There is an unresolved paradox concerning the role of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in consumer behavior. On the one hand, consumers demand more and more CSR information from corporations. On the other hand, research indicates a considerable gap between consumers’ apparent interest in CSR and the limited role of CSR in purchase behavior. This article attempts to shed light on this paradox by drawing on qualitative data from in-depth interviews. The findings show that the evaluation of CSR initiatives is a (...) complex and hierarchically structured process, during which consumers distinguish between core, central, and peripheral factors. This article describes these factors in detail and explains the complexity of consumers’ assessment of CSR. These insights then serve as a basis for discussing the theoretical and managerial implications of the research findings. To this end, the article contributes to a better understanding of the role of CSR in consumption decisions. (shrink)
Some maladaptive thought processes are characterized by reflexive and habitual patterns of cognitive and emotional reactivity. We review theoretical and empirical work suggesting that mindfulness—a state of nonjudgmental awareness of the present moment—can facilitate the discontinuation of such automatic mental operations. We propose a framework that suggests a series of more specific mechanisms supporting the de-automatizing function of mindfulness. Four related but distinct elements of mindfulness (awareness, attention, focus on the present, and acceptance) can each contribute to de-automatization through subsequent (...) processes, including discontinuing automatic inference, enhancing cognitive control capacity, facilitating metacognitive insight, and preventing suppression or thought distortion. De-automatizing can, in turn, allow enhancement of adaptive self-control ability and increased well-being. (shrink)
The classical Hamiltonian in generalized coordinates is given asH=1/2 Σ i.k p i g ik p k . We show that there is no operator of the formP i= −iA(qi) (∂/∂qi)+Gi(qi) (note that the Hermitian momentum operatorP i H is of this form) such that the quantum Hamiltonian operatorH Q is given asH Q =1/2 Σ i,k P i g ik P k or1/2 Σ i,k g ik P i P k , etc. In order to maintain a direct transition (...) of this sort from classical to quantum theory, using the classical Hamiltonian as a starting point, we must rely on our previous prescriptions, writing the quantum Hamiltonian asH Q =1/2 Σ i,k P i + g ik P k , whereP i + denotes the adjoint of the operatorP i=−ih ∂/∂qi. (shrink)
The operator form of the generalized canonical momenta in quantum mechanics is derived by a new, instructive method and the uniqueness of the operator form is proven. If one wishes to find the correct representation of the generalized momentum operator, he finds the Hermitian part of the operator —iħ ∂/∂q, whereq q is the generalized coordinate. There are interesting philosophical implications involved in this: It is like saying that a physical structure is composed of two parts, one which is real (...) (the measurable quantity) and one which is pure imaginary. However, in order to understand the theoretical generation of the physical structure, one must look at the imaginary part as well as the real part since the sum of these two parts gives the simplified physical theory. That is why we can choose the total generalized momentum operator as simply —iħ ∂/∂q, but in order to arrive at the “measurable” momentum operator, we must choose the real (Hermitian) part, the other part being anti-Hermitian (corresponding to pure imaginary eigenvalues). We also discuss the operator form of the generalized Hamiltonian and show that the primary focus in developing fundamental concepts and prescriptions in quantum mechanics should be on the generalized momenta rather than on the Hamiltonian. (shrink)
In a recent “Rejoinder” by Landau,(8) he indicates that there is an error in a previous article of mine. In fact, this was corrected in an immediately subsequent article(2) of mine, and the “intriguing problem” to which Landau refers is solved in this subsequent article. In the present paper, I consolidate these and other ideas on the subject. In particular, I show that by discussing generalized coordinates in quantum mechanics one achieves much new insight, both philosophical and physical, in understanding (...) the transition of classical to quantum mechanics. (shrink)
BACKGROUND -/- In biomedical ontologies, mereological relations have always been subject to special interest due to their high relevance in structural descriptions of anatomical entities, cells, and biomolecules. This paper investigates two important subrelations of has_proper_part, viz. the relation has_grain, which relates a collective entity to its multiply occurring uniform parts (e.g., water molecules in a portion of water), and the relation has_component, which relates a compound to its constituents (e.g., molecules to the atoms they consist of). -/- METHOD -/- (...) We distinguish between four kinds of complex entities and characterize them in first order logic. We then discuss whether similar characterizations could be given in description logics, and finally apply the results to mixtures. -/- RESULTS -/- At first sight, collectives and compounds seem to be disjoint categories. Their disjointness, however, relies on agreement about what are uniform entities, and thus on the granularity of description. For instance, the distinction between isomeric subtypes of a molecule can be important in one use case but might be neglected in another one. We demonstrate that, as implemented in the BioTop domain upper level ontology, equivalence or subsumption between different descriptions of same or similar entities cannot be achieved. Using OWL-DL, we propose a new design pattern that avoids primitive subrelations at the expense of more complex descriptions and thus supports the needed inferences. (shrink)
My presentation deals with developments and transformations of the concept of the transcendental within Anglo-American analytical philosophy. According to Kant – the “founding father” of transcendental philosophy – the methodical domain of the transcendental is to denote and to expose the a priori epistemic structureof human mind and cognition (perception, experience, knowledge), as well as to provide a priori foundations for normative ethics. Analytical philosophy has adopted the term of the transcendental, mostly within sceptical argumentations or for sceptical refutations. What (...) is the methodological function of the transcendental in these debates, in the context of philosophical scepticism? My contribution tries to show that the notion of the transcendental becomes concave in analytical contexts. It might be appropriate to refute scepticism, but in these analytical contexts it’s not possible to deduct epistemic structures (e.g. categories,epistemic schemes) of experience and knowledge or to bridge the gap to foundations in ethics – one of the core goals in Kantian transcendental philosophy. What is the importance in transcendental analysis and reflection or is this term obsolete all together nowadays? My paper tries to discuss and mediate between various positions and ideas. (shrink)
In an approach to quantify the locomotor response to environmental stimuli in fishes and its central control mechanisms, initially stochastic models of spontaneous locomotor behavior are being formulated. In the present paper, the locomotor patterns of three active nurse shark,Ginglymostoma cirratum, in six experiments are converted into 17 locomotor variables and found to have definite time series structure. Sixty-seven of the 102 first order serial correlation coefficients are statistically significant, the incidence rate of which differs between experiments and between locomotor (...) variables. The percent residual variation about an autoregressive equation is transformed by a Fisher's z statistic and the means are found to differ significantly among experiments and among variables. The experiment by variable interaction is very low implying a consistency in the ranks of the variables despite the wide differences in their absolute levels over the experiments. This suggests the existence of a relatively rigid albeit occasionally latent locomotor control mechanism in the central nervous system. (shrink)
In connection with another article by the author, we show how it might be possible to travel faster than the speed of light. We show that for clocks and rods moving faster than the speed of light, we get instead of “time dilation” and “Lorentz contraction,” respectively, “time contraction” and “Lorentz expansion,” respectively. It is shown that this paper is in confirmation with earlier articles dealing with this subject.
Some present-day disagreements in moral philosophy, by E. F. Flower.--Values in the history of ideas, by P. P. Wiener.--Social interests and value, by T. A. Cowan.--Value conflicts and the education of our young, by J. L. Childs.
From ornithology to a love supreme : overcoming the forces of gravity, and the teaching of Amor Fati -- Zarathustra's convalescence : cognitive expansions and inner wisdom -- With Nietzsche on the road from revenge to redemption -- Traumatic pain : psychotherapeutic conversation between mediumship and soul wisdom -- Psychotherapy as a vocation : giving voice to soul -- Intuitive and inceptual thinking : the meditative paths of Steiner and Heidegger -- "While my conscience explodes".
The paper studies Heidegger's reading of the poet Stefan George (1868-1933), particularly of his poem "Das Wort" (1928), in the context of Heidegger's narrative of the history of metaphysics. Heidegger reads George's poem as expressing certain experiences with language: first, the constitutive role of language, of naming and discursive determination, in granting things stable identities; second, the unnameable and indeterminable character of language itself as a constitutive process and the concomitant insight into the human being's dependency on language and (...) her incapacity to master in subjectively. Heidegger characterizes this experience as "transitional" (übergänglich). It is shown that in Heidegger's historical narrative, this places George's poem in the ongoing transition (Übergang) from the Hegelian and Nietzschean end of metaphysics to a forthcoming "other beginning" of thinking. (shrink)
On the basis of the works The Notion of Moral Good and Evil in Contemporary Philosophy and Cant Stefan Baley’s views on social morality are analysed. It is shown that Baley supports conscious ethical creativity and the responsibility of the individual to society and to himself. It is proven that Baley follows the ethical principles of the Lvov-Warsaw philosophical school. Kazimierz Twardowski required following these principles as well.
Este artigo propõe-se a fazer uma leitura da obra Brasil, um país do futuro, do escritor vienense Stefan Zweig, ressaltando o quanto o discurso empregado pelo autor está revestido de certo aspecto profético quando fala do Brasil. Seu desejo de querer ver no Brasil da década de 1940 uma terra livre das intolerâncias e violências que assolavam a Europa de então, fustigada pela 2ª Guerra Mundial, fez com que Zweig revivesse a imagem mitológica de que o Brasil era uma (...) terra paradisíaca, um éden reencontrado. A descrição que faz do Brasil, mais que otimista, adquire um aspecto profético quando o autor reforça que a harmonia e paz reinantes no país faziam deste o locus para o acontecimento de um futuro utópico, messiânico. Curiosamente o escritor/profeta, muitas vezes, trai suas profecias, projetando no Brasil valores de sua Europa e às vezes chega mesmo a se contradizer no que tange à questão da tolerância e harmonia que via no Brasil. Palavras-chave: Stefan Zweig; Literatura de viagem; Profetismo; Intolerância; Messianismo. ABSTRACT This article makes a reading of Viennese writer Stefan Zweig’s book Brasil, um país do futuro (Brazil, a country of the future), pointing out how far the author’s discourse is endowed with certain prophetical aspects when it refers to Brazil. His desire to see Brazil, in the 40’s, as a land free from the intolerance and violence that devastated Europe during World War II made Zweig revive the mythological image of the country as a paradisiacal land, a rediscovered Eden. His description of Brazil, rather than optimistic, acquires a prophetical aspect when he emphasizes the fact that the prevailing harmony and peace of the country made it a locus for the advent of a messianic and utopian future. Curiously, the writer/prophet often betrayed his prophecies, projecting in Brazil old European values, and sometimes contradicting himself as to the issue of tolerance and harmony that he witnessed in Brazil. Key words: Stefan Zweig; Voyage literature; Prophetism; Intolerance; Messianism. (shrink)
Charles S. Peirce’s conception of abductive reasoning became a hot topic in the philosophy of science after World War II, when N. R. Hanson suggested that abduction is a logic of discovery, Gilbert Harman argued that all types of inductive reasoning can be reduced to inference to the best explanation, and Howard Smokler suggested that abduction as inverse deduction is an important method of confirmation. Abduction has been a popular theme also in Artificial Intelligence. Illustrations and examples of abduction have (...) been sought in everyday life, detective stories, and many scientific disciplines from astronomy to medicine. Iddo Tavory and Stefan Timmermans have published a book on qualitative... (shrink)
In his novel “Dolina Radości” [“Valley of Joy”] Stefan Chwin tackles the subject of metamorphoses. In this article I will talk about the issue of transformations in “Dolina radości”. The hero of the novel is a makeup-artist and that is why metamorphoses are at the center of the action. Noteworthy are also transformations connected with the most important political events and the most important places in Europe in the 20th century for example in the Polish city of Gdańsk which (...) Chwin writes about. The events of December 1970 are described in an episode of the novel but are a very important element of the whole book. This article first presents references to German literary works which are the part of the literature of German-Polish dialogue. (shrink)
In his Menschenwürde nach Nietzsche: Die Geschichte eines Begriffes (Human Dignity According to/after Nietzsche: The History of a Concept), Stefan Lorenz Sorgner conceives a bold plan and executes it remarkably well, with noteworthy results. His plan entails describing four paradigmatic notions of human dignity, then presenting Nietzsche’s critical evaluation of the notion of human dignity in relation to the four paradigms, and finally, reflecting on Nietzsche’s criticism in a way that embraces much of it and, consequently, largely rejects the (...) humanist notion of the dignity of man. Sorgner takes the additional steps of arguing for a posthumanism to replace the outmoded humanist notion of human dignity. Each phase .. (shrink)
The article is a critical response to Stefán Snævarr’s “Pragmatism and Popular Culture: Shusterman, Popular Art, and the Challenge of Visuality.”In its first part, I attempt to prove that several of Snævarr’s claims about popular culture and new media, which form the basic premises of his diagnosis of the alleged intellectual decline of the West, are either dubious or wrong. Moreover, in the context of this diagnosis, Snævarr levels some serious accusations against Richard Shusterman’s theory of popular culture, which, I (...) believe, are ungrounded and do not do justice to the latter’s approach. Henceforth, the remainder of the article is devoted to explaining in which aspects Snævarr’s interpretation of Richard Shusterman’s theory is misguided. (shrink)
«Existe-t-il une argumentation juridique?», c’est la question à laquelle tente de répondre l’ouvrage de Stefan Goltzberg, intitulé explicitement L’argumentation juridique. Si l’auteur commence son ouvrage en posant directement la question, on en cherche aussitôt, par un réflexe de «juriste», la définition. Et il faut probablement lire l’intégralité de ce petit ouvrage pour voir se profiler une définition de l’argumentation juridique. Or, au cours de cette lecture Stefan Goltzberg nous montre en quoi chercher la définition, la poser, est déjà (...) une marque argumentative (p. 25) et certainement une marque de l’argumentation juridique. Or, Stefan Goltzberg n’est pas juriste de formation. Philosophe et linguiste, il est, notamment membre du Centre Perelman de philosophie du droit au sein duquel il a écrit une thèse de philosophie intitulé Théorie et histoire de la philosophie du droit, philosophie du droit de Chaïm Perelman, de Theodor Viehweg, de Roscoe Pound.Le droit est d’abord un objet d’ .. (shrink)
Erratum to: Int J Semiot Law DOI 10.1007/s11196-014-9376-7Dans la publication originale de cet article, l’auteur n’a pas cité le titre correct de la thèse de philosophie de Stefan Goltzberg.A la dernière phrase du premier paragraphe, il ne faut pas lire «il a écrit une thèse de philosophie intitulé Théorie et histoire de la philosophie du droit, philosophie du droit de Chaïm Perelman, de Theodor Viehweg, de Roscoe Pound» mais bien «il a écrit une thèse de philosophie intitulée Théorie bidimensionnelle (...) de l’argumentation. Définition, Présomption, Argument A fortiori». (shrink)
The subject of Stefan Collini's Absent Minds is a “rich tradition of debate about the question of intellectuals” in twentieth-century Britain, in particular debate about “their absence or comparative insignificance” . The debate begins with the Dreyfus Affair and its unpredictable British reception , simmers intriguingly through the 1920s and 1930s, and becomes positively effervescent in the 1950s, perhaps because of a new democratization of the public sphere. Collini is less interested in the possible historical causes than in the (...) rhetorical structure that persists, swirling around figures as different as T. S. Eliot, R. G. Collingwood, George Orwell, A. J. P. Taylor, and A. J. Ayer, each of whom gets a full-length profile. Other chapters mix shorter profiles—for example, the devastatingly funny discussion of Colin Wilson and the authorities who briefly and embarrassingly made him a star in their firmament—with synthesis of the debate over intellectuals at different scales and in different national settings. Coming closer to the present, Collini admires Edward Said for what he did as an intellectual while disputing what he said about intellectuals—a celebration of rigorous exile from all social belonging, which could only leave the category of the intellectual looking almost totally uninhabited. The move turns out to be characteristic: it is as if Collini felt he could win a proper admiration for what intellectuals do only by rejecting most of their self-images, or evasion thereof. (shrink)
En 1934, pour justifier son silence face au nazisme, Stefan Zweig publie un essai historique sur Érasme qui est en même temps une apologie. Pour camper l’humaniste, son alter ego, il se fonde sur la biographie rédigée par Johan Huizinga. Par contre, Luther, l’irréductible opposant d’Érasme, disparaît presque entièrement sous la figure de Hitler, et n’a guère de consistance historique.In 1934 Stefan Zweig published, in order to justify his silence towards Nazism, an historical essay about Erasmus, which was (...) at the same time an apology. In order to portray the humanist, his alter ego, he based himself on the biography written by Johan Huizinga. Luther however, Erasmus’ implacable opponent, is swallowed up almost completely by the figure of Hitler, and has hardly any historical substance. (shrink)
Ştefan Aug. Doinaş and Basarab Nicolescu, two great spirits related through the generosity of the humanist vision, met, held an epistolary dialogue and had common projects. Doinaş commented upon a few of the innovative concepts proposed by Basarab Nicolescu and he also aesthetically transfigured, in literary pages, certain concepts of transdisciplinarity.