The monster and the woman thus find themselves on the same side, the side of dissimilarity. “The female is as it were a deformed male,” added Aristotle . As she belongs to the category of the different, the female can only contribute more figures of dissimilarities, if not creatures even more monstrous. But the female is a necessary departure from the norm, a useful monstrosity. The monster is gratuitous and useless for future generations. Aristotle’s seminal work on the generation of (...) monsters posited a rigorously physical definition that was not necessarily linked to deformities: “Monstrosities,” he wrote, “come under the class of offspring which is unlike its parents” . Further, while a “monstrosity, of course, belongs to the class of ‘things contrary to Nature,’ … it is contrary not to Nature in her entirety but only to Nature in the generality of cases” .The monster, defined repeatedly by its lack of resemblance to its legitimate parents, is also monstrous in another important way, one that Aristotle described as a false resemblance to different species: “People say that the offspring which is formed has the head of a ram or an ox; and similarly with other creatures, that one has the head of another.… at the same time, in no case are they what they are alleged to be, but resemblances only” . The monster is thus a double imposture. Its strange appearance—a misleading likeness to another species, for example—belies the otherwise rigorous law that children should resemble their parents. Further, monsters offer striking similarities to categories to which they are not related, blurring the differences between genres, and disrupting the rigorous order of nature. Thus, if the monster were defined in the first place as that which did not resemble him who engendered it, it nevertheless displayed some sort of resemblance, albeit a false resemblance to an object external to its conception. Marie-Hélène Huet is William R. Kenan Professor of Romance Languages at Amherst College. She is the author of Rehearsing the Revolution: The Staging of Marat’s Death, 1793-1797 and is currently completing a book on literature and tetratology. (shrink)
Valérie Chevassus-Marchionni | : Le « cas » de Marie de la Trinité illustre d’une manière particulière la thématique « croyance et psychanalyse ». En effet, chez cette soeur dominicaine des campagnes, la foi religieuse et la croyance en sa vocation de dévotion interfèrent très étroitement avec l’expérience psychanalytique : d’une part, elle se prête pendant quatre années à une cure psychanalytique avec le docteur Jacques Lacan, d’autre part, elle exercera elle-même quelque temps la profession de psychothérapeute. Pour Marie (...) de la Trinité, la psychanalyse arrive à un moment critique de son existence, alors que ce qu’elle nomme ses « obsessions » lui rendent la vie impossible et lui interdisent même de pratiquer sa foi ; elle se tourne alors vers des traitements divers, parfois brutaux et inhumains. Ce n’est pas la psychanalyse qui la guérira, mais c’est à partir de cette expérience qu’il lui sera donné de triompher de son mal et, en comprenant quelle en était l’origine, d’entreprendre « sa propre rééducation » et de connaître « la lumière et l’harmonie » dans sa vie de dévotion. | : The case of Mary of the Trinity illustrates in a particular way the thematic of “belief and psychoanalysis”. Indeed, in this Dominican sister, a missionary in the country, religious faith and belief in her vocation of devotion closely interfere with psychoanalytical experience : on the one hand she undergoes a four year psychoanalytical cure with Doctor Jacques Lacan ; on the other hand she works for a while as a psychotherapeutist. For Mary of the Trinity psychoanalysis appears at a critical moment in her life, just as what she calls her “obsessions” make her life unbearable and even prevent her from practising her faith ; then she tries many different treatments, sometimes brutal and inhuman. Psychoanalysis won’t cure her, but thanks to this experience, she will overcome her pain and by understanding its origin will undertake “her own reeducation” and know “light and harmony” in her life of devotion. (shrink)
Marie-Hélène Desmeules | : Contre l’idée d’un temps fixe enveloppant notre expérience, les travaux de Paul Ricoeur nous permettent de penser que non seulement notre expérience du temps n’est pas si fixe qu’elle n’y paraît, mais qu’elle est en outre transformée par des refigurations découlant de nos médiations objectives. Ces médiations objectives ne se limitent pas à la narration, mais couvrent également l’amnistie, la prescription, la promesse, le pardon et les objets de notre monde familier. Chacune à leur façon, (...) les médiations examinées opèrent une synthèse du passé, du présent et du futur, au point de bouleverser le temps chronologique et successif du courant de la conscience. Ultimement, nous prendrons les réflexions de Paul Ricoeur comme ressources pour penser les implications éthiques des transformations de notre expérience du temps. Car chaque expérience du temps n’ouvre et ne ferme pas les mêmes possibilités, comme le rapport entre le pardon et l’homme capable devrait le montrer. | : Against the idea of a fixed time in which our experience would take place, Paul Ricoeur’s works allow us to think that our experience of time is not so fixed as it seems, and furthermore, that it is transformed by some refigurations which follow from an objective mediation. These objective mediation is not restricted to narrative, but also covers amnesty, prescription, promise, forgiveness and familiar things. Each examined mediation performs in its own way a synthesis of past, present and futur, to the point of changing the chronological and successive time of consciousness’ stream. We will also consider Ricoeur’s thoughts as a possibility to think ethical implications of transformations in our time experience. Every experience of time does not open and close the same ethical possibilities, as the connection between forgiveness and capable man should show it. (shrink)
L’introduction et la traduction de ce texte ont constitué un mémoire de diplôme à l’E.P.H.E. soutenu en 1996. La Préface de S. Mimouni (p. 7-17) est intitulée « Présentation générale des traditions sur l’enfance de Jésus et de Marie ». Elle s’adresse à des lecteurs sachant ce que peuvent être « la stagnation adoptionisante » et « la déviation docétisante », avertis de « la fameuse opposition entre la ’christologie d’en bas’ et la ’christologie d’en haut’ » (p. 8) et (...) au fait des ébionites et d.. (shrink)
In , P. Scowcroft and L. van den Dries proved a cell decomposition theorem for p-adically closed fields. We work here with the notion of P-minimal fields defined by D. Haskell and D. Macpherson in . We prove that a P-minimal field K admits cell decomposition if and only if K has definable selection. A preprint version in French of this result appeared as a prepublication .
The hypothesis I develop involves that we have been witnessing, during the last ten years or so, an interpenetration in the area of applied ethics of certain concepts originally belonging to different areas of ethics, namely bioethics, environmental ethics, and also business ethics. Certain concepts such as “future generations,” “consent,” “precautionary principle,” “intrinsic value,” “global governance,” “sustainable development,” or “scientific uncertainty” are becoming “thick ethical concepts,” in the terminology of metaethics; or in the terminology of American pragmatism: “living beliefs.” They (...) are now charged with strong moral contents that unfolds a new horizon of meaning at the heart of Western Modernity, a horizon largely defined by science and technical actions. Nevertheless, is this conceptual convergence in the area of applied ethics the sign of the coming of a new ethic of technique? I will discuss this topic taking as an example the case of nanotechnology. (shrink)
In his excellent paper, Nagarjuna as anti-realist, Siderits showed that it makes sense to perform a connection between the position of the Buddhist Nagarjuna and contemporary anti realist theses such as Dummett’s one. The point of this talk is to argue that this connection is an important one to perform for one’s correct understanding of what Nagarjuna is doing when he criticizes the contemporary Indian theories of knowledge and assertion, first section, but as soon as the theories of argumentation are (...) involved, this connection can be implemented in a better way from another anti realist perspective, namely the one of Dialogical logic (Erlangen school), in which the signification is given in terms of rules in a language game. The philosophical issues are to hold an interpretation of the type of assertion performed by Nagarjuna. We here aim at making a rational reconstruction of his chief claim 'I do not assert any proposition' in which a proposition is considered as the set of its strategies of justification. As for the last section, the point will be to apply these analyses to Buddhist practice. We will in this section consider the conventional character of human activities as the fact that any speech act is performed within a dialogue under ad-hoc restrictions; and the question of one’s progress in the soteriological path to liberation will be asked. (shrink)
On a longtemps rendu compte des comportements de déplacements des hommes dans l’espace par un terme renvoyant à une logique collective et de masse, celui de migration . L’intégration dans l’observation et la compréhension de toute la palette des motifs de déplacements et l’individualisation croissante des pratiques ont amené l’usage d’un terme plus générique, emprunté aux sciences sociales et notamment à ceux qui s’intéressent à la fluidité dans l’espace social, celui de mobilité. Ce glissement n’est pas purement sémantique : il (...) exprime le passage de l’empire de la nécessité aux capacités stratégiques et aux désirs des acteurs, de la représentation aréolaire d’un territoire rassemblant une « société locale » « contenant » les déplacements de ses membres à des représentations réticulaires , multi-territoriales . Sur tous ces points, les enquêtes initiées dans les années 1960 par les ingénieurs pour alimenter leurs modèles de trafic nous ont permis, grâce à l’élaboration d’indicateurs, de concepts, de représentations nouvelles, de comprendre en profondeur la dynamique et les rôles respectifs des rationalités individuelles et de la formation de normes sociales dans le champ spécifique de la mobilité quotidienne. C’est de cette construction dont nous rendons compte dans cet article, qui livre aussi à partir des quelques résultats saillants des recherches conduites, les convictions fortes en matière de dynamique de la mobilité qui s’en dégagent et les paradigmes qu’il conviendrait de mieux explorer.Spatial behaviour was studied in the past through group concepts, such as residential or regular migrations from home to work. The will to understand travel behaviour for the full range of trip purposes and the growing personalisation of behaviour leads to adopt the term of mobility from social sciences. This change is not purely semantic. It expresses the transition from a vision based on the needs to the consideration of the strategic capabilities of the persons, from areola-based representations of a local society to network and archipelago-based representations of individual behaviours. We have used, in conjunction with the international community of travel behaviour analysts, the travel surveys introduced in the sixties to feed traffic models, to build concepts, indicators and representations of travel behaviour, to understand in depth the transformations of mobility patterns and to analyze the roles of individual rationality and social norms. The paper relates this history, highlights some key results and strong beliefs, and questions the need to explore new paradigms. (shrink)
In classical India, Jain philosophers developed a theory of viewpoints ( naya-vāda ) according to which any statement is always performed within and dependent upon a given epistemic perspective or viewpoint. The Jainas furnished this epistemology with an (epistemic) theory of disputation that takes into account the viewpoint in which the main thesis has been stated. The main aim of our paper is to delve into the Jain notion of viewpoint-contextualisation and to develop the elements of a suitable logical system (...) that should offer a reconstruction of the Jainas’ epistemic theory of disputation. A crucial step of our project is to approach the Jain theory of disputation with the help of a theory of meaning for logical constants based on argumentative practices called dialogical logic . Since in the dialogical framework the meaning of the logical constants is given by the norms or rules for their use in a debate, it provides a meaning theory closer to the Jain context-sensitive disputation theory than the main-stream formal model-theoretic semantics. (shrink)
User participation is a critical ingredient for relevant technology development, whether in agriculture or industry. This has long been recognized in private sector R&D firms. In most public sector agricultural research organizations in developing countries, however, systematic involvement of farmers, especially poor farmers, in research has been weak. These farmers are rarely powerful or well organized enough to bring pressure to bear on government agencies to respond to their needs and priorities. Farmer-responsive research methods, such as on-farm research, farming systems (...) research, and farmer participatory research, have been introduced into research organizations to compensate for the lack of mechanisms for bringing farmers' views into the formulation of research priorities and agendas. The impact of these approaches in achieving this objective, however, has been less than hoped for.Insufficient attention to the political and institutional dimensions of developing client-responsive research is a major reason for this lack of impact. To bring about permanent change, farmer-responsive research methods need to be reinforced by changes in the balance of power between research and its clients and in the constellation of decisionmakers responsible for formulating research agendas. Participatory planning methods applied at the level of research programs provide new opportunities for involving farmers in decision-making about program priorities and for systematically incorporating information about client's needs. Recent experiments with strengthening farmers' associations and linking them with research organizations suggest new opportunities for increasing farmers' ability to express demand, act as an external pressure group, and serve as viable partners with research organizations. (shrink)
This paper analyzes a model of sequential parimutuel betting described as a two-horse race with a finite number of noise bettors and a finite number of strategic and symmetrically informed bettors. For generic objective probabilities that the favorite wins the race, a unique subgame perfect equilibrium is characterized. Additionally, two explanations for the favoriteâlongshot biasâaccording to which favorites win more often than the market's estimate of their winning chances implyâare offered. It is shown that this robust anomalous empirical regularity might (...) be due to the presence of transaction costs and/or to strategic bettors' subjective attitude to probabilities. (shrink)
A cursory review of the philosophy of sport readily reveals that it is dominated by Anglo-Saxon analytical philosophical milieux, in the departments of philosophy and kinesiology, the centers of bioethics, and the faculties of health around the world. In France, however, with the exception of a few researchers working in the philosophy or sport, and within an analytical paradigm, the development of the subject has gone almost unnoticed. By contrast, the discipline of history of sport clearly moved away from philosophy (...) in France with the establishment of a separate field of study based on the Anglo-Saxon model from the work pioneer of Pierre Arnaud developed by Thierry Terret and other sports historians. Nevertheless, in French universities, faculties of philosophy have not been open to research in the philosophy of the body. The philosophy of sport is not taught as such in French Universities even if our generation pursues ways opened by Jacques Ulmann, Bernard Jeu, Bernard Guillemain, Michel Bernard, Jean-Michel Berthelot, Gilbert Andrieu, Bertrand During, André Rauch, Marie-Hélène Brousse, Françoise Labridy, and Georges Vigarello, among others, through their reflections on the philosophy of the body. This article discusses the influence of some of these authors, and especially of Georges Gusdorf, Michel Foucault, and Georges Snyders on the nature and prospects for the philosophy of sport in France. (shrink)
This paper is a review of the nine chapters more directly concerned with philosophy of the volume Jaina Scriptures and Philosophy. Edited in 2015 by Peter Flügel and Olle Qvarnström, this interdisciplinary volume in philosophy, philology, linguistics, literary studies and history is presented as an essential contribution to the study of Jaina philosophy inasmuch as it offers a collection of cutting-edge analyses on the emergence and development of philosophical concepts such as the Self and its epistemic faculties, with a focus (...) on early Jaina canonical literature and commentaries thereof. (shrink)
Les grandes tendances de l’art contemporain invitent dans leurs convergences étonnantes à renouveler notre image de la culture artistique. Quasi-mysticisme des artistes «visionnaires», ou jeux del’esprit des démarches dada, se rejoignent au delà des contrastes, pour rompre avec l’héritage artistique, le savoir infaillible, les voies usuelles de communication. La «perception aigüe d’une incompréhensibilité éternelle» ou le goût de la subversion peuvent.-ils s’enseigner? Qu’en est-il de notre désir de comprendre et de faire comprendre de telles démarches?