This study examines the impact of culture on regulation and corruption. Our empirical results suggest that cultural values have significant effects on countries’ regulatory policies, levels of corruption, and economic development. Contrary to the conclusions drawn by others, this study shows no significant relationship between the regulatory policies of countries and their perceived levels of corruption. Thus, evidence of the “public choice view” toward entry regulation derived in related studies seems to be at least attenuated.
Moral responsibility is one of the core concepts in engineering ethics and consequently in most engineering ethics education. Yet, despite a growing awareness that engineers should be trained to become more sensitive to cultural differences, most engineering ethics education is still based on Western approaches. In this article, we discuss the notion of responsibility in Confucianism and explore what a Confucian perspective could add to the existing engineering ethics literature. To do so, we analyse the Citicorp case, a widely discussed (...) case in the existing engineering ethics literature, from a Confucian perspective. Our comparison suggests the following. When compared to virtue ethics based on Aristotle, Confucianism focuses primarily on ethical virtues; there is no explicit reference to intellectual virtues. An important difference between Confucianism and most western approaches is that Confucianism does not define clear boundaries of where a person’s responsibility end. It also suggests that the gap between Western and at least one Eastern approach, namely Confucianism, can be bridged. Although there are differences, the Confucian view and a virtue-based Western view on moral responsibility have much in common, which allows for a promising base for culturally inclusive ethics education for engineers. (shrink)
Geologic studies indicate that the platform-margin reef-shallow facies in Permo-Triassic marine strata in the Micang-Dabashan foothill belt in the Sichuan Basin are favorable exploration targets for oil and gas exploration. However, the typical dual-complexity problem brings a great challenge for seismic technology targeting of those potential oil and gas reservoirs. To overcome this problem, varieties of advanced seismic acquisition and processing methods have been used to improve the imaging quality of piedmont seismic data since 2000. Some improvements have been achieved: (...) The reflection waves from the far offset and deep layer can be acquired in shot gathers from limestone outcropped areas, and the signal-to-noise ratio of reflection and diffraction waves in the stack section has been enhanced significantly so as to reveal amounts of valuable geologic information. The resolution and the S/N of seismic migration imaging for the strong fold zone in marine strata have been improved partially, so that the structure of the step-fault zone and the enveloping of gypsum rock are clearer than those revealed by the old seismic section. Even so, actual drilling data demonstrate that the subsurface structures of the foothill belt are far more complex than those revealed by the current seismic imaging results. Therefore, postdrilling evaluation for the validity of seismic techniques implemented in the Nanjiang and Zhenba piedmont zone has been carried out. The results indicate that the current acquisition scheme and processing workflow cannot completely fulfill the requirements of high-precision velocity modeling and migration imaging of complex structures in the piedmont zone, especially when the rugged surface and the widespread limestone outcrop appear simultaneously. Finally, we have developed some potential needs of seismic theories and techniques in the foothill belt, including seismic wave propagation, acquisition, and processing technology. (shrink)
EDITOR’S ABSTRACTThis paper discusses the two different versions of section 25 of the received Laozi concerning the “four greats in the realm,” one beginning with “the Way is great” and the other with “heaven is great.” While both can be textually supported, this paper argues that the latter is not an error, but rather belongs to an early version of the Laozi. The transmitted edition, however, begins with “the Way is great,” which shows that this version ultimately won out over (...) the former. This paper examines the Han dynasty Laozi commentaries showing the influence of Han dynasty cosmogonies on the ultimate success of the order prioritizing the Way in the transmitted edition. (shrink)
Hengxian, one of the bamboo books of the Chu State during the Warring States Period that is kept in the Shanghai Museum, was collected by the museum in 1994, and is an important piece of literature that discusses cosmic issues prior to Huainanzi. Based on Li Ling's work on the text, as well as hermeneutic work by some other scholars, this essay represents another attempt to determine the words and meanings of the Hengxian, with a focus on its cosmological commentary. (...) /// "恒先" 是上海博物馆藏战国楚竹书中的一篇， 1994年入藏上海博物馆。该 文是 "淮南子" 之前讨论宇宙问题的重要文献。依据李零整理的本子与其他学者的 释读，可以对 "恒先" 文义重新加以梳理，并从宇宙论的角度进行新的思想阐释。. (shrink)
The volitional theory of human action has formed a basis for a prominent account of voluntary behavior since at least Aquinas. But in the twentieth century the notions of will and volition lost much of their popularity in both philosophy and psychology. Gilbert Ryle’s devastating attack on the concept of will, and especially the doctrine of volition, has had lingering effects evident in the widespread hostility and skepticism towards the will and volition. Since the 1970s, however, the volitional theory has (...) received some renewed interest in the philosophy of action. Some philosophers even consider that ‘in current philosophy of action it is perhaps the most widely held view, at least regarding the immediate antecedents of action.’. (shrink)