Results for 'Sophy Downes'

140 found
Order:
  1.  43
    Greece and Iran - Darbandi, Zournatzi Ancient Greece and Ancient Iran. Cross-Cultural Encounters. 1st International Conference . Pp. Xxx + 377, B/W & Colour Ills, B/W & Colour Maps. Athens: National Hellenic Research Foundation, Hellenic National Commission for UNESCO, Cultural Center of the Embassy of the Islamic Republic of Iran in Athens, 2008. Paper, €60. ISBN: 978-960-930955-4. [REVIEW]Sophy Downes - 2010 - The Classical Review 60 (2):474-477.
  2.  5
    Perrot Ed. With an Introduction by J. Curtis. Translated by G. Collon, Translation Edited by D. Collon. The Palace of Darius at Susa: The Great Royal Residence of Achaemenid Persia. I.B. Tauris: London, 2013. Pp. Xxix + 507, Illus. £60. 9781848856219. [REVIEW]Sophy Downes - 2015 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 135:212-213.
  3. Learning Networks and Connective Knowledge.Stephen Downes - 2010 - In Harrison Hao Yang & Steve Chi-Yin Yuen (eds.), Collective Intelligence and E-Learning 2.0: Implications of Web-Based Communities and Networking. IGI Global.
    The purpose of this chapter is to outline some of the thinking behind new e-learning technology, including e-portfolios and personal learning environments. Part of this thinking is centered around the theory of connectivism, which asserts that knowledge - and therefore the learning of knowledge - is distributive, that is, not located in any given place (and therefore not 'transferred' or 'transacted' per se) but rather consists of the network of connections formed from experience and interactions with a knowing community. And (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  4. The History and Geography of Human Genes.L. Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Paoli Menozzi, Alberto Piazza & C. Stephen Downes - 1996 - Bioessays 18 (1):84-85.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   58 citations  
  5. Scientific Models.Stephen M. Downes - 2011 - Philosophy Compass 6 (11):757-764.
    This contribution provides an assessment of the epistemological role of scientific models. The prevalent view that all scientific models are representations of the world is rejected. This view points to a unified way of resolving epistemic issues for scientific models. The emerging consensus in philosophy of science that models have many different epistemic roles in science is presented and defended.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  6. The Importance of Models in Theorizing: A Deflationary Semantic View.Stephen M. Downes - 1992 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1992:142 - 153.
    I critically examine the semantic view of theories to reveal the following results. First, models in science are not the same as models in mathematics, as holders of the semantic view claim. Second, when several examples of the semantic approach are examined in detail no common thread is found between them, except their close attention to the details of model building in each particular science. These results lead me to propose a deflationary semantic view, which is simply that model construction (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   37 citations  
  7. Evolutionary Psychology.Stephen M. Downes - 2017 - In Lee McIntyre & Alex Rosenberg (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Social Science. New York, NY, USA: pp. 330-339.
  8. Heritability.Stephen M. Downes - 2015 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  9. Scientific Imperialism and Explanatory Appeals to Evolution in the Social Sciences.Stephen M. Downes - 2018 - In Uskali Mäki, Adrian Walsh & Manuela Fernández Pinto (eds.), Scientific Imperialism: Exploring the Boundaries of Interdisciplinarity. New York, NY, USA: pp. 224-236.
  10. Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Aggression.Elizabeth Cashdan & Stephen M. Downes - 2012 - Human Nature 23 (1):1-4.
    The papers in this volume present varying approaches to human aggression, each from an evolutionary perspective. The evolutionary studies of aggression collected here all pursue aspects of patterns of response to environmental circumstances and consider explicitly how those circumstances shape the costs and benefits of behaving aggressively. All the authors understand various aspects of aggression as evolved adaptations but none believe that this implies we are doomed to continued violence, but rather that variation in aggression has evolutionary roots. These papers (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  11. Evolutionary Psychology.Stephen M. Downes - 2014 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    This is an updated version of my Stanford Encyclopedia entry on Evolutionary Psychology. The 2018 version contains a new section on Human Nature as well as some new material on recent developments in Evolutionary Psychology.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  12. Arguing About Human Nature: Contemporary Debates.Stephen M. Downes & Edouard Machery (eds.) - 2013 - Routledge.
    Arguing About Human Nature covers recent debates--arising from biology, philosophy, psychology, and physical anthropology--that together systematically examine what it means to be human. Thirty-five essays--several of them appearing here for the first time in print--were carefully selected to offer competing perspectives on 12 different topics related to human nature. The context and main threads of the debates are highlighted and explained by the editors in a short, clear introduction to each of the 12 topics. Authors include Louise Anthony, Patrick Bateson, (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  13. No Magic Bullet Explains the Evolution of Unique Human Traits.Stephen M. Downes - 2013 - Biological Theory 8 (1):15-19.
    Here I outline the argument in Kim Sterelny’s book The Evolved Apprentice. I present some worries for Sterelny from the perspective of modelers in behavioral ecology. I go on to discuss Sterelny’s approach to moral psychology and finally introduce some potential new applications for his evolved apprentice view.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  14.  18
    Review of Maria Kronfeldner, What's Left of Human Nature. [REVIEW]Stephen M. Downes - 2019 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 1.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  15. How Much Work Do Scientific Images Do?Stephen Downes - 2012 - Spontaneous Generations 6 (1):115-130.
    In this paper, I defend the view that there are many scientific images that have a serious epistemic role in science but this role is not adequately accounted for by the going view of representation and its attendant theoretical commitments. The relevant view of representation is Laura Perini’s account of representation for scientific images. I draw on Adina Roskies’ work on scientific images as well as work on models in science to support my conclusion.
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  16. Models, Pictures, and Unified Accounts of Representation: Lessons From Aesthetics for Philosophy of Science.Stephen M. Downes - 2009 - Perspectives on Science 17 (4):417-428.
    Several prominent philosophers of science, most notably Ron Giere, propose that scientific theories are collections of models and that models represent the objects of scientific study. Some, including Giere, argue that models represent in the same way that pictures represent. Aestheticians have brought the picturing relation under intense scrutiny and presented important arguments against the tenability of particular accounts of picturing. Many of these arguments from aesthetics can be used against accounts of representation in philosophy of science. I rely on (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  17.  39
    Heredity and Heritability.Stephen M. Downes - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  18.  86
    Some Recent Developments in Evolutionary Approaches to the Study of Human Cognition and Behavior.Stephen M. Downes - 2001 - Biology and Philosophy 16 (5):575-94.
    In this paper I review some theoretical exchanges and empiricalresults from recent work on human behavior and cognition in thehope of indicating some productive avenues for critical engagement.I focus particular attention on methodological debates between Evolutionary Psychologists and behavioral ecologists. I argue for a broader and more encompassing approach to the evolutionarily based study of human behavior and cognition than either of these two rivals present.
    No categories
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   12 citations  
  19. Evolutionary Psychology, Adaptation and Design.Stephen M. Downes - 2014 - In P. Huneman & M. Silberstein (eds.), Handbook of Evolutionary Thinking in the Sciences. Springer. pp. 659-673.
    I argue that Evolutionary Psychologists’ notion of adaptationism is closest to what Peter Godfrey-Smith (2001) calls explanatory adaptationism and as a result, is not a good organizing principle for research in the biology of human behavior. I also argue that adopting an alternate notion of adaptationism presents much more explanatory resources to the biology of human behavior. I proceed by introducing Evolutionary Psychology and giving some examples of alternative approaches to the biological explanation of human behavior. Next I characterize adaptation (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  20.  57
    Human Nature: An Overview.Stephen M. Downes - 2018 - In Richard Joyce (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Evolution and Philosophy. New York, NY, USA: pp. 155-166.
    Debates about human nature inform every philosophical tradition from their inception (see Stevenson 2000 for many examples). Evolutionarily based criticisms of human nature are of much more recent origin. Ironically, most evolutionarily based criticisms of human nature are directed at work whose avowed goal is to biologicize human nature and even to place human nature within an evolutionary frame. Here I will focus on accounts of human nature that begin with and come after E.O. Wilson’s sociobiology. I will also focus (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  21. Socializing Naturalized Philosophy of Science.Stephen M. Downes - 1993 - Philosophy of Science 60 (3):452-468.
    I propose an approach to naturalized philosophy of science that takes the social nature of scientific practice seriously. I criticize several prominent naturalistic approaches for adopting "cognitive individualism", which limits the study of science to an examination of the internal psychological mechanisms of scientists. I argue that this limits the explanatory capacity of these approaches. I then propose a three-level model of the social nature of scientific practice, and use the model to defend the claim that scientific knowledge is socially (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  22.  19
    US Consumer Sensitivity to Corporate Social Performance Development of a Scale.Karen Paul, Lori M. Zalka, Meredith Downes, Susan Perry & Shawnta Friday - 1997 - Business and Society 36 (4):408-418.
    This study develops a scale to measure consumer sensitivity to corporate social performance using the factor analysis procedure to generate a valid and reliable 11-item scale. Results from a U.S. sample of M.B.A. students suggest that women are more sensitive to CSP than men and that Democrats are more sensitive to CSP than Republicans. Future research can use this scale to measure the correlation between attitudes toward CSP and actual behavior.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   12 citations  
  23. The Theory Theory Thrice Over: The Child as Scientist, Superscientist or Social Institution?Michael A. Bishop & Stephen M. Downes - 2002 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 33 (1):117-132.
    Alison Gopnik and Andrew Meltzoff have argued for a view they call the ‘theory theory’: theory change in science and children are similar. While their version of the theory theory has been criticized for depending on a number of disputed claims, we argue that there is a fundamental problem which is much more basic: the theory theory is multiply ambiguous. We show that it might be claiming that a similarity holds between theory change in children and (i) individual scientists, (ii) (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  24. How Biology Shapes Philosophy: New Foundations for Naturalism by Livingstone Smith, David (Ed.). [REVIEW]Stephen M. Downes - 2017 - Evolutionary Studies in Imaginative Culture 1:149-152.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  25. Alternative Splicing, the Gene Concept, and Evolution.Stephen Downes - 2004 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 26 (1):91 - 104.
    Alternative splicing allows for the production of many gene products from a single coding sequence. I introduce the concept of alternative splicing via some examples. I then discuss some current hypotheses about the explanatory role of alternative splicing, including the claim that splicing is a significant contributor to the difference in complexity between the human genome and proteosome. Hypotheses such as these bring into question our working concepts of the gene. I examine several gene concepts introduced to cope with processes (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  26.  10
    Moving Past the Levels of Selection Debates.Stephen M. Downes - 2009 - Biology and Philosophy 24 (5):703-709.
  27.  28
    Developing a Framework of System Change Between Diametric and Concentric Spaces for Early School Leaving Prevention.Paul Downes - 2016 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 48 (9).
    A ‘spatial turn’ is observed as taking place across a range of disciplines. This article discusses the relevance of this ‘spatial turn’ to the issue of early school leaving prevention and engagement of marginalised students and their parents within the educational system and other support services. Building on reconceptualisation of an aspect of structural anthropology a specific dynamic spatial interaction between diametric and concentric structures of relation is proposed. Reification is interpreted as involving a diametric space of assumed separation, closure (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  28.  11
    At the Threshold of Ricoeur’s Concerns in La Métaphore Vive: A Spatial Discourse of Diametric and Concentric Structures of Relation Building on Lévi-Strauss.Paul Downes - 2016 - Études Ricoeuriennes / Ricoeur Studies 7 (2):146-163.
    In La Métaphore Vive, spatial understandings pervade much of Ricoeur’s discussion of metaphor in terms of proximity and distance, tension, substitution, displacement, change of location, image, the ‘open’ structure of words, closure, transparency and opaqueness. Yet this is usually where space is discussed within metaphor, and as a metaphor itself, rather than as a precondition or prior system of relations to language interacting with language. Based on reinterpretation of an aspect of Lévi-Strauss’ structuralist anthropology, diametric and concentric spaces are argued (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  29. The Basic Components of the Human Mind Were Not Solidified During the Pleistocene Epoch.Stephen M. Downes - 2010 - In Francisco José Ayala & Robert Arp (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Biology. Wiley-Blackwell.
    There are a number of competing hypotheses about human evolution. For example, Homo habilis and Homo erectus could have existed together, or one could have evolved from the other, and paleontological evidence may allow us to decide between these two hypotheses (see, e.g., Spoor et al., 2007). For most who work on the biology of human behavior, there is no question that human behavior is in some large part a product of evolution. But, there are competing hypotheses in this area (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  30. Moving Past the Levels of Selection Debates: Review of Samir Okasha’s Evolution and the Levels of Selection. [REVIEW]Stephen M. Downes - 2010 - Biology and Philosophy 25 (3):417-423.
  31.  27
    Long Live Proust: The Odour-Cued Autobiographical Memory Bump.Simon Chu & John Joseph Downes - 2000 - Cognition 75 (2):B41-B50.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  32.  62
    Can Scientific Development and Children's Cognitive Development Be the Same Process?Stephen M. Downes - 1999 - Philosophy of Science 66 (4):565-578.
    In this paper I assess Gopnik and Meltzoff's developmental psychology of science as a contribution to the understanding of scientific development. I focus on two specific aspects of Gopnik and Meltzoff's approach: the relation between their views and recapitulationist views of ontogeny and phylogeny in biology, and their overall conception of cognition as a set of veridical processes. First, I discuss several issues that arise from their appeal to evolutionary biology, focusing specifically on the role of distinctions between ontogeny and (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  33.  16
    Old-New ERP Effects and Remote Memories: The Late Parietal Effect is Absent as Recollection Fails Whereas the Early Mid-Frontal Effect Persists as Familiarity is Retained.Dimitris Tsivilis, Kevin Allan, Jenna Roberts, Nicola Williams, John Joseph Downes & Wael El-Deredy - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  34.  63
    On Husserl’s Approach to Necessary Truth.Chauncey Downes - 1965 - The Monist 49 (1):87-106.
    The aim of this paper is to investigate some aspects of what Husserl means by “Apriori” in the light of recent considerations concerning the nature of necessary truth. I shall first discuss some of the results of the dispute between Carnap and Quine about analytic sentences. These results bring to the fore linguistic aspects of the problem of necessary truth. It can be shown, I believe, that Husserl’s position is substantially in accord with the basic agreements issuing from the Carnap-Quine (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  35.  33
    Integrating the Multiple Biological Causes of Human Behavior.Stephen M. Downes - 2005 - Biology and Philosophy 20 (1):177-190.
    I introduce a range of examples of different causal hypotheses about human mate selection. The hypotheses I focus on come from evolutionary psychology, fluctuating asymmetry research and chemical signaling research. I argue that a major obstacle facing an integrated biology of human behavior is the lack of a causal framework that shows how multiple proximate causal mechanisms can act together to produce components of our behavior.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  36.  33
    Truth, Selection and Scientific Inquiry.Stephen M. Downes - 2000 - Biology and Philosophy 15 (3):425-442.
    In this paper I examine various ways in whichphilosophers have made connections between truth andnatural selection. I introduce several versions ofthe view that mechanisms of true belief generationarise as a result of natural selection and argue thatthey fail to establish a connection between truth andnatural selection. I then turn to scientific truthsand argue that evolutionary accounts of the origin ofscientific truth generation mechanisms also fail. Iintroduce David Hull's selectionist model ofscientific development and argue that his account ofscientific success does not (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  37.  15
    Agents and Norms in the New Economics of Science.Stephen M. Downes - 2001 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 31 (2):224-238.
    In this article, the author focuses on Philip Kitcher's and Alvin Goldman's economic models of the social character of scientific knowledge production. After introducing some relevant methodological issues in the social sciences and characterizing Kitcher's and Goldman's models, the author goes on to show that special problems arise directly from the concept of an agent invoked in the models. The author argues that the two distinct concepts of agents, borrowed from economics and cognitive psychology, are inconsistent. Finally, the author discusses (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  38.  85
    Biological Information.Stephen M. Downes - 2005 - In Sahotra Sarkar & Jessica Pfeifer (eds.), Philosophy of Science: An Encyclopedia. New York, NY, USA:
    This paper discussses various concepts of biological information with particular attention being paid to genetic information.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  39.  18
    Developing Derrida's Psychoanalytic Graphology: Diametric and Concentric Spatial Movements.Paul Downes - 2013 - Derrida Today 6 (2):197-221.
    Derrida's work encompasses dynamic spatial dimensions to understanding as a pervasive theme, including the search for a ‘new psychoanalytic graphology’ in Writing and Difference. This preoccupation with a spatial text for repression also occurs later in Archive Fever. Building on Derrida, this paper seeks to develop key aspects of a new dynamic psychoanalytic graphology through diametric and concentric interactive spatial relation. These spatial movements emerge from a radical reconstruction of a neglected aspect of structural anthropologist Lévi-Strauss’ work on spatial relations (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  40.  3
    Baldwin Effects and the Expansion of the Explanatory Repertoire in Evolutionary Biology.Stephen Downes - 2003 - In Bruce H. Weber & David J. Depew (eds.), Evolution and Learning: The Baldwin Effect Reconsidered. MIT Press. pp. 33--351.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  41. An Introduction to Connective Knowledge.Stephen Downes - 2008 - In Theo Hug (ed.), Media, Knowledge & Education - Exploring new Spaces, Relations and Dynamics in Digital Media Ecologies. Innsbruck University Press.
    This paper provides an overview of connective knowledge. It is intended to be an introduction, expressed as non-technically as possible.
    Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  42.  9
    Transition as a Displacement From More Fundamental System Concerns: Distinguishing Four Different Meanings of Transition in Education.Paul Downes - 2019 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 51 (14):1465-1476.
    There is a danger that transition becomes a concept that aids the official reality of a school or education system to mask the unofficial system difficulties. This article distinguishes fou...
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  43.  3
    The Role of Ancient DNA Research in Archaeology.Stephen M. Downes - forthcoming - Topoi:1-9.
    In this paper I briefly introduce work on ancient-DNA and give some examples of the impact this work has had on responses to questions in archaeology. Next, I spell out David Reich’s reasons for his optimism about the contribution aDNA research makes to archaeology. I then use Robert Chapman and Alison Wylie’s framework to offer an alternative to Reich’s view of relations between aDNA research and archaeology. Finally, I develop Steven Mithen’s point about the different questions archaeologists and geneticists ask, (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  44. Ontogeny, Phylogeny, and Scientific Development.S. M. Downes - 1999 - In V. Harcastle (ed.), Where Biology Meets Psychology. pp. 273--285.
  45.  6
    Book Review: Conquest of Abundance: A Tale of Abstraction Versus the Richness of Being, The Worst Enemy of Science? Essays in Memory of Paul Feyerabend. [REVIEW]Stephen M. Downes - 2002 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 27:160-167.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  46.  67
    Husserl and the Coherence of the Other Minds Problem.Chauncey Downes - 1965 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 26 (2):253-259.
  47.  9
    Variability of Aggression.Stephen M. Downes & James Tabery - 2017 - In T. Shackleford & V. Weekes-Shackleford (eds.), Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science. Dordrecht, Netherlands:
    Variability of aggression: human aggressive behavior varies on a number of dimensions. We argue that this variability is best understood through an interdisciplinary evolutionary approach.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  48.  7
    Modeling Scientific Practice: Paul Thagard's Computational Approach.Stephen M. Downes - 1993 - New Ideas in Psychology 11 (2):229-243.
    In this paper I examine Paul Thagard's computational approach to studying science, which is a contribution to the cognitive science of science. I present several criticisms of Thagard's approach and use them to motivate some suggestions for alternative approaches in cognitive science of science. I first argue that Thagard does not clearly establish the units of analysis of his study. Second, I argue that Thagard mistakenly applies the same model to both individual and group decision making. Finally, I argue that (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  49. Genes in Medicine: Molecular Biology and Human Genetic Disorders.Istvan Rasko, C. Stephen Downes & David J. Weatherall - 1996 - Bioessays 18 (2):169-169.
  50.  41
    Responses to 'Pathologies of Science'.Sven Andersson, Elazar Barkan, Kenneth Caneva, Randall Collins, Stephen Downes, Henry Etzkowitz, Steve Fuller, David Gorman, Frederick Grinnell, David Hollinger, Anne Holmquest & Charles Willard - 1987 - Social Epistemology 1 (3):249-281.
1 — 50 / 140