Results for 'Stefan Schulze'

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  1.  31
    Enhanced Cardiac Perception Is Associated With Increased Susceptibility to Framing Effects.Stefan Sütterlin, Stefan M. Schulz, Theresa Stumpf, Paul Pauli & Claus Vögele - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (5):922-935.
    Previous studies suggest in line with dual process models that interoceptive skills affect controlled decisions via automatic or implicit processing. The “framing effect” is considered to capture implicit effects of task-irrelevant emotional stimuli on decision-making. We hypothesized that cardiac awareness, as a measure of interoceptive skills, is positively associated with susceptibility to the framing effect. Forty volunteers performed a risky-choice framing task in which the effect of loss versus gain frames on decisions based on identical information was assessed. The results (...)
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  2.  28
    Grains, Components and Mixtures in Biomedical Ontologies.Ludger Jansen & Schulz Stefan - 2011 - Journal of Biomedical Semantics 2 (4).
    BACKGROUND -/- In biomedical ontologies, mereological relations have always been subject to special interest due to their high relevance in structural descriptions of anatomical entities, cells, and biomolecules. This paper investigates two important subrelations of has_proper_part, viz. the relation has_grain, which relates a collective entity to its multiply occurring uniform parts (e.g., water molecules in a portion of water), and the relation has_component, which relates a compound to its constituents (e.g., molecules to the atoms they consist of). -/- METHOD -/- (...)
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  3. Molecular Interactions. On the Ambiguity of Ordinary Statements in Biomedical Literature.Stefan Schulz & Ludger Jansen - 2009 - Applied Ontology (4):21-34.
    Statements about the behavior of biochemical entities (e.g., about the interaction between two proteins) abound in the literature on molecular biology and are increasingly becoming the targets of information extraction and text mining techniques. We show that an accurate analysis of the semantics of such statements reveals a number of ambiguities that have to be taken into account in the practice of biomedical ontology engineering: Such statements can not only be understood as event reporting statements, but also as ascriptions of (...)
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  4.  2
    Effects of Process and Outcome Accountability on Escalating Commitment: A Two-Study Replication.Stefan Schulz-Hardt, Johannes Rollwage, Stella K. Wanzel, Johanna U. Frisch & Jan Alexander Häusser - 2021 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 27 (1):112-124.
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  5.  16
    Sleep's Function in the Spontaneous Recovery and Consolidation of Memories.Spyridon Drosopoulos, Claudia Schulze, Stefan Fischer & Jan Born - 2007 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 136 (2):169-183.
  6.  16
    Consolidating SNOMED CT's Ontological Commitment.Stefan Schulz, Ronald Cornet & Kent Spackman - 2011 - Applied Ontology 6 (1):1-11.
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  7.  49
    BioTop: An Upper Domain Ontology for the Life sciencesA Description of its Current Structure, Contents and Interfaces to OBO Ontologies.Elena Beisswanger, Stefan Schulz, Holger Stenzhorn & Udo Hahn - 2008 - Applied Ontology 3 (4):205-212.
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  8. Adapting Clinical Ontologies in Real-World Environments.Holger Stenzhorn, Stefan Schulz, Martin Boeker & Barry Smith - 2008 - Journal of Universal Computer Science 14 (22):3767-3780.
    The desideratum of semantic interoperability has been intensively discussed in medical informatics circles in recent years. Originally, experts assumed that this issue could be sufficiently addressed by insisting simply on the application of shared clinical terminologies or clinical information models. However, the use of the term ‘ontology’ has been steadily increasing more recently. We discuss criteria for distinguishing clinical ontologies from clinical terminologies and information models. Then, we briefly present the role clinical ontologies play in two multicentric research projects. Finally, (...)
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  9. Clinical Ontologies Interfacing the Real World.Stefan Schulz, Holger Stenzhorn, Martin Boeker, Rüdiger Klar & Barry Smith - 2007 - In Third International Conference on Semantic Technologies (i-semantics 2007), Graz, Austria. Graz: pp. 356-363..
    The desideratum of semantic interoperability has been intensively discussed in medical informatics circles in recent years. Originally, experts assumed that this issue could be sufficiently addressed by insisting simply on the application of shared clinical terminologies or clinical information models. However, the use of the term ‘ontology’ has been steadily increasing more recently. We discuss criteria for distinguishing clinical ontologies from clinical terminologies and information models. Then, we briefly present the role clinical ontologies play in two multicentric research projects. Finally, (...)
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  10.  81
    How to Distinguish Parthood From Location in Bioontologies.Stefan Schulz, Philipp Daumke, Barry Smith & Udo Hahn - 2005 - In Proceedings of the AMIA Symposium. American Medical Informatics Association. pp. 669-673.
    The pivotal role of the relation part-of in the description of living organisms is widely acknowledged. Organisms are open systems, which means that in contradistinction to mechanical artifacts they are characterized by a continuous flow and exchange of matter. A closer analysis of the spatial relations in biological organisms reveals that the decision as to whether a given particular is part-of a second particular or whether it is only contained-in the second particular is often controversial. We here propose a rule-based (...)
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  11.  8
    Information Sampling and Group Decision Making: The Effects of an Advocacy Decision Procedure and Task Experience.Tobias Greitemeyer, Stefan Schulz-Hardt, Felix C. Brodbeck & Dieter Frey - 2006 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 12 (1):31-42.
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  12.  9
    Automatic Behavioural Responses to Valence: Evidence That Facial Action is Facilitated by Evaluative Processing.Roland Neumann, Markus Hess, Stefan Schulz & Georg Alpers - 2005 - Cognition and Emotion 19 (4):499-513.
  13.  2
    Interaktives Lernen: Ethik Online im Medizinstudium.Dennis Krämer, Stefan Schulz, Joschka Haltaufderheide, Esther Braun, Matthé Scholten & Jochen Vollmann - forthcoming - Ethik in der Medizin:1-4.
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  14. Die Biomedizin Im Europa- Und Völkerrecht Eine Einführung in Internationale Instrumente, Prinzipien Und Regelungen der Humangenetik.Stefan F. Schulz & Universität Trier - 2002 - Irp.
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  15.  90
    Anatomical Information Science.Barry Smith, Jose Mejino, Stefan Schulz, Anand Kumar & Cornelius Rosse - 2005 - In A. G. Cohn & D. M. Mark (eds.), Spatial Information Theory. Springer. pp. 149-164.
    The Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA) is a map of the human body. Like maps of other sorts – including the map-like representations we find in familiar anatomical atlases – it is a representation of a certain portion of spatial reality as it exists at a certain (idealized) instant of time. But unlike other maps, the FMA comes in the form of a sophisticated ontology of its objectdomain, comprising some 1.5 million statements of anatomical relations among some 70,000 anatomical kinds. (...)
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  16. Lmn-2 Interacts with Elf-2. On the Meaning of Common Statements in Biomedical Literature.Stefan Schulz & Ludger Jansen - 2006 - In KR-MED 2006 – Biomedical Ontology in Action. Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Formal Knowledge Representation. MD. pp. 37-45.
    Statements about the behavior of biological entities, e.g. about the interaction between two proteins, abound in the literature on molecular biology and are increasingly becoming the targets of information extraction and text mining techniques. We show that an accurate analysis of the semantics of such statements reveals a number of ambiguities that is necessary to take into account in the practice of biomedical ontology engineering. Several concurring formalizations are proposed. Emphasis is laid on the discussion of biological dispositions.
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  17. Walter Schulz, Metaphysik des Schwebens - Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der Ästhetik. [REVIEW]Stefan Majetschak - 1988 - Philosophisches Jahrbuch 95 (2):406.
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  18. Semantic Applications in Life Sciences. Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Formal Biomedical Knowledge Representation, Hosted by Bio-Ontologies 2010.Ronald Cornet & Stefan Schulz (eds.) - 2011
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  19. Proceedings of the AMIA Symposium.Schulz Stefan, Daumke Philipp, Smith Barry & Hahn Udo - 2005 - .
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  20.  5
    Rezension: Patientenwege. Die Konsiliarkorrespondenz Lorenz Heisters in der Trew-Sammlung Erlangen von Marion Maria Ruisinger.Stefan Schulz - 2010 - Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 33 (2):211-212.
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  21. Third International Conference on Semantic Technologies (I-Semantics 2007), Graz, Austria.Schulz Stefan, Stenzhorn Holger, Boeker Martin, Klar Rüdiger & Smith Barry - 2007
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  22. Vantagens e limitações das ontologias formais na área biomédica.Stefan Schulz, Holger Stenzhorn, Martin Boeker & Barry Smith - 2009 - RECIIS: Revista Electronica de Comunicacao Informacao, Inovacao Em Saude 3 (1).
    Propomos uma tipologia dos artefatos de representação para as áreas de saúde e ciências biológicas, e a associação dessa tipologia com diferentes tipos de ontologia formal e lógica, chegando a conclusões quanto aos pontos fortes e limitações da ontologia de diferentes tipos de recursos lógicos, enquanto mantemos o foco na lógica descritiva. Consideramos quatro tipos de representação de área: (i) representação léxico-semântica, (ii) representação de tipos de entidades, (iii) representação de conhecimento prévio, e (iv) representação de indivíduos. Defendemos uma clara (...)
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  23.  8
    Substance Concentrations as Conditions for the Realization of Dispositions.J. Hastings, L. Jansen, Stefan Schulz & C. Steinbeck - 2011 - In Ronald Cornet & Stefan Schulz (eds.), Semantic Applications in Life Sciences. Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Formal Biomedical Knowledge Representation, hosted by Bio-Ontologies 2010.
    Ontologies aim to represent what is general, by means of universal statements. In contrast, dispositional predications capture knowledge about what is likely to happen if a certain set of circumstances obtain, which is crucial in investigative research such as in drug discovery and systems biology, where entities which are constitutionally dissimilar can nevertheless have similar behavior in a biological context. While such dispositional properties are increasingly included in biomedical ontologies, the circumstances under which the dispositions are realized are seldom explicitly (...)
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  24. The Role of Ontologies for Sustainable, Semantically Interoperable and Trustworthy EHR Solutions.Bernd Blobel, Dipak Kalra, Marc Koehn, Ken Lunn, Peter Pharow, Pekka Ruotsalainen, Stefan Schulz & Barry Smith - 2009 - Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 150:953-957.
    As health systems around the world turn towards highly distributed, specialized and cooperative structures to increase quality and safety of care as well as efficiency and efficacy of delivery processes, there is a growing need for supporting communication and collaboration of all parties involved with advanced ICT solutions. The Electronic Health Record (EHR) provides the information platform which is maturing towards the eHealth core application. To meet the requirements for sustainable, semantically interoperable, and trustworthy EHR solutions, different standards and different (...)
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  25.  1
    How Versioning of Terminology Systems Can Be Supported by Ontological Models – a Case Study on TNM Tumor Classification.Susanne Zabka, Stefan Schulz, Oliver Brunner & Martin Boeker - forthcoming - Applied Ontology:1-20.
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  26.  1
    A Test of Synergy in Dynamic System Control Tasks.Thomas Schultze, Sylvana Drewes & Stefan Schulz-Hardt - forthcoming - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.
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  27.  63
    Using Cross-Lingual Information to Cope with Underspecification in Formal Ontologies.Werner Ceusters, Ignace Desimpel, Barry Smith & Stefan Schulz - 2003 - Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 95:391-396.
    Description logics and other formal devices are frequently used as means for preventing or detecting mistakes in ontologies. Some of these devices are also capable of inferring the existence of inter-concept relationships that have not been explicitly entered into an ontology. A prerequisite, however, is that this information can be derived from those formal definitions of concepts and relationships which are included within the ontology. In this paper, we present a novel algorithm that is able to suggest relationships among existing (...)
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  28.  3
    Altered Interoceptive Awareness in High Habitual Symptom Reporters and Patients With Somatoform Disorders.Tabea Flasinski, Angelika Margarete Dierolf, Silke Rost, Annika P. C. Lutz, Ulrich Voderholzer, Stefan Koch, Michael Bach, Carina Asenstorfer, Eva Elisabeth Münch, Vera-Christina Mertens, Claus Vögele & André Schulz - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  29.  6
    Technology Assessment of Socio-Technical Futures—A Discussion Paper.Andreas Lösch, Knud Böhle, Christopher Coenen, Paulina Dobroc, Reinhard Heil, Armin Grunwald, Dirk Scheer, Christoph Schneider, Arianna Ferrari, Dirk Hommrich, Martin Sand, Stefan C. Aykut, Sascha Dickel, Daniela Fuchs, Karen Kastenhofer, Helge Torgersen, Bruno Gransche, Alexandra Hausstein, Kornelia Konrad, Alfred Nordmann, Petra Schaper-Rinkel, Ingo Schulz-Schaeffer & Alexander Wentland - 2019 - In Andreas Lösch, Armin Grunwald, Martin Meister & Ingo Schulz-Schaeffer (eds.), Socio-Technical Futures Shaping the Present: Empirical Examples and Analytical Challenges. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden. pp. 285-308.
    Problem: Visions of technology, future scenarios, guiding visions represent imaginations of future states of affairs that play a functional role in processes of technological research, development and innovation—e.g. as a means to create attention, communication, coordination, or for the strategic exertion of influence. Since a couple of years there is a growing attention for such imaginations of futures in politics, the economy, research and the civil society. This trend concerns technology assessment as an observer of these processes and a consultant (...)
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  30.  10
    Differentiation of Selves: Differentiating a Fuzzy Concept.Andreas Mojzisch, Thomas Schultze, Joachim Hüffmeier & Stefan Schulz-Hardt - 2016 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39.
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  31.  18
    Correction to: Comment on ‘Constrained Maneuvering: Rhetoric as a Rational Enterprise’.Peter J. Schulz - 2020 - Argumentation 34 (2):285-285.
    In the original publication of the article, the commentary of mine to Christopher Tindale’s article ‘Constrained Maneuvering: Rhetoric as a Rational Enterprise’, English translations of phrasings regarding several distinctions in the concept of rationality were taken from Stefan Gosepath’s book Aufgeklärtes Eigeninteresse: Eine Theorie theoretischer und praktischer Rationalität, Frankfurt: Suhrkamp 1992, without providing reference to his publication.
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  32.  2
    Aerobic Exercise Induces Functional and Structural Reorganization of CNS Networks in Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.Jan-Patrick Stellmann, Adil Maarouf, Karl-Heinz Schulz, Lisa Baquet, Jana Pöttgen, Stefan Patra, Iris-Katharina Penner, Susanne Gellißen, Gesche Ketels, Pierre Besson, Jean-Philippe Ranjeva, Maxime Guye, Guido Nolte, Andreas K. Engel, Bertrand Audoin, Christoph Heesen & Stefan M. Gold - 2020 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
  33.  47
    Stefan Zweig, Hans Rosenkranz und der J. M. Spaeth-Verlag, Berlin.Stefan Litt - 2018 - Naharaim 12 (1-2):101-132.
    Von 1925 bis 1928 wurden im Berliner J. M. Spaeth-Verlag unter der Leitung von Hans Rosenkranz eine Reihe von Werken seinerzeit eher unbekannter, in der Retrospektive jedoch signifikanter Autoren der Zwischenkriegszeit publiziert. Der Beitrag thematisiert Rosenkranz als jungen Verleger und Bewunderer Stefan Zweigs. Er entwirft auf Grundlage der Archivüberlieferung einen neuen Blick auf die Geschichte des Unternehmens und kommentiert das damit verbundene literarische Programm: Welche wichtigen verlegerischen Projekte wurden in jener kurzen Zeit unternommen? Welche Rolle hatte Stefan Zweig (...)
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  34. Knowing That P Without Believing That P.Blake Myers-Schulz & Eric Schwitzgebel - 2013 - Noûs 47 (2):371-384.
    Most epistemologists hold that knowledge entails belief. However, proponents of this claim rarely offer a positive argument in support of it. Rather, they tend to treat the view as obvious and assert that there are no convincing counterexamples. We find this strategy to be problematic. We do not find the standard view obvious, and moreover, we think there are cases in which it is intuitively plausible that a subject knows some proposition P without—or at least without determinately—believing that P. Accordingly, (...)
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  35.  25
    Stefan Sottiaux, De Verenigde Staten van België.Stefan Rummens - 2011 - Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy 40 (2):169-172.
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  36. Stefan Sciaraffa.Stefan Sciaraffa - 1999 - Legal Theory 5 (2):201-219.
     
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  37.  73
    Conditional Predictions.Stefan Kaufmann - 2005 - Linguistics and Philosophy 28 (2):181 - 231.
    The connection between the probabilities of conditionals and the corresponding conditional probabilities has long been explored in the philosophical literature, but its implementation faces both technical obstacles and objections on empirical grounds. In this paper I ?rst outline the motivation for the probabilistic turn and Lewis’ triviality results, which stand in the way of what would seem to be its most straightforward implementation. I then focus on Richard Jeffrey’s ’random-variable’ approach, which circumvents these problems by giving up the notion that (...)
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  38.  37
    What Are Universities For?Stefan Collini - 2012 - Penguin Books.
    Stefan Collini challenges the common claim that universities need to show that they help to make money in order to justify getting more money.
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  39.  93
    Beyond the Hype: The Value of Evolutionary Theorizing in Economics.Armin W. Schulz - 2013 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 43 (1):46-72.
    In this paper, I consider the recent resurgence of “evolutionary economics”—the idea that evolutionary theory can be very useful to push forward key debates in economics—and assess the extent to which it rests on a plausible foundation. To do this, I first distinguish two ways in which evolutionary theory can, in principle, be brought to bear on an economic problem—namely, evidentially and heuristically—and then apply this distinction to the three major hypotheses that evolutionary economists have come to defend: the implausibility (...)
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  40. Wondering What Might Be.Moritz Schulz - 2010 - Philosophical Studies 149 (3):367 - 386.
    This paper explores the possibility of supplementing the suppositional view of indicative conditionals with a corresponding view of epistemic modals. The most striking feature of the suppositional view consists in its claim that indicative conditionals are to be evaluated by conditional probabilities. On the basis of a natural link between indicative conditionals and epistemic modals, a corresponding thesis about the probabilities of statements governed by epistemic modals can be derived. The paper proceeds by deriving further consequences of this thesis, in (...)
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  41.  65
    Decisions and Higher‐Order Knowledge.Moritz Schulz - 2017 - Noûs 51 (3):463-483.
    A knowledge-based decision theory faces what has been called the prodigality problem : given that many propositions are assigned probability 1, agents will be inclined to risk everything when betting on propositions which are known. In order to undo probability 1 assignments in high risk situations, the paper develops a theory which systematically connects higher level goods with higher-order knowledge.
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  42.  7
    Strong knowledge, weak belief?Moritz Schulz - forthcoming - Synthese:1-13.
    According to the knowledge norm of belief, one should believe p only if one knows p. However, it can easily seem that the ordinary notion of belief is much weaker than the knowledge norm would have it. It is possible to rationally believe things one knows to be unknown The aim of belief, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2013). One response to this observation is to develop a technical notion of ‘outright’ belief. A challenge for this line of response is to (...)
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  43.  61
    On Anti Humeanism and Medical Singular Causation.Stefan Dragulinescu - 2012 - Acta Analytica 27 (3):265-292.
    Abstract In this paper I offer an anti-Humean interpretation of the causal interactions in somatic medicine. I focus on life-threatening pathological states and show how Nancy Cartwright’s capacities can offer a plausible epistemology for medical processes and the singular causal claims advanced in medical diagnoses. I argue that the capacities manifested in the emergence of symptoms and signs could be tracked down if healthy organisms are construed as nomological machines and suggest that the causal reasoning from current medical practice bears (...)
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  44.  2
    Conversation with Prof. Stefan Swieżawski.Stefan Swieżawski & Paweł Kaczorowski - 2021 - Civitas. Studia Z Filozofii Polityki 11:298-308.
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  45.  93
    Modus Ponens Under the Restrictor View.Moritz Schulz - 2018 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 47 (6):1001-1028.
    There is a renewed debate about modus ponens. Strikingly, the recent counterexamples in Cantwell, Dreier and MacFarlane and Kolodny are generated by restricted readings of the ‘if’-clause. Moreover, it can be argued on general grounds that the restrictor view of conditionals developed in Kratzer and Lewis leads to counterexamples to modus ponens. This paper provides a careful analysis of modus ponens within the framework of the restrictor view. Despite appearances to the contrary, there is a robust sense in which modus (...)
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  46.  93
    Assertoric Semantics and the Computational Power of Self-Referential Truth.Stefan Wintein - 2012 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (2):317-345.
    There is no consensus as to whether a Liar sentence is meaningful or not. Still, a widespread conviction with respect to Liar sentences (and other ungrounded sentences) is that, whether or not they are meaningful, they are useless . The philosophical contribution of this paper is to put this conviction into question. Using the framework of assertoric semantics , which is a semantic valuation method for languages of self-referential truth that has been developed by the author, we show that certain (...)
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  47. Moral Intuitions and Justification in Ethics.Stefan Sencerz - 1986 - Philosophical Studies 50 (1):77 - 95.
  48.  55
    The Member for Westminster: Doctrinaire Philosopher, Party Hack, or Public Moralist?*: Stefan Collini.Stefan Collini - 1990 - Utilitas 2 (2):307-322.
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  49.  4
    Practical reasoning and degrees of outright belief.Moritz Schulz - forthcoming - Synthese:1-22.
    According to a suggestion by Williamson, outright belief comes in degrees: one has a high/low degree of belief iff one is willing to rely on the content of one’s belief in high/low-stakes practical reasoning. This paper develops an epistemic norm for degrees of outright belief so construed. Starting from the assumption that outright belief aims at knowledge, it is argued that degrees of belief aim at various levels of strong knowledge, that is, knowledge which satisfies particularly high epistemic standards. This (...)
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  50.  94
    A Theory of Causal Learning in Children: Causal Maps and Bayes Nets.Alison Gopnik, Clark Glymour, Laura Schulz, Tamar Kushnir & David Danks - 2004 - Psychological Review 111 (1):3-32.
    We propose that children employ specialized cognitive systems that allow them to recover an accurate “causal map” of the world: an abstract, coherent, learned representation of the causal relations among events. This kind of knowledge can be perspicuously understood in terms of the formalism of directed graphical causal models, or “Bayes nets”. Children’s causal learning and inference may involve computations similar to those for learning causal Bayes nets and for predicting with them. Experimental results suggest that 2- to 4-year-old children (...)
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