The classic formulation of situationethics in the 1960s was the result of the contention that the deductive application of general rules and principles in ethics was inherently flawed by the uniqueness of every situation. Quite often, ethical problems are problems precisely because existing rules do not apply four square to the singular situation at hand. There is a need, the argument ran, to assert the primacy of the special situation and to formulate a (...) resolution of the unsettling circumstances appropriately attuned to it. Situationethics is, in a sense, a moral theory equivalent to case law in a legal system devoid of rule by law. (shrink)
Unlike research ethics committees, which were created in 1988, the number of functioning hospital based ethical organisations in France, such as clinical ethics committees, is unknown. The objectives of such structures are diverse. A recent law created regional ethical forums, the objectives of which are education, debate, and research in relation to healthcare ethics. This paper discusses the current situation in France and the possible evolution and conflicts induced by this law. The creation of official healthcare (...)ethics structures raises several issues. (shrink)
This research presents findings from a study of gender-based differences in an ethical decision situation. The study focuses on gender as it relates to situational factors and accounting experience. The primary element of interest is how the gender of the actor (the person described in each vignette) influences the evaluation/assessment of the ethical/unethical decisions. While previous research has provided evidence of ethical differences relating to the gender of the responding subjects, limited evidence has been presented relating to situational issues (...) that may influence assessments of ethical decisions.This research uses four accounting environment vignettes to survey the responses of accountants and accounting students to the ethical/unethical nature of the actions that are taken. In addition, how likely the accountants believe they are to take the same actions is also surveyed. The subjects are a representative sample of practicing accountants in the U.S. and senior/graduate accounting majors at a state university in the southwestern United States. (shrink)
This paper discusses the views of 17 healthcare practitioners involved with transplantation on the ethics of live liver donations . Donations between emotionally related donor and recipients increased the acceptability of an LLD compared with those between strangers. Most healthcare professionals disapproved of altruistic stranger donations, considering them to entail an unacceptable degree of risk taking. Participants tended to emphasise the need to balance the harms of proceeding against those of not proceeding, rather than calculating the harm-to-benefits ratio of (...) donor versus recipient. Participants’ views suggested that a complex process of negotiation is required, which respects the autonomy of donor, recipient and HCP. Although they considered that, of the three, donor autonomy is of primary importance, they also placed considerable weight on their own autonomy. Our participants suggest that their opinions about acceptable risk taking were more objective than those of the recipient or donor and were therefore given greater weight. However, it was clear that more subjective values were also influential. Processes used in live kidney donation were thought to be a good model for LLD, but our participants stressed that there is a danger that patients may underestimate the risks involved in LLD if it is too closely associated with LKD. (shrink)
The article examines reasons and features of the Italian bioethics movement in itself and in relationship to that in the U.S.A. Research, consultation, teaching are the most requested professional activities. Ethics committees are now established in several places and at different level: national (National Italian Committee for Bioethics), regional (Italy has about twenty regions with some political power), and institutional (research centers, university, main hospitals).
Herbert McCabe, OP (d. 2001), was a significant theological figure in England in the last century. A scholar of Aquinas, he was also influenced by Wittgenstein and Marx, his reading of whom helped him articulate a distinctive Thomistic account of human embodiment that serves as a critique of other dominant approaches in ethics. This article shows McCabe's contribution to moral theology by placing his work in conversation with other important approaches, namely, situationethics, proportionalism, and the New (...) Natural Law Theory. (shrink)
Principles and the context, by J. C. Bennett.--Love monism, by J. M. Gustafson.--Responsibility in freedom, by E. C. Gardner.--The new morality, by G. Fackre.--When love becomes excarnate, by H. L. Smith.--Situational morality, by R. W. Gleason.--The nature of heresy, by G. Kennedy.--Situationethics under fire, by J. Fletcher.
The moral ideology of banking and insurance employees in Spain was examined along with supervisor role modeling and ethics-related policies and procedures for their association with ethical behavioral intent. In addition to main effects, we found evidence supporting that the person–situation interactionist perspective in supervisor role modeling had a stronger positive relationship with ethical intention among employees with relativist moral ideology. Also as hypothesized, formal ethical polices and procedures were positively related to ethical intention among those with universal (...) beliefs, but the relationship was much weaker among relativists. Thus, firms wishing to optimally promote ethical attitudes and behavior must tailor their organization-based initiatives to the individual characteristics of their employees. (shrink)
The book develops the notion of situated ethics and explores how ethical issues are practically handled by educational researchers in the field. Contributors present theoretical models and practical examples of what situated ethics involves in conducting research on specific areas.
Phänomenologie intendiert allgemein eine Beschreibung und intersubjektiv nachvollziehbare Analyse der in einer konkreten Situation sich erschließenden Phänomene des menschlichen Bewußtseins. Klinische Phänomenologie hat darüber hinaus die therapeutische Situation zu berücksichtigen. Im Folgenden wird die These vertreten, daß die psychische Verfassung eines Menschen niemals allein aufgrund einer rein phänomenologischen Analyse auf alle praktisch und therapeutisch relevanten Konsequenzen hin ergründet werden kann. Das kann insbesondere dann nicht der Fall sein, wenn sich solche Konsequenzen aus einem außerhalb der konkreten Situation (...) gewonnenen, empirisch verallgemeinerbaren psychopathologischen Wissen ergeben. Die Integration wird am ehesten dadurch ermöglicht, dass in einer vorausgehenden Analyse der therapeutischen Situation unterschiedliche "Sinnebenen" beachtet werden. Mit einem solchen klinisch-phänomenologischen Ansatz ist die reine Phänomenologie der Bewußtseinsphänomene überschritten, jedoch ergibt sich eben dadurch die Möglichkeit, die jeder praxisbezogenen Wissenschaft inhärenten "Aporien der praktischen Vernunft" darzulegen. Ohne eine solche vorausgehende Analyse der therapeutischen Situation bleibt die Gefahr einer subjektivitischen oder auch objektivistischen Vereinseitigung der Positionen bestehen, wie wir sie aus der jüngeren Psychiatriegeschichte kennen. Um eine Urteils-, Entscheidungs- und Handlungskompetenz im Bereich der klinischen Psychiatrie zu gewährleisten, bedarf es zusätzlich ethischer Maßstäbe und Kriterien, die sich auf der Grundlage eines von dogmatischen Vorstellungen freien Menschenbildes begründen lassen. (shrink)
Public accounting in the United States is generally guided by the Code of Professional Conduct of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA). It has been suggested that education in understanding and accepting their ethical code would increase accountants' adherence and ethicality.This study was designed to examine the level of consensus to AICPA ethical standards by accounting students (ethical orientation). Situationethics provided the theoretical rationale for this study.
In spite of the wide variety of approaches to ethics training it is still debatable which approach has the highest potential to enhance professionals’ integrity. The current effort assesses a novel curriculum that focuses on metacognitive reasoning strategies researchers use when making sense of day-to-day professional practices that have ethical implications. The evaluated trainings effectiveness was assessed by examining five key sensemaking processes, such as framing, emotion regulation, forecasting, self-reflection, and information integration that experts and novices apply in ethical (...) decision-making. Mental models of trained and untrained graduate students, as well as faculty, working in the field of physical sciences were compared using a think-aloud protocol 6 months following the ethics training. Evaluation and comparison of the mental models of participants provided further validation evidence for sensemaking training. Specifically, it was found that trained students applied metacognitive reasoning strategies learned during training in their ethical decision-making that resulted in complex mental models focused on the objective assessment of the situation. Mental models of faculty and untrained students were externally-driven with a heavy focus on autobiographical processes. The study shows that sensemaking training has a potential to induce shifts in researchers’ mental models by making them more cognitively complex via the use of metacognitive reasoning strategies. Furthermore, field experts may benefit from sensemaking training to improve their ethical decision-making framework in highly complex, novel, and ambiguous situations. (shrink)