This article takes issue with the formalism problem arguably pertaining to Habermas's conception of communicative rationality and discursive justification. Beginning with the Hegelian premises of Habermas's theory of mutual understanding and communicative rationality, the article proceeds to make Kant's doctrine of reflective judgement fruitful for a critique of Habermas's restriction of reasons to discursively articulated endorsements, the 'force of the better reasons'. The argument consists in showing that discursive justification must rely upon endorsements of particulars exhibited in right judgements, and (...) that such endorsements must be expressed or articulated to yield public manifestations of discursive orientations and commitments, constituting what is referred to as 'communicative experience'. On the account presented here, the rational significance of particulars is revealed in the expressive attitude that allows or admits non-discursive constraints to the conception of rational justification. The promise of such an account - as premised upon Kant's insights in his third Critique - consists in its capability to avoid the one-sided formalism of discursive rationality, incorporating ethical, expressive and aesthetic dimensions to our rational self-conception. Key Words: aesthetic experience communicative experience concrete other discourse-ethics ethical life feminism Habermas Hegel Kant morality rational justification reflective judgement world-disclosure. (shrink)
This article considers the treatment of intersubjectivity as the core of Husserl's transcendental phenomenology. From this standpoint it identifies the problematic of Husserl's theory of the "experience of the Other", which Husserl exposes in his commentaries on Descartes V Meditation. The paper draws a parallel between Husserl and Kant in order to clarify the Husserlian notions, and finally shows the difficulties of Husserl's approach due to his assumption of the premises of the "Subjektsphilosophie".
Bu çalışmada İbn-i Hüsam Husafi’nin Hâverânnâme adlı eserinin beş minyatürü incelenmiştir. Bunlardan dört tanesi Tahran Gülistan Sarayı Kütüphanesi’nde bulunan Hâverânnâmede mevcuttur.Tek yapraklı çalışma ise Rıza Abbasi Müzesi’nde bulunmaktadır. Bu minyatürleri Şiraz minyatür okulu sanatçılarından Ferhad ve çırakları çizmişlerdir. Bu çalışmalarda Hz. Ali ejderha ile çetin bir mücadele içinde tasvir edilmiştir. Bu eserlerden dört tanesi yayınlarda yer almaktadır ancak yeterince tetkik edilmemiş ve bazı konular açıklanmamıştır. Bizim tanıtmaya çalıştığımız minyatürle ilgili şu ana kadar herhangi bir yayında bilgi bulunmamaktadır. Minyatürün ustaca çizimi (...) nakkaş Ferhad’ın elinden çıktığının önemli bir kanıtıdır. Eserde Hz. Ali çeşitli bitkilerle kaplı zeminde Düldül’e binmiş, sağ elinde Zülfikâr ile yedi başlı ejderhaya saldırmaktadır. Eserin üstünde sağda üç şahıs, onun üstünde nesta’lik şiirler, altta hayali canavarlar ve yine konuyla ilgili şiirler mevcuttur. Hâverânnâme’deki minyatürler dünyanın değişik bölgelerinde ve özellikle batıda yapılan müzayedelerde sergilenmekte ve satılmaktadır. Envanter defterinde, üzerinde çalıştığımız tek yapraklı minyatürün geçmiş hareketleri için bilgi yer almamaktadır. Araştırmalarımız sonucunda bu eserin Gülistan Sarayı Kütüphanesindeki Hâverânnâme’ye ait olup işaret ettiğimiz müzayedelerden satın alınmış ve önemi sebebiyle iyi korunmuştur. (shrink)
This book offers even more than its title promises. Embarrassed with my translation of échec, I emphasize that its authors not only reflect on "Man and Failure," but design a vast anthropological fresco by approaching their topic from psychological, economical, medical, religious and philosophical points of view. Jean Lacroix published a book on Failure some years ago; in 1968 he asked thirteen outstanding French writing personalities for contributions to an interdisciplinary study on the same issue. The result is a remarkable (...) collection of insights into this basic experience in human life. Joseph Nuttin, professor in experimental psychology, presents his most recent researches on the transformation of a person's needs and energies into a "project" of life. Failure, the unsuccess of such a project, gives cognitive information useful for subsequent conduct. Raymond Carpentier sees failure in the area of communication: it reveals the ambiguity of any information. On the level of consciousness, he writes, reality only exists in so far as its own failure is contained in its very structure. "Ambiguous like life itself, communication is what has reality only when it does not succeed in its materializations." François Perroux, economist, both calmly and alarmingly sketches the perhaps imminent failure of our economic system. Three other articles deal with ethnological and medical problems. The philosopher and psychoanalyst Mrs. Eliane Amado Lévy-Valenski, author of L'humanisme psychanalytique, le mythe grec et la phénoménologie biblique, pursues her threefold investigation: "Psychoanalysis, Phenomenology or Ontology of Failure?" To fail in one's efforts is both a trial and a temptation, but it also points toward the emergence of infinity within finitude. The three religious contributions give the most personal penetration of the subject. They are the center of the book. The last section deals with three philosophies: the failing thought of Being, the critique of humanism, the restoration of motivations in action. The first of them is due to Rouven Gilead, professor at the University of Tel-Aviv and author of one of the best books on Heidegger. His paper suggests what radical Failure would mean: not of man, nor of given historical situations, nor even of metaphysics, although these three approaches are true. But the "truth of Being" in modern subjectivity, in sciences and in philosophy remains hidden. Our horizon of thought is the nihilism of Being. The fundamental Failure, then, is the history of Being itself.--R. S. (shrink)
Several quantitative studies (e.g. Kidd & Castano, 2013a; Djikic et al., 2013) have shown a positive correlation between literary reading and empathy. However, the literary nature of the stimuli used in these studies has not been defined at a more detailed, stylistic level. In order to explore the stylistic underpinnings of the hypothesized link between literariness and empathy, we conducted a qualitative experiment in which the degree of stylistic foregrounding was manipulated. Subjects (N = 37) read versions of Katherine Mansfield's (...) 'The Fly', a short story rich in foregrounding, while marking striking and evocative passages of their choosing. Afterwards, they were asked to select three markings and elaborate on their experiences in writing. One group read the original story, while the other read a 'non-literary' version, produced by an established author of suspense fiction for young adults, where stylistic foregrounding was reduced. We found that the non-literary version elicited significantly more (p < 0.05) explicitly empathic responses than the original story. This finding stands in contradiction to widely accepted assumptions in recent research, but can be assimilated in alternative models of literariness and affect in literary reading (e.g. Cupchik et al., 1998). We present an analysis of the data with a view to offering more than one interpretation of the observed effects of stylistic foregrounding. (shrink)
Cet article, issu d?une?tude men?e au sein du Groupe de Recherches Mat?rialistes, vise? critiquer la matrice id?ologique neocolonialiste du c?l?bre et controvers? discours que Nicolas Sarkozy tint? Dakar en 2007. Les th?ses de l?ancien Pr?sident de la R?publique Fran?aise sont d?embl?e reconduites aux st?r?otypes colonialistes, puis d?construites? partir de l?invitation? revenir sur cette page de l?histoire formul?e par Makhili Gassama, ancien conseilleur de Senghor. Tout en reconnaissant la complicit? d?une grosse partie des politiciens africains dans le partage et saccage de (...) leur continent et dans les guerres qui les traversent, l?article veut contrecarrer le discours de Sarkozy par les paroles de trois repr?sentants les plus significatifs du panafricanisme: Kwame Nkrumah, Patrice Lumumba et Thomas Sankara. Ces trois hommes politiques ont d?nonc? avec fermet? les int?r?ts?conomiques n?ocoloniaux qui emp?chent une v?ritable ind?pendance de l?Afrique. Il s?agit en outre de souligner que l?oblit?ration et le refoulement des souffrances provoqu?es par la colonisation au sein des pays de l?occident sont l?indice de l?acceptation par la majorit? de leurs populations de l??tat des choses en Afrique, qui est ainsi, en quelque sorte, naturalis?. Cette acceptation tacite constitue une condition fondamentale de la reproduction quotidienne du dispositif pacificateur de domination au sein du monde d?velopp?. Les maux de l?Afrique trouvent leur cause alors moins dans une attitude de l?homme africain que dans un syst?me de domination?conomique et id?ologique assur? par les institutions internationales tels que l?ONU, la Banque mondiale ou le FMI. Clanak je proistekao iz studije koja je izvedena u okviru Grupe za materijalisticka istrazivanja, i za cilj ima kritiku neokolonijalne ideoloske matrice koja stoji iza slavnog i kontroverznog govora koji je Nikola Sarkozi odrzao u Dakaru 2007. Stavovi bivseg predsednika Republike Francuske odmah su povezani sa kolonijalnim stereotipima pozvao na ponovno ispitivanje ove stranice istorije. Taj poziv nije toliko upucen francuskoj desnici koliko francuskim i zapadnim elitama uopste. Iako priznaje da je veliki deo africkih politicara ucestvovao u stvaranju haosa na svom kontinentu, u njegovom rasparcavanju i u ratovima koji ga unistavaju, on zeli da se Sarkozijevom govoru suprotstavi recima trojice najznacajnijih predstavnika panafrikanizma: Kvamea Nkrumaha, Patrisa Lumumbe i Tomasa Sankara. Ova tri politicara cvrsto su se suprotstavili neokolonijalnim ekonomskim interesima koji stoje na putu istinske africke nezavisnosti. Povrh toga, treba istaci da su zaboravljanje i potiskivanje patnji koje je donela kolonizacija, a sto je na delu u zapadnim zemljama, znak da je vecina njihovih stanovnistava prihvata stanje stvari u Africi kao nesto sto je na neki nacin prirodno. To precutno prihvatanje predstavlja osnovni uslov svakodnevne reprodukcije pacifikatorskog diskursa nadmocnog zapada. Africke nevolje, otud, svoj uzrok nemaju toliko u stavu africkog coveka, koliko u sistemu ekonomske i ideoloske dominacije koji osiguravaju medjunarodne ustanove poput Ujedinjenih nacija, Svetske banke ili MMF-a. (shrink)
This is an interesting intellectual biography of the early years of Merleau-Ponty's philosophical life. The author claims a clear change of thinking took place in 1939, when Merleau-Ponty began to read some of Husserl's manuscripts, and attempts to sketch his thought up to that point. He gives biographical data on his early life; analyzes his first two publications, on Scheler and Marcel; and describes his relationship with Sartre and other major figures of the time. He claims that the philosophical problem (...) bothering Merleau-Ponty at the time of La structure du comportement was that of reconciling a reflective approach to man with the scientific, objective approach. This dilemma was resolved in the philosophy of perceptual experience, in which the perceiver is taken as both a part of the world and the bodily subject that enjoys the world. Geraets observes that Merleau-Ponty tries to avoid the classical transcendental philosophy, and finds the foundation of philosophy not in a pure subject but in the process of experiencing; in this he differs even from Husserl, who provided him with the key to avoid the nagging objectivism of his early works by showing that the true transcendentals were concrete ingredients like the world, perception, the body, and place, and not the forms of scientific thinking or pure intellect. Geraets gives a long commentary on La structure du comportement; shows the influence of Bergson and the psychologists on Merleau-Ponty; and traces in detail the influence of essays by Fink and Landgrebe, with their Heideggerian dimensions. There is a preface by Emmanuel Levinas, and a ten-page bibliography of the publications of Merleau-Ponty, listed chronologically in order of appearance.--R. S. (shrink)
This collection of essays by leading international philosophers considers central themes in the ethics of Danish philosopher Knud Ejler Løgstrup (1905–1981). Løgstrup was a Lutheran theologian much influenced by phenomenology and by strong currents in Danish culture, to which he himself made important contributions. The essays in What Is Ethically Demanded? K. E. Løgstrup’s Philosophy of Moral Life are divided into four sections. The first section deals predominantly with Løgstrup’s relation to Kant and, through Kant, the system of morality in (...) general. The second section focuses on how Løgstrup stands in connection with Kierkegaard, Heidegger, and Levinas. The third section considers issues in the development of Løgstrup’s ethics and how it relates to other aspects of his thought. The final section covers certain central themes in Løgstrup’s position, particularly his claims about trust and the unfulfillability of the ethical demand. The volume includes a previously untranslated early essay by Løgstrup, “The Anthropology of Kant’s Ethics,” which defines some of his basic ethical ideas in opposition to Kant’s. The book will appeal to philosophers and theologians with an interest in ethics and the history of philosophy. (shrink)