Results for 'Simone M. Naber'

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  1.  14
    Impact of moral case deliberation in healthcare settings: a literature review.Maaike M. Haan, Jelle L. P. van Gurp, Simone M. Naber & A. Stef Groenewoud - 2018 - BMC Medical Ethics 19 (1):85.
    An important and supposedly impactful form of clinical ethics support is moral case deliberation. Empirical evidence, however, is limited with regard to its actual impact. With this literature review, we aim to investigate the empirical evidence of MCD, thereby a) informing the practice, and b) providing a focus for further research on and development of MCD in healthcare settings. A systematic literature search was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, CINAHL and Web of Science. Both the data collection and the (...)
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  2.  10
    Guidance systems: from autonomous directives to legal sensor-bilities.Simon M. Taylor & Marc De Leeuw - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (2):521-534.
    The design of collaborative robotics, such as driver-assisted operations, engineer a potential automation of decision-making predicated on unobtrusive data gathering of human users. This form of ‘somatic surveillance’ increasingly relies on behavioural biometrics and sensory algorithms to verify the physiology of bodies in cabin interiors. Such processes secure cyber-physical space, but also register user capabilities for control that yield data as insured risk. In this technical re-formation of human–machine interactions for control and communication ‘a dissonance of attribution’ :7684, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1805770115) (...)
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  3.  2
    The Probabilistic Foundations of Rational Learning.Simon M. Huttegger - 2017 - Cambridge University Press.
    According to Bayesian epistemology, rational learning from experience is consistent learning, that is learning should incorporate new information consistently into one's old system of beliefs. Simon M. Huttegger argues that this core idea can be transferred to situations where the learner's informational inputs are much more limited than Bayesianism assumes, thereby significantly expanding the reach of a Bayesian type of epistemology. What results from this is a unified account of probabilistic learning in the tradition of Richard Jeffrey's 'radical probabilism'. Along (...)
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  4.  38
    Simon, M. „Über Mathematik“.Max Simon - 1908 - Kant Studien 13 (1-3).
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  5.  23
    Genetic Nature/Culture: Anthropology and Science beyond the Two-Culture Divide. Edited by Alan H. Goodman, Deborah Heath & M. Susan Lindee. Pp. 328. (University of California Press, Berkeley, 2003.) £16.95, ISBN 0-520-23793-5, paperback. [REVIEW]Simon M. Outram - 2006 - Journal of Biosocial Science 38 (3):427-429.
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  6.  79
    Evolution and the explanation of meaning.Simon M. Huttegger - 2007 - Philosophy of Science 74 (1):1-27.
    Signaling games provide basic insights into some fundamental questions concerning the explanation of meaning. They can be analyzed in terms of rational choice theory and in terms of evolutionary game theory. It is argued that an evolutionary approach provides better explanations for the emergence of simple communication systems. To substantiate these arguments, I will look at models similar to those of Skyrms (2000) and Komarova and Niyogi (2004) and study their dynamical properties. My results will lend partial support to the (...)
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  7.  36
    Merging of opinions and probability kinematics.Simon M. Huttegger - 2015 - Review of Symbolic Logic 8 (4):611-648.
    We explore the question of whether sustained rational disagreement is possible from a broadly Bayesian perspective. The setting is one where agents update on the same information, with special consideration being given to the case of uncertain information. The classical merging of opinions theorem of Blackwell and Dubins shows when updated beliefs come and stay closer for Bayesian conditioning. We extend this result to a type of Jeffrey conditioning where agents update on evidence that is uncertain but solid. However, merging (...)
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  8.  5
    Animal Innovation.Simon M. Reader & Kevin N. Laland (eds.) - 2003 - Oxford University Press.
    Many animals will invent new behaviour patterns, adjust established behaviours to a novel context, or respond to stresses in an appropriate and novel manner. This is the first ever book on the topic of 'animal innovation'. Bringing together leading scientific authorities on animal and human innovation, this book will put the topic of animal innovation on the map, and heighten awareness of this developing field.
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  9.  62
    Evolutionary Explanations of Indicatives and Imperatives.Simon M. Huttegger - 2007 - Erkenntnis 66 (3):409-436.
    Recently there has been some interest in studying the explanation of meaning by using signaling games. I shall argue that the meaning of signals in signaling games remains sufficiently unclear to motivate further investigation. In particular, the possibility of distinguishing imperatives and indicatives at a fundamental level will be explored. Thereby I am trying to preserve the generality of the signaling games framework while bringing it closer to human languages. A number of convergence results for the evolutionary dynamics of our (...)
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  10.  75
    In Defense of Reflection.Simon M. Huttegger - 2013 - Philosophy of Science 80 (3):413-433.
    I discuss two ways of justifying reflection principles. First, I propose that an undogmatic reading of dynamic Dutch book arguments provides them with a sound foundation. Second, I show also that minimizing expected inaccuracy leads to a novel argument for reflection principles. The required inaccuracy measures comprise a natural class of functions that can be derived from a generalization of a condition known as propriety or immodesty. This shows that reflection principles are an essential feature not just of consistent degrees (...)
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  11. Methodology in Biological Game Theory.Simon M. Huttegger & Kevin J. S. Zollman - 2013 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (3):637-658.
    Game theory has a prominent role in evolutionary biology, in particular in the ecological study of various phenomena ranging from conflict behaviour to altruism to signalling and beyond. The two central methodological tools in biological game theory are the concepts of Nash equilibrium and evolutionarily stable strategy. While both were inspired by a dynamic conception of evolution, these concepts are essentially static—they only show that a population is uninvadable, but not that a population is likely to evolve. In this article, (...)
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  12.  92
    Ethical considerations in the framing of the cognitive enhancement debate.Simon M. Outram - 2011 - Neuroethics 5 (2):173-184.
    Over the past few years the use of stimulants such as methylphenidate and modafinil among the student population has attracted considerable debate in the pages of bioethics journals. Under the rubric of cognitive enhancement, bioethicists have discussed this use of stimulants—along with future technologies of enhancement—and have launched a sometimes forceful debate of such practices. In the following paper, it is argued that even if we focus solely upon current practices, the term cognitive enhancement encompasses a wide range of ethical (...)
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  13.  24
    Analogical Predictive Probabilities.Simon M. Huttegger - 2019 - Mind 128 (509):1-37.
    It is well known that Rudolf Carnap’s original system of inductive logic failed to provide an adequate account of analogical reasoning. Since this problem was identified, there has been no shortage of proposals for how to incorporate analogy into inductive inference. Most alternatives to Carnap’s system, unlike his original one, have not been derived from first principles; this makes it to some extent unclear what the epistemic situations are to which they apply. This paper derives a new analogical inductive logic (...)
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  14.  8
    Bradley Conditionals and Dynamic Choice.Simon M. Huttegger & Gerard J. Rothfus - 2021 - Synthese 199 (3-4):6585-6599.
    One of the main contributions of Richard Bradley’s book is an elegant extension of Jeffrey’s Logic of Decision that countenances the evaluation of conditional prospects. This extension offers a promising new setting in which to model dynamic choice. In Bradley’s framework, plans can be understood as conditionals of an appropriate sort, while dynamic consistency can be viewed as providing a constraint on the evaluation of conditionals across time. In this paper, we study connections between planning conditionals and dynamic consistency.
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  15.  41
    Learning experiences and the value of knowledge.Simon M. Huttegger - 2014 - Philosophical Studies 171 (2):279-288.
    Generalized probabilistic learning takes place in a black-box where present probabilities lead to future probabilities by way of a hidden learning process. The idea that generalized learning can be partially characterized by saying that it doesn’t foreseeably lead to harmful decisions is explored. It is shown that a martingale principle follows for finite probability spaces.
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  16.  36
    Dynamic stability and basins of attraction in the Sir Philip Sidney game.Simon M. Huttegger & Kevin J. S. Zollman - unknown
    We study the handicap principle in terms of the Sir Philip Sidney game. The handicap principle asserts that cost is required to allow for honest signalling in the face of conflicts of interest. We show that the significance of the handicap principle can be challenged from two new directions. Firstly, both the costly signalling equilibrium and certain states of no communication are stable under the replicator dynamics ; however, the latter states are more likely in cases where honest signalling should (...)
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  17.  16
    Rethinking Convergence to the Truth.Simon M. Huttegger - 2022 - Journal of Philosophy 119 (7):380-403.
    The Bayesian theorem on convergence to the truth states that a rational inquirer believes with certainty that her degrees of belief capture the truth about a large swath of hypotheses with increasing evidence. This result has been criticized as showcasing a problematic kind of epistemic immodesty when applied to infinite hypotheses that can never be approximated by finite evidence. The central point at issue—that certain hypotheses may forever be beyond the reach of a finite investigation no matter how large one’s (...)
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  18.  20
    Generalized Learning and Conditional Expectation.Simon M. Huttegger & Michael Nielsen - 2020 - Philosophy of Science 87 (5):868-883.
    Reflection and martingale principles are central to models of rational learning. They can be justified in a variety of ways. In what follows we study martingale and reflection principles in the con...
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  19.  28
    Bayesian Convergence to the Truth and the Metaphysics of Possible Worlds.Simon M. Huttegger - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (4):587-601.
    In a recent paper, Belot argues that Bayesians are epistemologically flawed because they believe with probability 1 that they will learn the truth about observational propositions in the limit. While Belot’s considerations suggest that this result should be interpreted with some care, the concerns he raises can largely be defused by putting convergence to the truth in the context of learning from an arbitrarily large but finite number of observations.
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  20.  59
    Probe and Adjust in Information Transfer Games.Simon M. Huttegger, Brian Skyrms & Kevin J. S. Zollman - 2014 - Erkenntnis 79 (S4):1-19.
    We study a low-rationality learning dynamics called probe and adjust. Our emphasis is on its properties in games of information transfer such as the Lewis signaling game or the Bala-Goyal network game. These games fall into the class of weakly better reply games, in which, starting from any action profile, there is a weakly better reply path to a strict Nash equilibrium. We prove that probe and adjust will be close to strict Nash equilibria in this class of games with (...)
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  21.  40
    The Handicap Principle Is an Artifact.Simon M. Huttegger, Justin P. Bruner & Kevin J. S. Zollman - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (5):997-1009.
    The handicap principle is one of the most influential ideas in evolutionary biology. It asserts that when there is conflict of interest in a signaling interaction signals must be costly in order to be reliable. While in evolutionary biology it is a common practice to distinguish between indexes and fakable signals, we argue this dichotomy is an artifact of existing popular signaling models. Once this distinction is abandoned, we show one cannot adequately understand signaling behavior by focusing solely on cost. (...)
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  22.  49
    Robustness in signaling games.Simon M. Huttegger - 2007 - Philosophy of Science 74 (5):839-847.
    The spontaneous emergence of signaling has already been studied in terms of standard evolutionary dynamics of signaling games. Standard evolutionary dynamics is given by the replicator equations. Thus, it is not clear whether the results for standard evolutionary dynamics depend crucially on the functional form of the replicator equations. In this paper I show that the basic results for the replicator dynamics of signaling games carry over to a number of other evolutionary dynamics. ‡This research was supported by the Konrad (...)
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  23.  14
    Easy on the mind, easy on the wrongdoer: Discrepantly fluent violations are deemed less morally wrong.Simon M. Laham, Adam L. Alter & Geoffrey P. Goodwin - 2009 - Cognition 112 (3):462-466.
  24.  11
    A meta-analysis of the facilitation of arm flexion and extension movements as a function of stimulus valence.Simon M. Laham, Yoshihisa Kashima, Jennifer Dix & Melissa Wheeler - 2015 - Cognition and Emotion 29 (6):1069-1090.
  25. Environmental variability and primate behavioural flexibility.Simon M. Reader & Katharine MacDonald - 2003 - In Simon M. Reader & Kevin N. Laland (eds.), Animal Innovation. Oxford University Press.
     
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  26.  19
    Elaborated contextual framing is necessary for action-based attitude acquisition.Simon M. Laham, Yoshihisa Kashima, Jennifer Dix, Melissa Wheeler & Bianca Levis - 2014 - Cognition and Emotion 28 (6):1119-1126.
  27.  53
    Anthropological insights into the use of race/ethnicity to explore genetic contributions to disparities in health.Simon M. Outram & George T. H. Ellison - 2006 - Journal of Biosocial Science 38 (1):83-102.
    Anthropological insights into the use of race/ethnicity to explore genetic contributions to disparities in health were developed using in-depth qualitative interviews with editorial staff from nineteen genetics journals, focusing on the methodological and conceptual mechanisms required to make race/ethnicity a genetic variable. As such, these analyses explore how and why race/ethnicity comes to be used in the context of genetic research, set against the background of continuing critiques from anthropology and related human sciences that focus on the social construction, structural (...)
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  28. Assessing Latour: The case of the sickle cell body in history.Simon M. Dyson - 2019 - European Journal of Social Theory 22 (2):212-230.
    The work of Bruno Latour has animated debates in sociology, anthropology and philosophy over several decades, while attracting criticisms of the ontological, epistemological and political implications of his focus on networks. This article takes a particular depth example – the case of the genetic condition of sickle cell – and, drawing upon anthropological, archaeological and sociological evidence of the sickle cell body in history, appraises early, and later, Latourian ideas. The article concludes that while methodologically useful in drawing attention to (...)
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  29.  38
    How Much Rationality Do We Need to Explain Conventions?Simon M. Huttegger - 2014 - Philosophy Compass 9 (1):11-21.
    This article surveys the main philosophical and formal ideas revolving around language as being conventional from the perspective of game theory. For very basic situations, this leads to a coherent view of conventions that offers interesting insights. Although there exist many open problems, this article will argue by outlining partial solution attempts that there is no principled reason for not applying methods from game theory to them.
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  30. Generic Properties of Evolutionary Games and Adaptationism.Simon M. Huttegger - 2010 - Journal of Philosophy 107 (2):80-102.
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  31.  59
    Evo-devo, modularity, and evolvability: Insights for cultural evolution.Simon M. Reader - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (4):361-362.
    Evolutionary developmental biology (“evo-devo”) may provide insights and new methods for studies of cognition and cultural evolution. For example, I propose using cultural selection and individual learning to examine constraints on cultural evolution. Modularity, the idea that traits vary independently, can facilitate evolution (increase “evolvability”), because evolution can act on one trait without disrupting another. I explore links between cognitive modularity, evolutionary modularity, and cultural evolvability. (Published Online November 9 2006).
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  32.  74
    Efficient social contracts and group selection.Simon M. Huttegger & Rory Smead - 2011 - Biology and Philosophy 26 (4):517-531.
    We consider the Stag Hunt in terms of Maynard Smith’s famous Haystack model. In the Stag Hunt, contrary to the Prisoner’s Dilemma, there is a cooperative equilibrium besides the equilibrium where every player defects. This implies that in the Haystack model, where a population is partitioned into groups, groups playing the cooperative equilibrium tend to grow faster than those at the non-cooperative equilibrium. We determine under what conditions this leads to the takeover of the population by cooperators. Moreover, we compare (...)
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  33. Learning to transfer information.Simon M. Huttegger & Brian Skyrms - forthcoming - Studia Logica.
  34.  31
    Probe and Adjust.Simon M. Huttegger - 2013 - Biological Theory 8 (2):195-200.
    How can players reach a Nash equilibrium? I offer one possible explanation in terms of a low-rationality learning method called probe and adjust by proving that it converges to strict Nash equilibria in an important class of games. This demonstrates that decidedly limited learning methods can support Nash equilibrium play.
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  35.  47
    Causes of Individual Differences in Animal Exploration and Search.Simon M. Reader - 2015 - Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (3):451-468.
    Numerous studies have documented individual differences in exploratory tendencies and other phenomena related to search, and these differences have been linked to fitness. Here, I discuss the origins of these differences, focusing on how experience shapes animal search and exploration. The origin of individual differences will also depend upon the alternatives to exploration that are available. Given that search and exploration frequently carry significant costs, we might expect individuals to utilize cues indicating the potential net payoffs of exploration versus the (...)
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  36.  4
    Eye-Closure Enhances Creative Performance on Divergent and Convergent Creativity Tasks.Simone M. Ritter, Jens Abbing & Hein T. van Schie - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  37.  28
    Inductive Learning in Small and Large Worlds.Simon M. Huttegger - 2017 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 95 (1):90-116.
  38.  68
    Emergence of Information Transfer by Inductive Learning.Simon M. Huttegger & Brian Skyrms - 2008 - Studia Logica 89 (2):237-256.
    We study a simple game theoretic model of information transfer which we consider to be a baseline model for capturing strategic aspects of epistemological questions. In particular, we focus on the question whether simple learning rules lead to an efficient transfer of information. We find that reinforcement learning, which is based exclusively on payoff experiences, is inadequate to generate efficient networks of information transfer. Fictitious play, the game theoretic counterpart to Carnapian inductive logic and a more sophisticated kind of learning, (...)
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  39.  14
    Emergence of a Signaling Network with Probe and Adjust.Brian Skyrms & Simon M. Huttegger - 2013 - In Kim Sterelny, Richard Joyce, Brett Calcott & Ben Fraser (eds.), Cooperation and its Evolution. MIT Press. pp. 265.
  40.  15
    Experiential effects on mirror systems and social learning: Implications for social intelligence.Simon M. Reader - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (2):217-218.
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  41.  28
    The limits of chimpanzee-human comparisons for understanding human cognition.Simon M. Reader & Steven M. Hrotic - 2012 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (4):238-239.
    Evolutionary questions require specialized approaches, part of which are comparisons between close relatives. However, to understand the origins of human tool behavior, comparisons with solely chimpanzees are insufficient, lacking the power to identify derived traits. Moreover, tool use is unlikely a unitary phenomenon. Large-scale comparative analyses provide an alternative and suggest that tool use co-evolves with a suite of cognitive traits.
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  42.  3
    Invariance and Symmetry in Evolutionary Dynamics.Simon M. Huttegger, Hannah Rubin & Kevin J. S. Zollman - 2021 - American Philosophical Quarterly 58 (1):63-78.
    The concept of fitness is central to evolutionary biology. Models of evolutionary change typically use some quantity called “fitness” which measures an organism’s reproductive success. But what exactly does it mean that fitness is such a measure? In what follows, we look at the interplay between abstract evolutionary models and quantitative measures of fitness and develop a measurement-theoretic perspective on fitness in order to explore what makes certain measures of fitness significant.
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  43. Athlete Experiences of Shame and Guilt: Initial Psychometric Properties of the Athletic Perceptions of Performance Scale Within Junior Elite Cricketers.Simon M. Rice, Matt S. Treeby, Lisa Olive, Anna E. Saw, Alex Kountouris, Michael Lloyd, Greg Macleod, John W. Orchard, Peter Clarke, Kate Gwyther & Rosemary Purcell - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Guilt and shame are self-conscious emotions with implications for mental health, social and occupational functioning, and the effectiveness of sports practice. To date, the assessment and role of athlete-specific guilt and shame has been under-researched. Reporting data from 174 junior elite cricketers, the present study utilized exploratory factor analysis in validating the Athletic Perceptions of Performance Scale, assessing three distinct and statistically reliable factors: athletic shame-proneness, guilt-proneness, and no-concern. Conditional process analysis indicated that APPS shame-proneness mediated the relationship between general (...)
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  44.  23
    Review of Allen Buchanan, Better than Human: The Promise and Perils of Enhancing Ourselves 1. [REVIEW]Simon M. Outram - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (3):43-45.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 12, Issue 3, Page 43-45, March 2012.
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  45. SIMON, M. A. "Understanding Human Action". [REVIEW]R. Harré - 1983 - Mind 92:453.
     
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  46.  27
    Selection at Multiple Levels. [REVIEW]Simon M. Huttegger - 2007 - Biological Theory 2 (4):429-431.
  47.  7
    Should nutritional supplements and sports drinks companies sponsor sport? A short review of the ethical concerns.Simon M. Outram & Bob Stewart - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (6):447-450.
  48.  13
    What shapes social decision making?Simon M. Reader & Ioannis Leris - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (1):96-97.
  49.  20
    Environmentally invoked innovation and cognition.Simon M. Reader - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (4):420-421.
    Behavioral innovations induced by the social or physical environment are likely to be of great functional and evolutionary importance, and thus warrant serious attention. Innovation provides a process by which animals can adjust to changed environments. Despite this apparent adaptive advantage, it is not known whether innovative propensities are adaptive specializations. Furthermore, the varied psychological processes underlying innovation remain poorly understood.
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  50.  28
    Strategic Interaction in Humans and Other Animals.Simon M. Huttegger & Brian Skyrms - 2013 - Biological Theory 8 (2):125-126.
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