Results for 'Statistics'

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  1.  11
    Two Approaches to Fractional Statistics in the Quantum Hall Effect: Idealizations and the Curious Case of the Anyon.Elay Shech - 2015 - Foundations of Physics 45 (9):1063-1100.
    This paper looks at the nature of idealizations and representational structures appealed to in the context of the fractional quantum Hall effect, specifically, with respect to the emergence of anyons and fractional statistics. Drawing on an analogy with the Aharonov–Bohm effect, it is suggested that the standard approach to the effects— the topological approach to fractional statistics—relies essentially on problematic idealizations that need to be revised in order for the theory to be explanatory. An alternative geometric approach is (...)
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  2. Connecting Spin and Statistics in Quantum Mechanics.Arthur Jabs - 2014 - arXiv:0810.2399.
    The spin-statistics connection is derived in a simple manner under the postulates that the original and the exchange wave functions are simply added, and that the azimuthal phase angle, which defines the orientation of the spin part of each single-particle spin-component eigenfunction in the plane normal to the spin-quantization axis, is exchanged along with the other parameters. The spin factor (−1)2s belongs to the exchange wave function when this function is constructed so as to get the spinor ambiguity under (...)
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  3.  98
    Applications of Quantum Statistics in Psychological Studies of Decision Processes.Diedrik Aerts & Sven Aerts - 1995 - Foundations of Science 1 (1):85-97.
    We present a new approach to the old problem of how to incorporate the role of the observer in statistics. We show classical probability theory to be inadequate for this task and take refuge in the epsilon-model, which is the only model known to us caapble of handling situations between quantum and classical statistics. An example is worked out and some problems are discussed as to the new viewpoint that emanates from our approach.
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  4. Inherent Properties and Statistics with Individual Particles in Quantum Mechanics.Matteo Morganti - 2009 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 40 (3):223-231.
    This paper puts forward the hypothesis that the distinctive features of quantum statistics are exclusively determined by the nature of the properties it describes. In particular, all statistically relevant properties of identical quantum particles in many-particle systems are conjectured to be irreducible, ‘inherent’ properties only belonging to the whole system. This allows one to explain quantum statistics without endorsing the ‘Received View’ that particles are non-individuals, or postulating that quantum systems obey peculiar probability distributions, or assuming that there (...)
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  5.  99
    Disparate Statistics.Kevin P. Tobia - 2017 - Yale Law Journal 126 (8):2382-2420.
    Statistical evidence is crucial throughout disparate impact’s three-stage analysis: during (1) the plaintiff’s prima facie demonstration of a policy’s disparate impact; (2) the defendant’s job-related business necessity defense of the discriminatory policy; and (3) the plaintiff’s demonstration of an alternative policy without the same discriminatory impact. The circuit courts are split on a vital question about the “practical significance” of statistics at Stage 1: Are “small” impacts legally insignificant? For example, is an employment policy that causes a one percent (...)
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  6. Multinomial Distribution, Quantum Statistics and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Like Phenomena.Ratan Dasgupta & Sisir Roy - 2008 - Foundations of Physics 38 (4):384-394.
    Bose-Einstein statistics may be characterized in terms of multinomial distribution. From this characterization, an information theoretic analysis is made for Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen like situation; using Shannon’s measure of entropy.
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  7.  77
    Early Stopping of RCTs: Two Potential Issues for Error Statistics.Roger Stanev - 2015 - Synthese 192 (4):1089-1116.
    Error statistics is an important methodological view in philosophy of statistics and philosophy of science that can be applied to scientific experiments such as clinical trials. In this paper, I raise two potential issues for ES when it comes to guiding, and explaining early stopping of randomized controlled trials : ES provides limited guidance in cases of early unfavorable trends due to the possibility of trend reversal; ES is silent on how to prospectively control error rates in experiments (...)
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  8. Rotational Invariance and the Spin-Statistics Theorem.Paul O'Hara - 2003 - Foundations of Physics 33 (9):1349-1368.
    In this article, the rotational invariance of entangled quantum states is investigated as a possible cause of the Pauli exclusion principle. First, it is shown that a certain class of rotationally invariant states can only occur in pairs. This is referred to as the coupling principle. This in turn suggests a natural classification of quantum systems into those containing coupled states and those that do not. Surprisingly, it would seem that Fermi–Dirac statistics follows as a consequence of this coupling (...)
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  9.  28
    Proof of the Spin–Statistics Theorem.Enrico Santamato & Francesco De Martini - 2015 - Foundations of Physics 45 (7):858-873.
    The traditional standard quantum mechanics theory is unable to solve the spin–statistics problem, i.e. to justify the utterly important “Pauli Exclusion Principle”. A complete and straightforward solution of the spin–statistics problem is presented on the basis of the “conformal quantum geometrodynamics” theory. This theory provides a Weyl-gauge invariant formulation of the standard quantum mechanics and reproduces successfully all relevant quantum processes including the formulation of Dirac’s or Schrödinger’s equation, of Heisenberg’s uncertainty relations and of the nonlocal EPR correlations. (...)
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  10.  17
    Spin-Statistics Connection for Relativistic Quantum Mechanics.A. F. Bennett - 2015 - Foundations of Physics 45 (4):370-381.
    The spin-statistics connection has been proved for nonrelativistic quantum mechanics . The proof is extended here to the relativistic regime using the parametrized Dirac equation. A causality condition is not required.
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  11. Some Issues in the Foundation of Statistics.David Freedman - 1995 - Foundations of Science 1 (1):19-39.
    After sketching the conflict between objectivists and subjectivists on the foundations of statistics, this paper discusses an issue facing statisticians of both schools, namely, model validation. Statistical models originate in the study of games of chance, and have been successfully applied in the physical and life sciences. However, there are basic problems in applying the models to social phenomena; some of the difficulties will be pointed out. Hooke's law will be contrasted with regression models for salary discrimination, the latter (...)
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  12.  72
    Galton's Blinding Glasses. Modern Statistics Hiding Causal Structure in Early Theories of Inheritance.Bert Leuridan - 2007 - In Federica Russo & Jon Williamson (eds.), Causality and Probability in the Sciences. pp. 243--262.
    ABSTRACT. Probability and statistics play an important role in contemporary -philosophy of causality. They are viewed as glasses through which we can see or detect causal relations. However, they may sometimes act as blinding glasses, as I will argue in this paper. In the 19th century, Francis Galton tried to statistically analyze hereditary phenomena. Although he was a far better statistician than Gregor Mendel, his biological theory turned out to be less fruitful. This was no sheer accident. His knowledge (...)
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  13.  32
    Spin and Statistics and First Principles.Sergio Doplicher - 2010 - Foundations of Physics 40 (7):719-732.
    It was shown in the early seventies that, in Local Quantum Theory (that is the most general formulation of Quantum Field Theory, if we leave out only the unknown scenario of Quantum Gravity) the notion of Statistics can be grounded solely on the local observable quantities (without assuming neither the commutation relations nor even the existence of unobservable charged field operators); one finds that only the well known (para)statistics of Bose/Fermi type are allowed by the key principle of (...)
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  14.  30
    OBCS: The Ontology of Biological and Clinical Statistics.Jie Zheng, Marcelline R. Harris, Anna Maria Masci, Yu Lin, Alfred Hero, Barry Smith & Yongqun He - 2014 - Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Biomedical Ontology 1327:65.
    Statistics play a critical role in biological and clinical research. To promote logically consistent representation and classification of statistical entities, we have developed the Ontology of Biological and Clinical Statistics (OBCS). OBCS extends the Ontology of Biomedical Investigations (OBI), an OBO Foundry ontology supported by some 20 communities. Currently, OBCS contains 686 terms, including 381 classes imported from OBI and 147 classes specific to OBCS. The goal of this paper is to present OBCS for community critique and to (...)
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  15.  15
    How to Be Real and Conventional: A Discussion of the Quality Criteria of Official Statistics.Alain Desrosières - 2009 - Minerva 47 (3):307-322.
    Are the categories used to study the social world and acting on it real or conventional ? An empirical answer to that question is given by an analysis of the debates about the quality of statistics produced by the European National Institues of statistics in the 1990s. Six criteria of quality were then specified: relevance, accuracy, timeliness, accessibility, comparability and coherence. How do statisticians and users of statistics deal with the tension produced by their objects being both (...)
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  16.  8
    Statistics as Science: Lonergan, McShane, and Popper.Patrick H. Byrne - 2003 - Journal of Macrodynamic Analysis 3:55-75.
    On this occasion of honouring the achievement of Philip McShane, I would like to recall his earliest and, in my judgment, most important work, Randomness, Statistics and Emergence. In particular, I will recall how that work situated Lonergan’s important breakthrough on statistical method in relation to the major currents of thought on the subject, many of which remain influential still today.
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  17.  47
    Steps Towards the Axiomatic Foundations of the Relativistic Quantum Field Theory: Spin-Statistics, Commutation Relations, and CPT Theorems. [REVIEW]Gabriel D. Puccini & Héctor Vucetich - 2004 - Foundations of Physics 34 (4):643-667.
    A realistic physical axiomatic approach of the relativistic quantum field theory is presented. Following the action principle of Schwinger, a covariant and general formulation is obtained. The correspondence principle is not invoked and the commutation relations are not postulated but deduced. The most important theorems such as spin-statistics, and CPT are proved. The theory is constructed form the notion of basic field and system of basic fields. In comparison with others formulations, in our realistic approach fields are regarded as (...)
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  18.  36
    On the Geometry of the Berry-Robbins Approach to Spin-Statistics.Nikolaos Papadopoulos & Andrés F. Reyes-Lega - 2010 - Foundations of Physics 40 (7):829-851.
    Within a geometric and algebraic framework, the structures which are related to the spin-statistics connection are discussed. A comparison with the Berry-Robbins approach is made. The underlying geometric structure constitutes an additional support for this approach. In our work, a geometric approach to quantum indistinguishability is introduced which allows the treatment of singlevaluedness of wave functions in a global, model independent way.
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  19.  32
    Remarks on the Configuration Space Approach to Spin-Statistics.Andrés F. Reyes-Lega & Carlos Benavides - 2010 - Foundations of Physics 40 (7):1004-1029.
    The angular momentum operators for a system of two spin-zero indistinguishable particles are constructed, using Isham’s Canonical Group Quantization method. This mathematically rigorous method provides a hint at the correct definition of (total) angular momentum operators, for arbitrary spin, in a system of indistinguishable particles. The connection with other configuration space approaches to spin-statistics is discussed, as well as the relevance of the obtained results in view of a possible alternative proof of the spin-statistics theorem.
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  20.  21
    Emancipation Through Interaction — How Eugenics and Statistics Converged and Diverged.Francisco Louçã - 2009 - Journal of the History of Biology 42 (4):649 - 684.
    The paper discusses the scope and influence of eugenics in defining the scientific programme of statistics and the impact of the evolution of biology on social scientists. It argues that eugenics was instrumental in providing a bridge between sciences, and therefore created both the impulse and the institutions necessary for the birth of modern statistics in its applications first to biology and then to the social sciences. Looking at the question from the point of view of the history (...)
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  21.  18
    Identity in Physics: Properties, Statistics and the (Non-) Individuality of Quantum Particles.Matteo Morganti - 2012 - In Henk W. de Regt (ed.), Epsa Philosophy of Science: Amsterdam 2009. Springer. pp. 227--237.
    An argument to the effect that non-relativistic quantum particles can be understood as individual objects in spite of the empirical evidence seemingly lending support to the opposite conclusion. Ways to understand quantum indistinguishability and quantum statistics in terms of individuals are indicated.
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  22.  19
    Causality and Statistics on the Groenewold–Moyal Plane.A. P. Balachandran, Anosh Joseph & Pramod Padmanabhan - 2010 - Foundations of Physics 40 (7):692-702.
    Quantum theories constructed on the noncommutative spacetime called the Groenewold–Moyal plane exhibit many interesting properties such as Lorentz and CPT noninvariance, causality violation and twisted statistics. We show that such violations lead to many striking features that may be tested experimentally. These theories predict Pauli forbidden transitions due to twisted statistics, anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background radiation due to correlations of observables in spacelike regions and Lorentz and CPT violations in scattering amplitudes.
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  23.  15
    Spin-Statistics Transmutation in Quantum Field Theory.P. A. Marchetti - 2010 - Foundations of Physics 40 (7):746-764.
    Spin-statistics transmutation is the phenomenon occurring when a “dressing” transformation introduced for physical reasons (e.g. gauge invariance) modifies the “bare” spin and statistics of particles or fields. Historically, it first appeared in Quantum Mechanics and in semiclassical approximation to Quantum Field Theory. After a brief historical introduction, we sketch how to describe such phenomenon in Quantum Field Theory beyond the semiclassical approximation, using a path-integral formulation of euclidean correlation functions, exemplifying with anyons, dyons and skyrmions.
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  24. Clinical Intuition Versus Statistics: Different Modes of Tacit Knowledge in Clinical Epidemiology and Evidence-Based Medicine.Hillel D. Braude - 2009 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 30 (3):181-198.
    Despite its phenomenal success since its inception in the early nineteen-nineties, the evidence-based medicine movement has not succeeded in shaking off an epistemological critique derived from the experiential or tacit dimensions of clinical reasoning about particular individuals. This critique claims that the evidence-based medicine model does not take account of tacit knowing as developed by the philosopher Michael Polanyi. However, the epistemology of evidence-based medicine is premised on the elimination of the tacit dimension from clinical judgment. This is demonstrated through (...)
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  25.  12
    Homeostasis and Gauss Statistics: Barriers to Understanding Natural Variability.Bruce J. West - 2010 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (3):403-408.
  26.  13
    Statistics‐Based Research – a Pig in a Poke?James Penston - 2011 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (5):862-867.
  27.  30
    Comment: Statistics and Metaphysics.Clark Glymour - 2012 - Journal of the American Statistical Association 81:964-966.
  28.  49
    Bayesian Statistics in Medical Research: An Intuitive Alternative to Conventional Data Analysis.Lyle C. Gurrin, Jennifer J. Kurinczuk & Paul R. Burton - 2000 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 6 (2):193-204.
  29.  32
    Bayeswatch: An Overview of Bayesian Statistics.Peter C. Austin, Lawrence J. Brunner & Janet E. Hux Md Sm - 2002 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 8 (2):277-286.
  30.  26
    Countable Additivity and the Foundations of Bayesian Statistics.John V. Howard - 2006 - Theory and Decision 60 (2-3):127-135.
  31.  42
    Physical Probability and Bayesian Statistics.Stephen Spielman - 1977 - Synthese 36 (2):235 - 269.
  32.  6
    Simple Co‐Occurrence Statistics Reproducibly Predict Association Ratings.Markus J. Hofmann, Chris Biemann, Chris Westbury, Mariam Murusidze, Markus Conrad & Arthur M. Jacobs - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (7):2287-2312.
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  33.  38
    Gender Justice and Statistics.Scott Wisor - 2016 - In Kim Rubenstein & Katharine Young (eds.), The Public Law of Gender: From the Local to the Global. Cambridge University Press.
    The last two decades have seen a welcome proliferation of the collection and dissemination of data on social progress, as well as considered public debates rethinking existing standards of measuring the progress of societies. These efforts are to be welcomed. However, they are only a nascent step on a longer road to the improved measurement of social progress. In this paper, I focus on the central role that gender should take in future efforts to measure progress in securing human rights, (...)
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  34.  11
    Expectational V. Instrumental Reasoning: What Statistics Contributes to Practical Reasoning.Mariam Thalos - 2017 - Diametros 53:125-149.
    Utility theories—both Expected Utility and non-Expected Utility theories—offer numericalized representations of classical principles meant for the regulation of choice under conditions of risk—a type of formal representation that reduces the representation of risk to a single number. I shall refer to these as risk-numericalizing theories of decision. I shall argue that risk--numericalizing theories are not satisfactory answers to the question: “How do I take the means to my ends?” In other words, they are inadequate or incomplete as instrumental theories. They (...)
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  35.  14
    Nonreinforced Trials in Concept Identification: Presolution Statistics and Local Consistency.Leona S. Aiken, John L. Santa & Alan B. Ruskin - 1972 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 93 (1):100.
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  36.  11
    Seidenfeld's Critique of Kyburgian Statistics.Stephen Spielman - 1980 - Journal of Philosophy 77 (12):791-797.
    Seidenfeld's Critique of HenryKyburg's statistical treatment of probability is shown to be unjustified.
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  37.  4
    The Summation Method in Statistics.H. S. Razran & M. E. Wagner - 1931 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 14 (3):270.
  38. Statistics in Physical Science.Walter Clark Hamilton - 1964 - New York: Ronald Press Co..
     
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  39. Randomness, Statistics and Emergence.Philip Mcshane - 1970 - University of Notre Dame Press.
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  40.  8
    Statistics and Probability Have Always Been Value-Laden: An Historical Ontology of Quantitative Research Methods.Michael J. Zyphur & Dean C. Pierides - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-18.
    Quantitative researchers often discuss research ethics as if specific ethical problems can be reduced to abstract normative logics. Such approaches overlook how values are embedded in every aspect of quantitative methods, including ‘observations,’ ‘facts,’ and notions of ‘objectivity.’ We describe how quantitative research practices, concepts, discourses, and their objects/subjects of study have always been value-laden, from the invention of statistics and probability in the 1600s to their subsequent adoption as a logic made to appear as if it exists prior (...)
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  41. The Foundations of Statistics.Leonard J. Savage - 1954 - Wiley Publications in Statistics.
    Classic analysis of the subject and the development of personal probability; one of the greatest controversies in modern statistcal thought.
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  42. On the Explanation for Quantum Statistics.Simon Saunders - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 37 (1):192-211.
    The concept of classical indistinguishability is analyzed and defended against a number of well-known criticisms, with particular attention to the Gibbs’paradox. Granted that it is as much at home in classical as in quantum statistical mechanics, the question arises as to why indistinguishability, in quantum mechanics but not in classical mechanics, forces a change in statistics. The answer, illustrated with simple examples, is that the equilibrium measure on classical phase space is continuous, whilst on Hilbert space it is discrete. (...)
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  43.  11
    Infinitesimal Idealization, Easy Road Nominalism, and Fractional Quantum Statistics.Elay Shech - 2019 - Synthese 1 (5):1963-1990.
    It has been recently debated whether there exists a so-called “easy road” to nominalism. In this essay, I attempt to fill a lacuna in the debate by making a connection with the literature on infinite and infinitesimal idealization in science through an example from mathematical physics that has been largely ignored by philosophers. Specifically, by appealing to John Norton’s distinction between idealization and approximation, I argue that the phenomena of fractional quantum statistics bears negatively on Mary Leng’s proposed path (...)
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  44.  9
    The Emergence of Modern Statistics in Agricultural Science: Analysis of Variance, Experimental Design and the Reshaping of Research at Rothamsted Experimental Station, 1919–1933.Giuditta Parolini - 2015 - Journal of the History of Biology 48 (2):301-335.
    During the twentieth century statistical methods have transformed research in the experimental and social sciences. Qualitative evidence has largely been replaced by quantitative results and the tools of statistical inference have helped foster a new ideal of objectivity in scientific knowledge. The paper will investigate this transformation by considering the genesis of analysis of variance and experimental design, statistical methods nowadays taught in every elementary course of statistics for the experimental and social sciences. These methods were developed by the (...)
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  45.  56
    Trial by Statistics: Is a High Probability of Guilt Enough to Convict?Marcello Di Bello - forthcoming - Mind:fzy026.
    Suppose one hundred prisoners are in a yard under the supervision of a guard, and at some point, ninety-nine of them collectively kill the guard. If, after the fact, a prisoner is picked at random and tried, the probability of his guilt is 99%. But despite the high probability, the statistical chances, by themselves, seem insufficient to justify a conviction. The question is why. Two arguments are offered. The first, decision-theoretic argument shows that a conviction solely based on the (...) in the prisoner scenario is unacceptable so long as the goal of expected utility maximization is combined with fairness constraints. The second, risk-based argument shows that a conviction solely based on the statistics in the prisoner scenario lets the risk of mistaken conviction surge potentially too high. The same, by contrast, cannot be said of convictions solely based on DNA evidence or eyewitness testimony. A noteworthy feature of the two arguments in the paper is that they are not confined to criminal trials and can in fact be extended to civil trials. (shrink)
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  46.  6
    Papers on Probability, Statistics and Statistical Physics.E. T. Jaynes & R. D. Rosenkrantz - 1985 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 36 (2):193-210.
    An important contribution to the foundations of probability theory, statistics and statistical physics has been made by E. T. Jaynes. The recent publication of his collected works provides an appropriate opportunity to attempt an assessment of this contribution.
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  47.  15
    Tracking Multiple Statistics: Simultaneous Learning of Object Names and Categories in English and Mandarin Speakers.Chi-Hsin Chen, Lisa Gershkoff-Stowe, Chih-Yi Wu, Hintat Cheung & Chen Yu - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (6):1485-1509.
    Two experiments were conducted to examine adult learners' ability to extract multiple statistics in simultaneously presented visual and auditory input. Experiment 1 used a cross-situational learning paradigm to test whether English speakers were able to use co-occurrences to learn word-to-object mappings and concurrently form object categories based on the commonalities across training stimuli. Experiment 2 replicated the first experiment and further examined whether speakers of Mandarin, a language in which final syllables of object names are more predictive of category (...)
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  48.  54
    Intelligent Design and Mathematical Statistics: A Troubled Alliance.Peter Olofsson - 2008 - Biology and Philosophy 23 (4):545-553.
    The explanatory filter is a proposed method to detect design in nature with the aim of refuting Darwinian evolution. The explanatory filter borrows its logical structure from the theory of statistical hypothesis testing but we argue that, when viewed within this context, the filter runs into serious trouble in any interesting biological application. Although the explanatory filter has been extensively criticized from many angles, we present the first rigorous criticism based on the theory of mathematical statistics.
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  49. Causal Inference in Statistics. An Overview.Judea Pearl - 2009 - Statistics Surveys 3:96-146.
  50. Statistics as Inductive Inference.Jan-Willem Romeijn - unknown
    An inductive logic is a system of inference that describes the relation between propositions on data, and propositions that extend beyond the data, such as predictions over future data, and general conclusions on all possible data. Statistics, on the other hand, is a mathematical discipline that describes procedures for deriving results about a population from sample data. These results include predictions on future samples, decisions on rejecting or accepting a hypothesis about the population, the determination of probability assignments over (...)
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