"World hypotheses" correspond to metaphysical systems, and they may be systematically judged by the canons of evidence and corroboration. In setting forth his root-metaphor theory and examining six such hypotheses—animism, mysticism, formism, mechanism, contextualism, and organicism—Pepper surveys the whole field of metaphysics. Because this book is an analytical study, it stresses issues rather than men. It seeks to exhibit the sources of these issues and to show that some are unnecessary; that the rest gather into clusters and are interconnected in (...) systems corresponding closely to the traditional schools of philosophy. The virtue of the root-metaphor method is that it puts metaphysics on a purely factual basis and pushes philosophical issues back to the interpretation of evidence. This book was written primarily as a contribution to the field, but its plan excellently suits it for use as a text in courses in metaphysics, types of philosophical theory, or present tendencies in philosophy. (shrink)
Acts of perception are shown to be based on dynamic drives and interests, And so to be parts of purposive acts. A number of consequences follow. For instance, In distal auditory or visual perceptions there are two objects--The transcendent object of the distant goal and source of stimulation, And the immediate sensory object with its anticipatory references. This leads to an operational-Correspondence theory of truth to verify the references. Passive traditional theories are confused on this and other relevant points.
Jenkins' view is of the contextualistic order. Aesthetic experience is concerned with the vivid perception of the quality of a situation or thing. The novel feature in Jenkins' view is the stress he gives to the biological importance of this sort of experience to man. He refers to the biological account of man's adaptive success in the course of evolution, due to his highly developed intelligence --to his capacities for learning in the face of problematic situations. Jenkins then notes the (...) biological significance of consciousness in giving a discriminating, vivid perception of a problematic situation towards a solution of its tensions. (shrink)