ewolucji, do obrazu filozofii polskiej w XX wieku. Lutosławski, znany jako badacz chronologii Platońskich dialogów, w Polsce był postrzegany przez pryzmat swojej nie zawsze konwencjonalnej działalności (...) pedagogicznej. Był także jednym z ostatnich, którzy z uniwersyteckiej katedry głosili filozofię polskiego mesjanizmu narodowego. Jak wskazuje Metafizyka, Lutosławski pozostał tej filozofii wierny do końca swoich dni, jednak będąc zorientowanym w filozoficznych prądach swojego czasu potrafił filozofię mesjanizmu twórczo przeformułowywać. (shrink)
The present paper examined how Polish philosophers, historians and classicists understood and interpreted Plato’s Euthyphro in the 19th century. The article provides evidence for a twofold interest that Polish readers had for the dialogue in this period. Firstly, Catholic thinkers focused on the ethical issues of the dialogue and supported the revival of the Scholasticism, confirming, at the same time, the vitality of Plato’s thought. Secondly, the text of Plato’s opusculum was a convenient didactic material for various teachers of the (...) Greek language: while the Euthyphro gave them the opportunity to raise ethical and logical issues, they also taught philosophy on the basis of this dialogue. (shrink)
This paper assumes that aesthetic judgements are irrational in nature. Judges and music experts often provide us with a description of their experiences as well as assessments, and thus set standards for beauty and skill. These assessments have an axionormative character. They can be evaluated by analyzing the statements made which describe the subjective and individual experiences that justify the judgment, or with the methods of heterophenomenology - proposed by Daniel Dennett - as well as through an analysis of cognitive (...) biases in thinking. At the same time, irrationalism is systemic rather than arbitrary or irrational assessments are repetitive and predictable. Narrowing the issues to the problem of decision making, I discuss ideas on resolving the beauty of musical works - or more precisely criteria for assessing the medium for the work, which is the performer. I use results from behavioral economics, according to which man is an irrational animal. In this context, this paper is an attempt to draw a similar discipline of "behavioral aesthetics" in music. -/- Aksjologia muzyki: systemowy irracjonalizm w ocenach wykonań muzycznych -/- Praca opiera się na założeniu, że oceny estetyczne mają irracjonalny charakter. Jury i eksperci muzyki często udostępniają nam opis swoich przeżyć oraz oceny i tym samym wyznaczają standardy piękna i umiejętności. Oceny te mają aksjonormatywny charakter. Można je badać analizując wypowiedzi, które opisują subiektywne i jednostkowe przeżycia jako uzasadnienia osądu, czyli poprzez metody heterofenomenologii - proponowane przez Daniela Dennetta - jak również poprzez analizę błędów poznawczych w myśleniu. Jednocześnie irracjonalizm ten jest raczej systemowy aniżeli arbitralny, czyli irracjonalne oceny są powtarzalne i przewidywalne. Zawężając problematykę do zagadnienia decyzji, omawiam koncepcje dotyczące rozstrzygnięcia piękna dzieł muzycznych – a ściślej: kryteriów oceny medium przekazywania utworów, jakim jest wykonawca. Korzystam z dorobku nurtu ekonomii behawioralnej, w ramach którego zakłada się, że człowiek jest irracjonalnym zwierzęciem. W tym kontekście niniejsza praca jest próbą zarysowania analogicznej „estetyki behawioralnej” na przykładzie muzyki. (shrink)