The aim of the paper is to study socio-ethical aspects of Slovak higher education policy in the context of contemporary discussions on university assessment criteria. I conduct an ethical analysis and assess the criteria introduced in Slovakia that consider employment opportunities and the graduate unemployment rate, publishing in high impact journals, participation in European research programmes, etc., which often discriminates against the humanities and social sciences. On the other hand, I also point to the absence of a social contract (...) regarding the common good provided by Slovak universities, drawbacks of a legislative nature which often provide a basis for unethical behaviour within the Slovak academic community and, most often, problems concerning academic ethics in contemporary Slovakia. (shrink)
With regard to existing concept of the moral education (ethics) in Slovakia, the questions of ethics and morals are only one of the partial sections. The dominant role is played by psychology based on Roberto Olivar’s concept with emphasis on pro–socialization and on Erickson’s concept of the psychosocial development. From the philosophy basis point of view, only Aristotle, even in reduced form and Spranger’s concept of the life forms are mentioned. Philosophy and ethics are only complements to more psychologically (...) based educational program which is resulting from the problematic division of a social and moral experience into egoistic and prosocial. Egoism is presented in a distorted form and is characterized as the cause of all moral evil. However, there are several different types of understanding of the term egoism in philosophy and ethics as for example psychological and ethical egoism, or self-interest. Ethical egoism or self-interest cannot be identified with selfishness. The main aim of moral education should not be only to form the desired children and youth moral orientation but on the other hand, to form morally self-confident individuals who are able to solve the moral problems, to help the others to solve them as well and to be able to bear moral responsibility for their own deeds. (shrink)
A Geographical Approach for Measuring the Creative Capital. Case Study: Creative Capital Index of Slovakia Calculation of creativity index is a part of a modern quantification wave, in some cases also formulation of the spatial differentiation of social and economic phenomena required from the academic sphere by the decisive sphere. Policy makers have interest by this means to help themselves in obtaining public for their objectives. The creative capital as a sum of quantifiable creativity indicators is in this contribution (...) operationalized including the social capital, which is out of accord with a traditional understanding of creativity following the Florida's concept of the creative class. Methods for creativity index formation are introduced at the global level of states as well as at the regional level of a given state. There are substantial differences among both indexes results and statistical data on export of creative goods that are well documented on example of USA and China. Terminological chaos associated with the concepts of creative class and economy is thus extended with a chaos in the interpretation of findings, what contributes to the critique of the Florida's concept of creative class. There arise doubts that the quantification of creativity indexes with correlation quantification with other economic and social factors as GDP, entrepreneurship, inequality, Index HDI1) ; is maybe right in terms of mathematics, but it does not reveal the casual connections. The research purpose of the contribution is a geographical approach to the creative capital. The case study incorporates the Slovak regions, creativity index calculation and its spatial differentiation in form of map expression. The scientific goal lies in a confirmation of hypothesis about a dominant position of Bratislava region, and thus the capital of Slovakia. A limit of calculation is the choice of indicators which were strongly determined by the accessibility of statistical data. (shrink)
The paper offers an examination of the patterns of philosophizing in Slovakia. In the author’s view, its predominating feature is its receptivity, i.e. accepting the particular streams and conceptions of European philosophy. However, not all forms of receptivity are to be judged as mere imitativeness or plagiarism. In spite of its receptiveness the philosophizing in Slovakia very often included creative reinterpretations, modifications and applications.
From the 1970s on, much more attention has been given to medical ethics education than ever before. As such, medical ethics education and its importance have started to be accepted and acknowledged by the wider public and by academics as well. Slovakia is not an exception. Also here, considerable amount of attention and concern has been given lately to medical ethics and to medical ethics education. In this article, I will focus on medical ethics education for future physicians, namely (...) on medical ethics education for students of general medicine in Slovakia. A survey on course contents, suggested studying plans and/or timetables of this field of study was conducted. On the basis of not only the survey, I will try to point out some of the problems medical ethics education currently faces and I will also make some suggestions regarding future research. (shrink)
: This paper provides an analysis of the first decade of bioethics development in Slovakia (1990-1999), together with an overview of the most important bioethical issues entering the scene of public debate and scholarly ethical analysis.
The study presents popular conspiracy theories spread within the Czech and Slovak language milieu. Along with the growth in the number of internet portals disseminating this type of texts, their reflection in public opinion is also visible in the way almost every major foreign policy issue or domestic case is commented upon in public internet discussions. The authors seek to identify the narrative and rhetorical sources of conspiracism in these countries since the rise of modern nationalism in the 19th century, (...) focusing on the events accompanying the creation of the common state of the Slovaks and Czechs, the period of the Second World War, the rule of the Communist regime, the events related to the fall of the Iron Curtain and the “Velvet Revolution” in 1989 up to the present. The paper focuses attention on group-shared images of the enemies and on mutual interactions between the interpretations of local events and global conspiracy theories, as well as updates or later reinterpretations of older conspiracy motifs. (shrink)
In the article, we analyse ethical and moral issues of public administration in region of Eastern Slovakia through some cases of the last years. We focused on self-governing regions, namely the Košice and Prešov self-governing regions. We identified two fundamental situations where failures on the side of public administrators occur: selection processes for vacant positions, be it directly in public administration or institutions that fall under its domain, and public procurement with regard to the acquisition of goods and services. (...) The year 2009 was the year of elections to self-governing regions which is why a great number of negative cases dealt with the election campaign. Further, we stated that negative cases dealt with failures of bodies of self-governing regions from both the legal (breaking the law) and moral viewpoint. By claiming that public administrators failed morally, we meant breaking moral norms and rules. Contradictions, which were identified (from the ethical viewpoint), predominantly result from the conflict between public and private interests. In many cases, private interests of public administrators are preferred at the expense of public interests. And it is exactly this preference (a conflict of interests) that is sensitively perceived by the public. (shrink)
Author applies four models of professional ethics of politicians (Aristotle’s virtuous citizen, Machiavelli’s prince, Erasmus’ man of values and Weber’s responsible politician) to politics and politicians in Slovakia since the first half of the 20th century to the present. According to author, there is possible to identify Milan Hodža with Weber’s model, Alexander Dubek with Aristotle’s one, Vladimír Meiar and Robert Fico are identified with Machiavelli’s model and Iveta Radiová with Erasmus’ model of professional ethics of politician in (...) class='Hi'>Slovakia. (shrink)
This article is devoted to the development of nursing ethics in Slovakia before the year 1989. It points to the fact that it was impossible to speak about nursing ethics as an autonomous field in this period of time. Reflections on nursing ethics were presented within medical ethics, or particularly based on the importance of reflections about the need of philosophy within medicine.
In Slovakia Slavic literary studies can be found at the institutes of the Slovak Academy of Sciences and at university departments. The only SAS institute to truly focus on Slavic studies is the Ján Stanislav Institute of Slavistics. Other SAS institutes that deal with Slavic studies to a lesser extent are the Institute of Slovak Literature and the Institute of World Literature. There are also Slavic-oriented academic initiatives involving short-term projects. Considering this situation, there is a need to prepare (...) a programme for Slavic literary studies in Slovakia so that a framework can be created outlining a new, systematic approach. (shrink)
The paper is a study of the establishment of the theoretical, human and institutional presuppositions of the development of modern methodology of sciences in Slovakia 1946-1962. It focuses particularly on the examnination of V. Filkorn´s scientific and educational work, who was drawing on the previous and contemporary activity of S. Felber and I.Hrušovský. In that time V. Filkorn published his first essential works and developed an original conception of the methodology of sciences with its special view of the method (...) of science, scientific law, and the relationship between logic and dialectics. It is defined as logical analysis of the building of the system od science by means of modern logic and an articulated theory of categories. (shrink)
The purpose of the research is to understand formulation of policy for creative industries, and in particular the importance of quantitative and qualitative data or information for formulation of the first policies for creative industries at national and regional level. The goal of the research is to assess whether it is possible to draft useful policy for the creative industry without having specific quantitative data at its disposal, which is often the case when such policy is being newly developed. The (...) methodology used is a brief literature review, and a case study. The case study regards policy development for the architectural sector in the East-Slovak region of Košice, which was executed by the authors in the context of the assignment to draft a strategy for development of the creative economy of the Košice region. Statistical data presented in this research were generated in the context of that assignment.The authors found that in the case of Slovakia and the region of Košice, the availability of data on the creative industries as a new policy area is very limited. Both at national level and at regional level, qualitative data and information are most useful for formulating policy. This is possible among others because qualitative needs’ assessment is feasible; international literature and best practices provide a guideline for formulating policy; and because general policies can address specific requirements through demand driven projects. The implication of the research is that specific quantitative data on the creative industries does not need to be considered a conditio sine qua non for drafting and implementing policy for the creative industries. Quantitative data will be necessary for evaluating outputs and impact of policy, in terms of efficiency and effectiveness of public spending. The choice of indicators, and collecting, processing and interpreting of quantitative data shall be an integral part of the policy to be implemented. (shrink)
Macroeconomic dynamics and the at-risk-of-poverty population in Slovakia This paper deals with analysis and presentation of the core findings under the EU SILC 2009 project. Particularly we are oriented on study of the socially vulnerable groups of population identified according their income situation. As a sorting criterion for this purpose we use the standard methodology set by OECD and Eurostat. It means the 60% of the national median equivalized disposable income is applied for this criterion as the poverty threshold. (...) The national income variable is firstly calculated as a total income for each surveyed household and dived by the equivalized size of household. By this procedure the households of various structures are transformed onto generally accepted scale. The special attention of our study is oriented on the cluster of population living on income below the poverty threshold. For this population we calculate so called social deficit. Through this value we show the volume of financial means needed to upgrade the living standard of the population living bellow poverty threshold at least to the poverty threshold level.Special section of the paper is devoted to study of relation among the core macroeconomic indicators and level and size of the at-risk-of-poverty population during the period of last economic development, including both economic growth and economic recession. According our tentative findings we did not find the significant impact of economic growth on the status of socially vulnerable population. This finding however should be studied in broader context, with longer time series of relevant data and with broader set of explanatory variables. (shrink)
The paper examines the origins and the development of the first philosophical journal – Filosofický sborník – established and published by the Philosophical department of the national cultural institution Matica slovenská. The specific character of the journal was determined also by the fact that its publishing house was the first philosophical non-university institution in Slovakia . The attention is paid mainly to the professional and ideological ambitions of the periodical, which have changed dramatically several times during the time of (...) its existence. The reasons of these changes were of external as well as of internal character. (shrink)
Education is widely accepted as important source of future economic growth and is strongly supported by public sources. Most of this support is oriented toward traditional education and industries. However, several studies show importance of creativity education as important feature for innovation and future growth. However, public support of creative industries is relatively new and most of policy measures that have been implemented are still not fully evaluated and understood. There si a strong need to look much more closer on (...) way how public education influence creative industries and what policies could be placed to strengthen positive effects of this education also in the long run. This article represents an output of the research about the creative industries support policy in Slovakia in the field of education activities. It is containing basic literature overview comparing support policies for traditional sectors and the creative industries. We analyzed conceptual documents at the national level and basic strategic documents in the regions and selected cities of the country. We also realized several interviews in different creative economy industries. Generally, creative industries in Slovakia are much less in the centre of public support policy compare to traditional industry sectors. This is also the same in case of education. Despite of wide varietyof support tools used in the world, only few of them are applied in Slovakia. Interestingly, creative industries do not strongly require more creativity in education in schools. We found out the most important support in the field of education should not be related to creativity itself, but more on the complementary skills as ICT or entrepreneurship. We also found very limited role of universities and other public institutions in creative industries success stories. (shrink)
The process of Slovak political tradition formation during the establishment of an independent state is discussed in the article. Special attention is paid to the authoritarian tendencies, which developed after the breakup of Czechoslovakia, atypical for Central and Eastern Europe character of political transformation and the establishment of the entire state power system are analyzed. A brief historical background of the evolution of ‘the Slovak question‘ and its influence on the development of the state is given. Authors highlight features of (...) the social structure of Slovakia, emphasizing the special mentality, greatly influenced on the formation of the political system of the state in historical perspective. It is also noted, that formation of political tradition in Slovakia at the end of the twentieth century was marked by constant struggle between coalition and the opposition, which led to increased political instability in 1995-1997, which contributed to the emergence of the political tendencies, called ‘Slovak way of transformation‘. This had an impact on the integration processes in the state, which in 1994 declared its desire to join the European Union. The authors conclude that as long as the disparate political forces were unable to find a compromise and to determine priority in order to improve life of society rather than their personal ambitions, the Slovak political life was in a state of stagnation. (shrink)
The paper reflects the situation and possible visions for the development of social work ethics in health care in Slovakia in the context of its current position in specific health care institutions within the confines of declared legal norms. It emphasizes examples of good philosophical and methodological practice from abroad, the activities of the professional NASW association, as well as empirical experience of social workers with reference to visualizing possible implantation of social workers into the health care system, especially (...) within managed care systems in Slovakia. (shrink)
This article argues that intersectional analyses of care work also need to include a temporal aspect. Drawing on ethnographic research on Slovak au pairs working in the UK and on interviews with both providers and employers of paid childcare in Slovakia, I examine how the temporariness of care work is created within both migrant and non-migrant settings. In particular, I demonstrate that both employers and providers conceptualise paid childcare as a temporary period in their lives and show the consequences (...) of this conceptualisation in their valuing of care work. In both examined cases, I focus on the role of care/welfare and migration regimes in the production of temporariness in care work and argue that both providers and employers of paid care construct their involvement in domestic work as a specific life course experience. While for au pairs, working stays in the UK represent a specific transition period from adolescence to adulthood, employers in Slovakia decide to employ particular types of domestic workers in relation to the particular developmental phases of their families and households. (shrink)
This article concerns the proposal and testing of a Slovak version of the Ideological Consistency Scale, which is a 10-item scale originally developed by the Pew Research Centre. Its psychometric properties are investigated on a Slovak sample. Its fit to the Rasch model with conditional maximum likelihood is tested. The Slovak version of the scale is shown to be a reliable and useful instrument for measuring ideological attitudes. The ideological attitudes of the Slovak respondents are compared with those of the (...) American sample. The results show that the political polarization in Slovakia is not strong: few Slovak respondents could be identified as being either consistently conservative or consistently liberal, and the majority exhibited mixed attitudes, tending slightly to display liberal opinions. (shrink)
In this exploratory research study, we developed an instrument to investigate people’s confidence in safeguarding measures [Confidence in Safeguards Scale ] and we adapted an instrument measuring perceived risk of coronavirus [perceived risk of coronavirus scale ] that was originally based on a perceived risk of HIV measure. We then explored the effect of public confidence in safeguarding measures designed to halt the spread of the coronavirus on perceived risk, controlling for related covariates. The sample consisted of N = 565 (...) respondents; 119 were males and 446 were females. Mean age was 35.42, range was 18–77 years. We used convenience sampling to gather the data at the end of March 2020 via social media in Slovakia. The CSS showed good reliability levels and a three-factor structure: Confidence in Institutions, Confidence in Personal and Family Behaviors, and Confidence in Others’ Behaviors. The PRCS showed good reliability levels and a two-factor structure: Fear of Contraction and Perceived Likelihood of Contraction. Participants with higher levels of Confidence in Others’ Behaviors perceived the spread of the coronavirus to be less threatening, both cognitively and affectively. This finding could be used when designing public health policy and emergency communication. Enhancing confidence in others’ behaviors could encourage individual responsibility, social responsibility, and solidarity through social bonds extending beyond the family. In future research we plan to replicate the data collection using the same instruments in different countries so the results are comparable across cultures and can be used to improve emergency communication. (shrink)
The paper analyzes ethical codes in the health care profession in Slovakia while considering the four principle approach in medical ethics formulated by Beauchamp and Childress. For these purposes, the individual principles of this theory are identified and presented in light of performance in the health care profession. The second part introduces the main legal documents which represent the professional codes of ethics for physicians, nurses and midwives in Slovakia. In those, I have tried to identify the presence (...) of basic principles of medical ethics and the way they are formulated in the Slovak health care system. The aim is to show the capabilities of professional health care ethics in Slovakia to react to current trends of medical ethics and models within the health care system. (shrink)
This paper sets out to examine political thinking in post-totalitarian Slovakia. Using the discourse theory and signification of Laclau and Mouffe, it considers the sign národ in relation to democracy and the EU. Seeking to pinpoint political thinking amongst the general populace, it bases its analysis on an examination of newspaper articles on “Building the State” published in the 1990s. It traces the roots of the sign from the 1960s to the present day and predicts that the EU signifier (...) will impact on the content of the floating signifier of národ. (shrink)
The history of ethical reasoning in Slovakia1 dates back to the beginning of the 16th century, a period when ethics and morals came to the fore of intellectual and philosophical thinking––owing to the influence of the humanism that prevailed during the Reformation2. This cultural and intellectual climate led to the revival of ancient culture, education, philosophy, and ethics, while a focus on purgation encouraged writers to ponder over the questions traditionally raised in ancient ethics: How should we live? How can (...) we live well or have a proper life? (shrink)
In the midst of the 1960s some of the Slovak philosophers have appropriated the Yugoslavian variant of the praxis philosophy developed at Zagreb University. It was a critical reformist stream with the idea of humanism in its core. The basis of their approach was an understanding of humans as active beings changing the world as well as themselves, their nature being practice. The representatives of this stream developed their uncompromised critique of the official philosophy and totalitarian regime of that time (...) and generally of everything existing, firstly by means of the category of alienation. Although in general they did not transcend the limits of socialist vision of the future, in a broader context their activities supported the reforming process, which found its fulfillment in 1968 and became the main reason for Soviet intervention in former Czechoslovakia. (shrink)
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