Results for 'Stephen A. Clark'

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  1.  18
    A History of Philosophy.Stephen A. Emery, Seymour G. Martin, Gordon H. Clark, Francis P. Clarke & Chester T. Ruddick - 1943 - Philosophical Review 52 (1):84.
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  2.  41
    Revealed preference and linear utility.Stephen A. Clark - 1993 - Theory and Decision 34 (1):21-45.
  3.  70
    Revealed Preference and Expected Utility.Stephen A. Clark - 2000 - Theory and Decision 49 (2):159-174.
    This essay gives necessary and sufficient conditions for recovering expected utility from choice behavior in several popular models of uncertainty. In particular, these techniques handle a finite state model; a model for which the choice space consists of probability densities and the expected utility representation requires bounded, measurable utility; and a model for which the choice space consists of Borel probability measures and the expected utility representation requires bounded, continuous utility. The key result is the identification of the continuity condition (...)
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  4.  6
    Science and democracy: making knowledge and making power in the biosciences and beyond.Stephen Hilgartner, Clark Miller & Rob Hagendijk (eds.) - 2015 - New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.
    In the life sciences and beyond, new developments in science and technology and the creation of new social orders go hand in hand. In short, science and society are simultaneously and reciprocally coproduced and changed. Scientific research not only produces new knowledge and technological systems but also constitutes new forms of expertise and contributes to the emergence of new modes of living, at times empowering and at times disempowering citizens. These dynamic processes are tightly connected to significant redistributions of wealth (...)
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  5.  27
    The effect of induced social interaction on positive and negative affect.Curtis W. McIntyre, David Watson, Lee Anna Clark & Stephen A. Cross - 1991 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 29 (1):67-70.
  6. New Directions in Biblical Thought.Martin E. Marty, Stephen C. Neill, L. Harold de Wolf, J. Carter Swaim, Hugh T. Kerr, Jack Finegan, Wayne H. Cowan, Carl Michalson, Clyde Leonard Manschreck, John W. Meister, Stanton A. Coblentz & Hazel Davis Clark - 1960
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  7.  21
    First page preview.Jonathan Bain, Timothy Bays, Katherine A. Brading, Stephen G. Brush, Murray Clarke, Sharyn Clough, Jonathan Cohen, Giancarlo Ghirardi, Brendan S. Gillon & Robert G. Hudson - 2004 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 18 (2-3).
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  8.  7
    Comorbid science?David Danks, Stephen Fancsali, Clark Glymour & Richard Scheines - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (2-3):153 - 155.
    We agree with Cramer et al.'s goal of the discovery of causal relationships, but we argue that the authors' characterization of latent variable models (as deployed for such purposes) overlooks a wealth of extant possibilities. We provide a preliminary analysis of their data, using existing algorithms for causal inference and for the specification of latent variable models.
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  9.  12
    Targum and Scripture: Studies in Aramaic Translation and Interpretation in Memory of Ernest G. Clarke.Stephen A. Kaufman & Paul V. M. Flesher - 2003 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 123 (4):924.
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  10.  46
    The Influence of Decision Frames and Vision Priming on Decision Outcomes in Work Groups: Motivating Stakeholder Considerations.Kevin D. Clark, Narda R. Quigley & Stephen A. Stumpf - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 120 (1):27-38.
    Organizational leaders are increasingly emphasizing a stakeholder perspective in order to address concerns about business ethics. This study examined the choices of 94 groups in the context of a business decision-making simulation to determine how specific actions and communications can facilitate the consideration of different stakeholder perspectives. In particular, we examined whether generally framing the business situation as one involving diverse stakeholders versus a primarily profit-driven operation (referred to as framing), and whether specific suggestions that participants consider the concerns of (...)
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  11.  30
    Citizens of the World and their Religion.Stephen R. L. Clark - 2019 - Philosophical Papers 48 (1):103-122.
    The notion of a ‘cosmopolites’ has diverged quite far from its philosophical origins, but may eventually serve a similar function. The hope of a global peace or any sort of global managemen...
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  12. Small-scale societies exhibit fundamental variation in the role of intentions in moral judgment.H. Clark Barrett, Alexander Bolyanatz, Alyssa N. Crittenden, Daniel M. T. Fessler, Simon Fitzpatrick, Michael Gurven, Joseph Henrich, Martin Kanovsky, Geoff Kushnick, Anne Pisor, Brooke A. Scelza, Stephen Stich, Chris von Rueden, Wanying Zhao & Stephen Laurence - 2016 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113 (17):4688–4693.
    Intent and mitigating circumstances play a central role in moral and legal assessments in large-scale industrialized societies. Al- though these features of moral assessment are widely assumed to be universal, to date, they have only been studied in a narrow range of societies. We show that there is substantial cross-cultural variation among eight traditional small-scale societies (ranging from hunter-gatherer to pastoralist to horticulturalist) and two Western societies (one urban, one rural) in the extent to which intent and mitigating circumstances influence (...)
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  13.  38
    How to Become Unconscious.Stephen R. L. Clark - 2010 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 67:21-44.
    Consistent materialists are almost bound to suggest that ‘conscious experience’, if it exists at all, is no more than epiphenomenal. A correct understanding of the real requires that everything we do and say is no more than a product of whatever processes are best described by physics, without any privileged place, person, time or scale of action. Consciousness is a myth, or at least a figment. Plotinus was no materialist: for him, it is Soul and Intellect that are more real (...)
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  14.  47
    Science in a Free Society.Stephen R. L. Clark - 1980 - Philosophical Quarterly 30 (119):172-174.
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  15. Can a Darwinian Be a Christian? The Relationship between Science and Religion.Stephen R. L. Clark - 2005 - Mind 114 (455):773-777.
  16.  10
    Development of a core outcome set for informed consent for therapy: An international key stakeholder consensus study.Liam J. Convie, Joshua M. Clements, Scott McCain, Jeffrey Campbell, Stephen J. Kirk & Mike Clarke - 2022 - BMC Medical Ethics 23 (1):1-15.
    Background 300 million operations and procedures are performed annually across the world, all of which require a patient’s informed consent. No standardised measure of the consent process exists in current clinical practice. We aimed to define a core outcome set for informed consent for therapy. Methods The core outcome set was developed in accordance with a predefined research protocol and the Core OutcoMes in Effectiveness Trials methodology comprising systematic review, qualitative semi structured interviews, a modified Delphi process and consensus webinars (...)
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  17.  15
    The Aristotelian Ethics: A Study of the Relationship between the Eudemian and Nicomachean Ethics of Aristotle.Stephen R. L. Clark - 1979 - Philosophical Quarterly 29 (117):356-358.
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  18. Surgical vaccine : should male circumcision be mandatory in Sub-Saharan Africa.Peter A. Clark, Justin Eisenman & Stephen Szapor - 2010 - In Tyler N. Pace (ed.), Bioethics: Issues and Dilemmas. Nova Science Publishers.
     
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  19.  22
    "The Whole Internal World His Own": Locke and Metaphor Reconsidered.Stephen H. Clark - 1998 - Journal of the History of Ideas 59 (2):241-265.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:“The Whole Internal World His Own”: Locke and Metaphor ReconsideredS. H. ClarkWhy need I name thy Boyle, whose pious search, Amid the dark recesses of his works, The great Creator sought? And why thy Locke, Who made the whole internal world his own?Oh decus! Anglicae certe oh lux altera gentis!... Tu caecas rerum causas, fontemque severum Pande, Pater; tibi enim, tibi, veri magne Sacerdos, Corda patent hominum, atque altae (...)
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  20. God's World and the Great Awakening: Limits and Renewals 3.Stephen R. Clark - 1991 - Oxford University Press UK.
    In God's World and the Great Awakening, Professor Clark's main concern is with the way we can `turn aside' to the Truth from the normal delusions of self-concern. He restates a traditional, Neoplatonic metaphysics as the proper context for scientific and religious practice, and defends a serious Platonic realism against both scientism and anti-realism. Neither scientism, which identifies Truth with what can be revealed to the objectifying gaze, nor fashionable anti-realism, which equates Truth simply with what `we' choose to (...)
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  21.  40
    Changing clinical practice: management of paediatric community‐acquired pneumonia.Mohamed A. Elemraid, Stephen P. Rushton, Matthew F. Thomas, David A. Spencer, Katherine M. Eastham, Andrew R. Gennery & Julia E. Clark - 2014 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 20 (1):94-99.
  22. Constructing Persons: The Psychopathology of Identity.Stephen R. L. Clark - 2003 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 10 (2):157-159.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology 10.2 (2003) 157-159 [Access article in PDF] Constructing Persons:The Psychopathology of Identity Stephen R. L. Clark Keywords identity, legal fictions, materialism, psychopathology. Steve Matthews argues that the criteria proposed by Stephen Behnke and Walter Sinnott-Armstrong for establishing personal identity in cases of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) are flawed. Neither brain identity nor memory convergence are adequate grounds for ascribing identity, even in (...)
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  23. Joint action goals reduce visuomotor interference effects from a partner’s incongruent actions.Sam Clarke, Luke McEllin, Anna Francová, Marcell Székely, Stephen Andrew Butterfill & John Michael - 2019 - Scientific Reports 9 (1).
    Joint actions often require agents to track others’ actions while planning and executing physically incongruent actions of their own. Previous research has indicated that this can lead to visuomotor interference effects when it occurs outside of joint action. How is this avoided or overcome in joint actions? We hypothesized that when joint action partners represent their actions as interrelated components of a plan to bring about a joint action goal, each partner’s movements need not be represented in relation to distinct, (...)
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  24.  42
    Commentary on "Multiple Personality and Moral Responsibility".Stephen R. L. Clark - 1996 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 3 (1):55-57.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Commentary on “Multiple Personality and Moral Responsibility”Stephen R. L. Clark (bio)Theaitetos sleeping is not quite “the same” as Theaitetos waking, any more than Alcibiades drunk is Alcibiades sober. Nor am I, at fifty, quite “the same” as Stephen was when he was five. In one way, my sober fifty-year-old waking self can reasonably disclaim responsibility for what Stephen did or seemed to do when he (...)
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  25.  31
    Icons, Sacred Relics, Obsolescent Plant.Stephen R. L. Clark - 1986 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 3 (2):201-210.
    Whether churches should be demolished, rebuilt, restored or preserved is a contentious issue. Some hold that the needs of a present worshipping community should take precedence over antiquarian or aesthetic interest, others that we owe a debt to the ages. Arguments mirror those between developers and environmentalists. It is argued here that it is not abstract rights that matter, but a sense of history, and of the sacred. Church buildings and landscapes are to be maintained not as museum pieces but (...)
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  26.  41
    Slaves and Citizens.Stephen R. L. Clark - 1985 - Philosophy 60 (231):27-.
    R. M. Hare has argued 1 that there are conceivable circumstances in which it would be right not to abolish the institution of slavery: in the imaginary land of Juba established slave-plantations are managed by a benevolent elite for the good of all, no ‘cruel or unusual ’ punishments are in use, and citizens of the neighbouring island of Camaica, ‘free ’but impoverished, regularly seek to become slaves. Hare adds that it is unlikely, given human nature, that ‘masters ’would treat (...)
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  27.  51
    Intuitive Dualism and Afterlife Beliefs: A Cross‐Cultural Study.H. Clark Barrett, Alexander Bolyanatz, Tanya Broesch, Emma Cohen, Peggy Froerer, Martin Kanovsky, Mariah G. Schug & Stephen Laurence - 2021 - Cognitive Science 45 (6):e12992.
    It is widely held that intuitive dualism—an implicit default mode of thought that takes minds to be separable from bodies and capable of independent existence—is a human universal. Among the findings taken to support universal intuitive dualism is a pattern of evidence in which “psychological” traits (knowledge, desires) are judged more likely to continue after death than bodily or “biological” traits (perceptual, physiological, and bodily states). Here, we present cross-cultural evidence from six study populations, including non-Western societies with diverse belief (...)
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  28. Artifacts and Original Intent: A Cross-Cultural Perspective on the Design Stance.H. Clark Barrett, Eric Margolis & Stephen Laurence - 2008 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 8 (1-2):1-22.
    How do people decide what category an artifact belongs to? Previous studies have suggested that adults and, to some degree, children, categorize artifacts in accordance with the design stance, a categorization system which privileges the designer’s original intent in making categorization judgments. However, these studies have all been conducted in Western, technologically advanced societies, where artifacts are mass produced. In this study, we examined intuitions about artifact categorization among the Shuar, a hunter-horticulturalist society in the Amazon region of Ecuador. We (...)
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  29.  62
    Deconstructing the Laws of Logic.R. L. Clark Stephen - 2008 - Philosophy 83 (1):25-53.
    I consider reasons for questioning ‘the laws of logic’, and suggest that these laws do not accord with everyday reality. Either they are rhetorical tools rather than absolute truths, or else Plato and his successors were right to think that they identify a reality distinct from the ordinary world of experience, and also from the ultimate source of reality.
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  30.  67
    Aristotle's man: speculations upon Aristotelian anthropology.Stephen R. L. Clark - 1975 - Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Clarendon Press.
    Words have determinable sense only within a complex of unstated assumptions, and all interpretation must therefore go beyond the given material. This book addresses what is man's place in the Aristotelian world. It also describes man's abilities and prospects in managing his life, and considers how far Aristotle's treatment of time and history licenses the sort of dynamic interpretation of his doctrines that have been given. The ontological model that explains much of Aristotle's conclusions and methods is one of life-worlds, (...)
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  31.  43
    La contribution de Stephen Clark à la philosophie sur Internet.Stephen Clark - 1996 - Horizons Philosophiques 6 (2):95.
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  32.  39
    The Absence of a Gap between Facts and Values.Mary Midgley & Stephen R. L. Clark - 1980 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 54 (1):207 - 240.
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  33.  7
    Aristotle's Man: Speculations Upon Aristotelian Anthropology.Stephen R. L. Clark - 1975 - Oxford, GB: Oxford University Press.
    Words have determinable sense only within a complex of unstated assumptions, and all interpretation must therefore go beyond the given material. This book addresses what is man's place in the Aristotelian world. It also describes man's abilities and prospects in managing his life, and considers how far Aristotle's treatment of time and history licenses the sort of dynamic interpretation of his doctrines that have been given. The ontological model that explains much of Aristotle's conclusions and methods is one of life-worlds, (...)
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  34.  39
    Philosophy as a Way of Life: Ancients and Moderns - Essays in Honor of Pierre Hadot.Michael Chase, Stephen R. L. Clark & Michael McGhee (eds.) - 2013 - Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
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  35. Should the Study of Homo sapiens be Part of Cognitive Science?H. Clark Barrett, Stephen Stich & Stephen Laurence - 2012 - Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (3):379-386.
    Beller, Bender, and Medin argue that a reconciliation between anthropology and cognitive science seems unlikely. We disagree. In our view, Beller et al.’s view of the scope of what anthropology can offer cognitive science is too narrow. In focusing on anthropology’s role in elucidating cultural particulars, they downplay the fact that anthropology can reveal both variation and universals in human cognition, and is in a unique position to do so relative to the other subfields of cognitive science. Indeed, without cross-cultural (...)
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  36.  35
    Animals and Their Moral Standing.Stephen R. L. Clark - 1997 - Routledge.
    Twenty years ago, people thought only cranks or sentimentalists could be seriously concerned about the treatment of non-human animals. However, since then philosophers, scientists and welfarists have raised public awareness of the issue; and they have begun to lay the foundations for an enormous change in human practice. This book is a record of the development of 'animal rights' through the eyes of one highly-respected and well-known thinker. This book brings together for the first time Stephen R.L. Clark's (...)
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  37.  16
    Ontogeny of prosocial behavior across diverse societies.Bailey R. House, Joan B. Silk, Joseph Henrich, H. Clark Barrett, Brooke A. Scelza, Adam H. Boyette, Barry S. Hewlett, Richard McElreath & Stephen Laurence - 2013 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110 (36):14586-14591.
    Humans are an exceptionally cooperative species, but there is substantial variation in the extent of cooperation across societies. Understanding the sources of this variability may provide insights about the forces that sustain cooperation. We examined the ontogeny of prosocial behavior by studying 326 children 3–14 y of age and 120 adults from six societies (age distributions varied across societies). These six societies span a wide range of extant human variation in culture, geography, and subsistence strategies, including foragers, herders, horticulturalists, and (...)
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  38.  76
    Minds, memes, and rhetoric.Stephen R. L. Clark - 1993 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 36 (1-2):3-16.
    Dennett's Consciousness Explained presents, but does not demonstrate, a fully naturalized account of consciousness that manages to leave out the very consciousness he purports to explain. If he were correct, realism and methodological individualism would collapse, as would the very enterprise of giving reasons. The metaphors he deploys actually testify to the power of metaphoric imagination that can no more be identified with the metaphors it creates than minds can be identified with memes. That latter equation, of minds with meme?complexes, (...)
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  39. Legislative ethics in democratic countries: a comparative analysis.Jack Maskell, Stephen F. Clarke & Ruth Levush (eds.) - 1997 - Washington, DC: Law Library, Library of Congress.
  40. Transcendental realisms in the philosophy of science: on Bhaskar and Cartwright.Stephen Clarke - 2010 - Synthese 173 (3):299-315.
    I consider two transcendental arguments for realism in the philosophy of science, which are due to Roy Bhaskar (A realist theory of science, 1975) and Nancy Cartwright (The dappled world, 1999). Bhaskar and Cartwright are both influential figures, however there is little discussion of their use of transcendental arguments in the literature. Here I seek to correct this oversight. I begin by describing the role of the transcendental arguments in question, in the context of the broader philosophical theories in which (...)
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  41.  6
    A parliament of souls.Stephen R. L. Clark - 1990 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    This second volume in the Limits and Renewals trilogy is an attempt to restate a traditional philosophy of mind, drawing on philosophical and poetical resources that are often neglected in modern and postmodern thought, and emphasizing the moral and political implications of differing philosophies of mind and value. Clark argues that without the traditional concept of the soul, we have little reason to believe that rational thought and individual autonomy are either possible or desirable. The particular topics covered include (...)
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  42.  51
    Where have all the Angels Gone?1: STEPHEN R. L. CLARK.Stephen R. L. Clark - 1992 - Religious Studies 28 (2):221-234.
    Anyone who wishes to talk about angels has to respond to the mocking question, how many of them can dance on the point of a pin. The answer is: ‘just as many as they please’. Angels being immaterial intellects do not occupy space to the exclusion of any other such intellectual substance, and their being ‘on’ the point of a pin can only mean that they attend to it. The question, however, is not one that concerned our mediaeval predecessors, although (...)
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  43.  26
    World Religions and World Orders: STEPHEN R. L. CLARK.Stephen R. L. Clark - 1990 - Religious Studies 26 (1):43-57.
    There are good reasons for being suspicious of the very concept of ‘a religion’, let alone a ‘world religion’. It may be useful for a hospital administrator to know a patient's ‘religion’ – as Protestant or Church of England or Catholic or Buddhist – but such labels clearly do little more than identify the most suitable chaplain, and connote groupings in the vast and confusing region of ‘religious thought and practice’ that are of very different ranks. By any rational, genealogical (...)
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  44.  15
    Thinking About How and Why to Think.R. L. Clark Stephen - 1996 - Philosophy 71 (277):385-.
    1. Believing Enough to Think The Scottish system of university education requires most aspirants to an Ordinary Degree to study some philosophy. Philosophers in Scottish Universities must therefore contend with enormous first-year classes, stocked with youngsters who have little real desire to be philosophers, or even to philosophize. Some years ago, at Glasgow, a question in the final exam was as follows: ‘“Philosophy is of no use, and so should not be studied.” Discuss’. A couple of hundred students answered, more (...)
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  45.  7
    Plotinus: myth, metaphor and philosophical practice.Stephen R. L. Clark - 2016 - Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    A study of Plotinus's use of myth and metaphor, with special attention to the historical context and therapeutic use of his work.
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  46.  20
    Value Judgments: Value Judgments and Normative Claims.Marcus G. Singer & Stephen R. L. Clark - 1988 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Lectures 24:145-172.
    A person's values are what that person regards as or thinks important; a society's values are what that society regards as important. A society's values are expressed in laws and legislatively enacted policies, in its mores, social habits, and positive morality. Any body's values—an individual person's or a society's—are subject to change, and in our time especially. An individual manifests his or her values in expressions of approval or disapproval, of admiration or disdain, by seeking or avoidance behaviour, and by (...)
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  47.  26
    Deconstructing the Laws of Logic.Stephen R. Clark - 2008 - Philosophy 83 (1):25-53.
    I consider reasons for questioning ‘the laws of logic’, and suggest that these laws do not accord with everyday reality. Either they are rhetorical tools rather than absolute truths, or else Plato and his successors were right to think that they identify a reality distinct from the ordinary world of experience, and also from the ultimate source of reality.
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  48.  27
    A Plotinian Account of Intellect.Stephen R. L. Clark - 1997 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 71 (3):421-432.
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  49.  68
    The rights of wild things.Stephen R. L. Clark - 1979 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 22 (1-4):171 – 188.
    It has been argued that if non-human animals had rights we should be obliged to defend them against predators. I contend that this either does not follow, follows in the abstract but not in practice, or is not absurd. We should defend non-humans against large or unusual dangers, when we can, but should not claim so much authority as to regulate all the relationships of wild things. Some non-human animals are members of our society, and the rhetoric of 'the land (...)
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  50.  69
    Minds, memes, and multiples.Stephen R. L. Clark - 1996 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 3 (1):21-28.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Minds, Memes, and MultiplesStephen R. L. Clark (bio)AbstractMultiple Personality Disorder is sometimes interpreted as evidence for a radically pluralistic theory of the human mind, judged to be at odds with an older, monistic theory. Older philosophy, on the contrary, suggests that the mind is both plural (in its sub-systems or personalities) and unitary (in that there is only one light over all those lesser parts). Talk of gods (...)
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