Results for 'Social contract'

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  1.  10
    Justice at the Margins: The Social Contract and the Challenge of Marginal Cases.Nathan Bauer & David Svolba - 2017 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 55 (1):51-67.
    Attempts to justify the special moral status of human beings over other animals face a well-known objection: the challenge of marginal cases. If we attempt to ground this special status in the unique rationality of humans, then it becomes difficult to see why nonrational humans should be treated any differently than other, nonhuman animals. We respond to this challenge by turning to the social contract tradition. In particular, we identify an important role for the concept of recognition in (...)
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  2. The Social Contract and Other Later Political Writings.Jean-Jacques Rousseau - 1997 - Cambridge University Press.
    The work of Jean-Jacques Rousseau is presented in two volumes, together forming the most comprehensive anthology of Rousseau's political writings in English. Volume II contains the later writings such as The Social Contract and a selection of Rousseau's letters on important aspects of his thought. The Social Contract has become Rousseau's most famous single work, but on publication was condemned by both the civil and the ecclesiastical authorities in France and Geneva. Rousseau fled and it is (...)
     
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  3. Human Rights and Business Ethics: Fashioning a New Social Contract[REVIEW]Wesley Cragg - 2000 - Journal of Business Ethics 27 (1-2):205 - 214.
    This paper argues that widely accepted understanding of the respective responsibilities of business and government in the post war industrialized world can be traced back to a tacit social contract that emerged following the second world war. The effect of this contract was to assign responsibility for generating wealth to business and responsibility for ensuring the equitable sharing of wealth to governments. Without question, this arrangement has resulted in substantial improvements in the quality of life in the (...)
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  4. The Social Contract ; and, Discourses.Jean-Jacques Rousseau - 1973 - C.E. Tuttle Co..
    A discourse on the arts and sciences -- A discourse on the origin of inequality -- A discourse on political economy -- The general society of the human race -- The social contract.
     
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  5.  13
    A Social Contract for International Business Ethics.Paul Neiman - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 114 (1):75-90.
    This article begins with a detailed analysis of how the choice situation of a social contract for international business ethics can be constructed and justified. A choice situation is developed by analyzing conceptions of the multinational firm and the domain of international business. The result is a hypothetical negotiation between two fictional characters, J. Duncan Grey and Elizabeth Redd, who respectively represent the interests of businesses and communities seeking to engage in international trade. The negotiators agree on ethical (...)
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  6. Rawlsian Social-Contract Theory and the Severely Disabled.Henry S. Richardson - 2006 - Journal of Ethics 10 (4):419 - 462.
    Martha Nussbaum has powerfully argued in Frontiers ofJustice and elsewhere that John Rawls’s sort of social-contract theory cannot usefully be deployed to deal with issues pertaining to justice for the disabled. To counter this claim, this article deploys Rawls’s sort of social-contract theory in order to deal with issues pertaining to justice for the disabled—or, since, as Nussbaum stresses, we all have some degree of disability—for the severely disabled. In this way, rather than questioning one by (...)
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  7. Citizenship and Property Rights: A New Look at Social Contract Theory.Elisabeth Ellis - 2006 - Journal of Politics 68 (3):544-555.
    Social contract thought has always contained multiple and mutually conflicting lines of argument; the minimalist contractarianism so influential today represents the weaker of two main constellations of claims. I make the case for a Kantian contract theory that emphasizes the bedrock principle of consent of the governed instead of the mere heuristic device of the exit from the state of nature. Such a shift in emphasis resolves two classic difficulties: tradi- tional contract theory’s ahistorical presumption of (...)
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  8.  45
    A Social Contract Account for CSR as an Extended Model of Corporate Governance (I): Rational Bargaining and Justification. [REVIEW]Lorenzo Sacconi - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 68 (3):259 - 281.
    This essay seeks to give a contractarian foundation to the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), meant as an extended model of corporate governance of the firm. It focuses on justification according to the contractarian point of view (leaving compliance and implementation problems to a related article, [Sacconi 2004b, forthcoming in the Journal of Business Ethics]). It begins by providing a definition of CSR as an extended model of corporate governance, based on the fiduciary duties owed to all the (...)
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  9. Justice and the Social Contract: Essays on Rawlsian Political Philosophy.Samuel Freeman - 2006 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Samuel Freeman was a student of the influential philosopher John Rawls, he has edited numerous books dedicated to Rawls' work and is arguably Rawls' foremost interpreter. This volume collects new and previously published articles by Freeman on Rawls. Among other things, Freeman places Rawls within historical context in the social contract tradition, and thoughtfully addresses criticisms of this position. Not only is Freeman a leading authority on Rawls, but he is an excellent thinker in his own right, and (...)
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  10.  16
    Diminished or Just Different? A Factorial Vignette Study of Privacy as a Social Contract.Kirsten E. Martin - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 111 (4):519-539.
    A growing body of theory has focused on privacy as being contextually defined, where individuals have highly particularized judgments about the appropriateness of what, why, how, and to whom information flows within a specific context. Such a social contract understanding of privacy could produce more practical guidance for organizations and managers who have employees, users, and future customers all with possibly different conceptions of privacy across contexts. However, this theoretical suggestion, while intuitively appealing, has not been empirically examined. (...)
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  11.  37
    Psychological Contracts: A Nano-Level Perspective on Social Contract Theory.Jeffery A. Thompson & David W. Hart - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 68 (3):229-241.
    Social contract theory has been criticized as a “theory in search of application.” We argue that incorporating the nano, or individual, level of analysis into social contract inquiry will yield more descriptive theory. We draw upon the psychological contract perspective to address two critiques of social contract theory: its rigid macro-orientation and inattention to the process of contract formation. We demonstrate how a psychological contract approach offers practical insight into the impact (...)
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  12. Multinational Corporations and the Social Contract.Eric Palmer - 2001 - Journal of Business Ethics 31 (3):245 - 258.
    The constitutions of many nations have been explicitly or implicitly founded upon principles of the social contract derived from Thomas Hobbes. The Hobbesian egoism at the base of the contract fairly accurately represents the structure of market enterprise. A contractarian analysis may, then, allow for justified or rationally acceptable universal standards to which businesses should conform. This paper proposes general rational restrictions upon multi-national enterprises, and includes a critique of unjustified restrictions recently proposed by the Organization for (...)
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  13.  12
    The Modern Social Contract Tradition.Lisa Herzog - 2013 - In Christopher Luetege (ed.), Handbook of the Philosophical Foundations of Business Ethics. Springer. pp. 631--645.
    This chapter discusses central strands of the modern social contract tradition. Distinguishing between moral and political theories on the one hand and contractualist and contractarian theories on the other, it presents one example of each of the ensuing categories: Gauthier’s moral contractarianism, Buchanan’s political contractarianism, Scanlon’s moral contractualism, and Rawls’ political contractualism. In the conclusion, strengths and weaknesses of social contract theories are discussed.
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  14.  66
    Representation and Obligation in Rawls' Social Contract Theory.Simon Cushing - 1998 - Southwest Philosophy Review 14 (1):47-54.
    The two justificatory roles of the social contract are establishing whether or not a state is legitimate simpliciter and establishing whether any particular individual is politically obligated to obey the dictates of its governing institutions. Rawls's theory is obviously designed to address the first role but less obviously the other. Rawls does offer a duty-based theory of political obligation that has been criticized by neo-Lockean A. John Simmons. I assess Simmons's criticisms and the possible responses that could be (...)
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  15. A Paradox of Sovereignty in Rousseau's Social Contract.Matthew Simpson - 2006 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 3 (1):45-56.
    One unique part of Rousseau's Social Contract is his argument that a just society must have a specific constitutional arrangement of powers centred around what he calls the Sovereign and the Prince. This makes his philosophy different from other contractualists, such as Hobbes and Locke, who think that the principles of good government are compatible with any number of institutional structures. Rousseau's constitutional theory is thus significant in a way that has no parallel in Hobbes or Locke. More (...)
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  16.  71
    Social Contract Theory Should Be Abandoned.Danny Frederick - 2013 - Rationality, Markets and Morals 4:178-89.
    I argue that social-contract theory cannot succeed because reasonable people may always disagree, and that social-contract theory is irrelevant to the problem of the legitimacy of a form of government or of a system of moral rules. I note the weakness of the appeal to implicit agreement, the conflation of legitimacy with stability, the undesirability of “public justification” and the apparent blindness to the evolutionary critical-rationalist approach of Hayek and Popper. I employ that approach to sketch (...)
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  17.  22
    Integrative Social Contract Theory and Urban Prosperity Initiatives.Anita Cava & Don Mayer - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 72 (3):263-278.
    Urban communities in 21st century America are facing severe economic challenges, ones that suggest a mandate to contemplate serious changes in the way America does business. The middle class is diminishing in many parts of the country, with consequences for the economy as a whole. When faced with the loss of its economic base, any business community must make some difficult decisions about its proper role and responsibilities. Decisions to support the community must be balanced alongside and against responsibilities to (...)
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  18.  34
    Egoism, Reason, and the Social Contract.A. P. Martinich - 2012 - Hobbes Studies 25 (2):209-222.
    Bernard Gert’s distinctive interpretation of the philosophy of Thomas Hobbes in his recent book may be questioned in at least three areas: (1) Even if Hobbes is not a psychological egoist, he seems to be a desire egoist, which has the consequence, as he understands it, that a person acts at least for his own good in every action. (2) Although there are several senses of reason, it seems that Hobbes uses the idea that reason is calculation of means to (...)
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  19.  25
    In Search of the Reason and the Right—Rousseau's Social Contract as a Thought Experiment.Nenad Miscevic - 2013 - Acta Analytica 28 (4):509-526.
    For Rousseau, social contract is a hypothetical one; the paper claims that it is, in contemporary terms, a political thought-experiment (TE). The abductive way of thinking, looking for the best normative pattern in the data, finds its counterpart in the historical abduction in the Second Discourse; the analogy between the two secures the methodological unity of Rousseau’s political philosophy. The proposed reading of the work as a TE shows that it fulfills the necessary requirements put by (hopefully) intuitively (...)
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  20.  47
    Ethnocentrism, Social Contract Liberalism and Positivistic-Conservatism: Rorty's Three Theses on Politics.Justin Cruickshank - 2000 - Res Publica 6 (1):1-23.
    In this article I argue that Rorty has three separatearguments for liberalism. The pragmatic-ethnocentric argument for liberalism,as a system which works for `us liberals'', is rejectedfor entailing relativism. The social contract argument results in an extreme formof individualism. This renders politics redundantbecause there is no need for the (liberal) state toprotect poetic individuals, who are capable ofdefending themselves. Even if the less able areharmed, the state could not prevent this, givenRorty''s arguments about discursive enrichment withina language game. Finally, (...)
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  21.  12
    Social Contract Theory and Wider Context: Some Thoughts and Clarifications.Milorad Stupar - 2011 - Filozofija I Društvo 22 (3):3-9.
    In this paper certain aspects of social contract theory have been reconsidered in the context of contemporary political community. Special focus has been given to the meaning of the concept of coercion.
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  22.  8
    Animal Ethics and Politics Beyond the Social Contract.Alan Reynolds - 2014 - Les ateliers de l'éthique/The Ethics Forum 9 (3):208-222.
    Alan Reynolds: This paper is divided into three sections. First, I describe the wide plurality of views on issues of animal ethics, showing that our disagreements here are deep and profound. This fact of reasonable pluralism about animal ethics presents a political problem. According to the dominant liberal tradition of political philosophy, it is impermissible for one faction of people to impose its values upon another faction of people who reasonably reject those values. Instead, we are obligated to justify our (...)
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  23.  22
    Social Contract Theory as a Foundation of the Social Responsibilities of Health Professionals.Jos V. M. Welie - 2012 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (3):347-355.
    This paper seeks to define and delimit the scope of the social responsibilities of health professionals in reference to the concept of a social contract. While drawing on both historical data and current empirical information, this paper will primarily proceed analytically and examine the theoretical feasibility of deriving social responsibilities from the phenomenon of professionalism via the concept of a social contract.
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  24.  9
    Social Contract Theory and the International Normative Order: A New Global Ethic?Paresh Kathrani - 2010 - Jurisprudence 119 (1):97-109.
    Although people establish norms that enable them to live together, some of these have to be coupled with a system of enforcement. This conforms to broad social contract theory and can also be applied to the international sphere. The international community is also based on a system of norms. However, unlike the domestic context, there is no overreaching authority to direct states on what they should do. Rather it is left to states themselves to police this framework. However, (...)
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  25.  55
    Citizenship, Political Obligation, and the Right-Based Social Contract.Simon Cushing - 1998 - Dissertation, University of Southern California
    The contemporary political philosopher John Rawls considers himself to be part of the social contract tradition of John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Immanuel Kant, but not of the tradition of Locke's predecessor, Thomas Hobbes. Call the Hobbesian tradition interest-based, and the Lockean tradition right-based, because it assumes that there are irreducible moral facts which the social contract can assume. The primary purpose of Locke's social contract is to justify the authority of the state over (...)
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  26. The Social Contract Theorists Critical Essays on Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau.Christopher W. Morris (ed.) - 1999 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    This rich collection will introduce students of philosophy and politics to the contemporary critical literature on the classical social contract political thinkers Thomas Hobbes , John Locke , and Jean-Jacques Rousseau . A dozen essays and book excerpts have been selected to guide students through the texts and to introduce them to current scholarly controversies surrounding the contractarian political theories of these three thinkers.
     
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  27. Hobbes and the Social Contract Tradition.Jean Hampton - 1986 - Cambridge University Press.
    This major study of Hobbes's political philosophy draws on recent developments in game and decision theory to explore whether the thrust of the argument in Leviathan, that it is in the interests of the people to create a ruler with absolute power, can be shown to be cogent. Professor Hampton has written a book of vital importance to political philosophers, political and social scientists, and intellectual historians.
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  28.  54
    The Social Contract.Jean-Jacques Rousseau - 2004 - Penguin Books.
    The perfect books for the true book lover, Penguin’s Great Ideas series features twelve more groundbreaking works by some of history’s most prodigious thinkers. Each volume is beautifully packaged with a unique type-driven design that highlights the bookmaker’s art. Offering great literature in great packages at great prices, this series is ideal for those readers who want to explore and savor the Great Ideas that have shaped our world.
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  29. On the Social Contract.Jean-Jacques Rousseau - 2007 - In Elizabeth Schmidt Radcliffe, Richard McCarty, Fritz Allhoff & Anand Vaidya (eds.), Late Modern Philosophy: Essential Readings with Commentary. Blackwell.
     
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  30.  33
    Evolution of the Social Contract.Brian Skyrms - 1996 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this book, Brian Skyrms, a recognised authority on game and decision theory, investigates traditional problems of the social contract in terms of evolutionary dynamics. Game theory is employed to offer new interpretations of a wide variety of social phenomena, including justice, mutual aid, commitment, convention and meaning. Skyrms eschews any grand, unified theory. Rather, he presents the reader with tools drawn from evolutionary game theory for the purpose of analysing and coming to understand the social (...)
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  31.  17
    A Social Contract for Biotechnology: Shared Visions for Risky Technologies?Donald M. Bruce - 2002 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 15 (3):279-289.
    Future technological developmentsconcerning food, agriculture, and theenvironment face a gulf of social legitimationfrom a skeptical public and media, in the wakeof the crises of BSE, GM food, and foot andmouth disease in the UK (House of Lords, 2000). Keyethical issues were ignored by the bioindustry,regulators, and the Government, leaving alegacy of distrust. The paper examinesagricultural biotechnology in terms of a socialcontract, whose conditions would have to be fulfilled togain acceptance of novel applications. Variouscurrent and future GM applications areevaluated against (...)
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  32. The Social Contract.Jean-Jacques Rousseau - 1968 - Harmondsworth, Penguin.
    The perfect books for the true book lover, Penguin’s Great Ideas series features twelve more groundbreaking works by some of history’s most prodigious thinkers. Each volume is beautifully packaged with a unique type-driven design that highlights the bookmaker’s art. Offering great literature in great packages at great prices, this series is ideal for those readers who want to explore and savor the Great Ideas that have shaped our world.
     
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  33. The Social Contract.Jean-Jacques Rousseau - 1950 - New York: Dutton.
    The perfect books for the true book lover, Penguin’s Great Ideas series features twelve more groundbreaking works by some of history’s most prodigious thinkers. Each volume is beautifully packaged with a unique type-driven design that highlights the bookmaker’s art. Offering great literature in great packages at great prices, this series is ideal for those readers who want to explore and savor the Great Ideas that have shaped our world.
     
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  34.  28
    A New Debate on an Old Question. Introductory Note to 'Can the Social Contract Be Signed by an Invisible Hand'.Bernd Lahno - 2013 - RMM 4:39-43.
  35. Social Contract Theory.Celeste Friend - 2004 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  36. Rationality, Justice and the Social Contract Themes From Morals by Agreement.David P. Gauthier & Robert Sugden - 1993
  37. The Essential Rousseau: The Social Contract, Discourse on the Origin of Inequality, Discourse on the Arts and Sciences, the Creed of a Savoyard Priest.Jean-Jacques Rousseau - 1974 - New York: New American Library.
     
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  38. The New Social Contract: Essays on Gauthier.Ellen Frankel Paul (ed.) - 1988 - B. Blackwell for the Social Philosophy and Policy Center, Bowling Green State University.
     
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  39.  57
    On Playing Fair: Professor Binmore on Game Theory and the Social Contract.Mohammed Dore - 1997 - Theory and Decision 43 (3):219-239.
    This paper critically reviews Ken Binmore’s non- utilitarian and game theoretic solution to the Arrow problem. Binmore’s solution belongs to the same family as Rawls’ maximin criterion and requires the use of Nash bargaining theory, empathetic preferences, and results in evolutionary game theory. Harsanyi has earlier presented a solution that relies on utilitarianism, which requires some exogenous valuation criterion and is therefore incompatible with liberalism. Binmore’s rigorous demonstration of the maximin principle for the first time presents a real alternative to (...)
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  40.  8
    Political Writings: Containing the Social Contract, Considerations on the Government of Poland, Constitutional Project for Corsica, Part I.Jean-Jacques Rousseau - 1953 - University of Wisconsin Press.
    In addition, this edition offers the best available translation of the late and important Government of Poland and the only published English translation of the fragment Constitutional Project for Corsica, which, says Watkins, provides the ...
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  41.  20
    The Social Contract: Or, Principles of Political Right.Jean-Jacques Rousseau - 1974 - New American Library.
    THE first and most important deduction from the principles we have so far laid down is that the general will alone can direct the State according to the object ...
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  42. The Social Contract and Rousseau's Revolt Against Society: An Inaugural Lecture Delivered in the University of Leicester 6 November 1967.John McManners - 1968 - London: Leicester University Press.
     
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  43.  8
    Political Writings; Containing the Social Contract, Considerations on the Government of Poland, and Part I of the Constitutional Project for Corsica.Jean-Jacques Rousseau - 1953 - New York]Nelson.
    In addition, this edition offers the best available translation of the late and important Government of Poland and the only published English translation of the fragment Constitutional Project for Corsica, which, says Watkins, provides the ...
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  44.  15
    Exploring the Ethics and Economics of Global Labor Standards: A Challenge to Integrated Social Contract Theory.Laura P. Hartman, Bill Shaw & Rodney Stevenson - 2003 - Business Ethics Quarterly 13 (2):193-220.
    The challenge that confronts corporate decision-makers in connection with global labor conditions is often in identifying the standardsby which they should govern themselves. In an effort to provide greater direction in the face of possible global cultural conflicts, ethicistsThomas Donaldson and Thomas Dunfee draw on social contract theory to develop a method for identifying basic human rights: Integrated Social Contract Theory . In this paper, we apply ISCT to the challenge of global labor standards, attempting to (...)
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  45.  5
    In Defense of a Self-Disciplined, Domain-Specific Social Contract Theory of Business Ethics.Ben Wempe - 2005 - Business Ethics Quarterly 15 (1):113-135.
    This article sets out two central theses. Both theses primarily involve a fundamental criticism of current contractarian business ethics(CBE), but if these can be sustained, they also constitute two boundary conditions for any future contractarian theory of business ethics. The first, which I label the self-discipline thesis, claims that current CBE would gain considerably in focus if more attention were paid to the logic of the social contract argument. By this I mean the aims set by the theorist (...)
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  46.  20
    Continuing the Social Contract Tradition.Michael Keeley - 1995 - Business Ethics Quarterly 5 (2):241-255.
    Social contract theory has a rich history. It originated among the ancients with recognition that social arrangements were not products of nature but convention. It developed through the centuries as theorists sought ethical criteria for distinguishing good conventions from bad. The search for such ethical criteria continues in recent attempts to apply social contract theory to organizations. In this paper, I question the concept ofconsent as a viable ethical criterion, and I argue for an alternate (...)
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  47.  21
    Ideology and the Economic Social Contract in a Downsizing Environment.C. Christman John - 1999 - Business Ethics Quarterly 9 (4):659-672.
    By combining normative philosophy and empirical social science, we craft a research framework for assessing differential expectations embodied in normative conceptions of the economic social contract in the United States. We argue that there are distinctviews of such a contract grounded in individualist and communitarian philosophical ideologies. We apply this framework to organizational downsizing, postulating that certain human resource practices, in combination with the respective ideological orientations, will affect perceptions of the justice of downsizing policies.Living up (...)
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  48.  15
    The Science of Human Nature and the Social Contract.Peter Corning - 2015 - Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 11 (1):15-40.
    800x600 One of the most important political challenges of our time - indeed of all times - is social justice. It was first addressed as a philosophical issue in Plato's great dialogue, the _Republic_, and it has been a continuing theme in the "tradition of discourse" ever since. As I will argue, Plato's analysis and conclusions represent a sound foundation and a starting point for advancing a new social justice paradigm that is undergirded by the emerging, multi-disciplinary science (...)
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  49.  43
    “Ridiculous” Dream Versus Social Contract: Dostoevskij, Rousseau, and the Problem of Ideal Society.Olga Stuchebrukhov - 2007 - Studies in East European Thought 59 (1-2):101 - 169.
    Drawing on the Second Discourse and the Social Contract and Notes from Underground and “The Dream of a Ridiculous Man,” this essay examines the striking similarities and fundamental differences between Dostoevskij’s and Rousseau’s treatment of the problem of individual vs. society and their notions of ideal social relations. The essay investigates Rousseau’s attempt to absorb morality into politics and “to concretize” Diderot’s universal moral man into citizen. It also suggests that Dostoevskij takes Rousseau’s attempt at concretization a (...)
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  50.  17
    Insider Trading and the Social Contract.Steven R. Salbu - 1995 - Business Ethics Quarterly 5 (2):313-328.
    The law of insider trading has progressed from an expansive approach, according to which all trading on nonpublic information was considered illegal, to a constricted approach, under which corporate outsiders are permitted to trade on nonpublic information provided such trading does not breach a fiduciary duty. This article analyzes both the former, expansive theory and the currently utilized constricted theory, within a framework of basic tenets of the American capitalist social contract regarding legitimacy of property claims. The existing (...)
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