Results for 'Stephen Kowalski'

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  1.  25
    Critical Thinking for Understanding.Stephen Kowalski - 1990 - Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 6 (2):8-9.
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  2.  6
    Kowalski.Ludwik Kowalski - 1990 - Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 5 (1):15-15.
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  3.  15
    Kowalski (From Page 13).Ludwik Kowalski - 1990 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 5 (1):15-15.
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  4.  55
    I–Stephen Yablo.Stephen Yablo - 1998 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 72 (1):229-261.
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  5. Autobiografia/Józef Kremer; przygotował do druku Edmund Kowalski.Edmund Kowalski & Józef Kremer - 1992 - Archiwum Historii Filozofii I Myśli Społecznej 37.
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  6.  6
    Logic for Problem Solving.Robert Kowalski - 1979
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  7.  39
    The Ethics of Clinical Care and the Ethics of Clinical Research: Yin and Yang.Charles J. Kowalski, Raymond J. Hutchinson & Adam J. Mrdjenovich - 2017 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 42 (1):7-32.
    The Belmont Report’s distinction between research and the practice of accepted therapy has led various authors to suggest that these purportedly distinct activities should be governed by different ethical principles. We consider some of the ethical consequences of attempts to separate the two and conclude that separation fails along ontological, ethical, and epistemological dimensions. Clinical practice and clinical research, as with yin and yang, can be thought of as complementary forces interacting to form a dynamic system in which the whole (...)
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  8.  55
    Does Ontology Rest on a Mistake?: Stephen Yablo.Stephen Yablo - 1998 - Supplement to the Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 72 (1):229-262.
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  9.  70
    Confusion of Tongues: A Theory of Normative Language By Stephen Finlay.Stephen Finlay - 2020 - Analysis 80 (1):99-101.
    This is a short precis of my 2014 book Confusion of Tongues: A Theory of Normative Language, accompanying my Reply to Worsnip, Dowell, and Koehn in the same volume.
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  10.  32
    Analytic Cut and Interpolation for Bi-Intuitionistic Logic.Tomasz Kowalski & Hiroakira Ono - 2017 - Review of Symbolic Logic 10 (2):259-283.
    We prove that certain natural sequent systems for bi-intuitionistic logic have the analytic cut property. In the process we show that the (global) subformula property implies the (local) analytic cut property, thereby demonstrating their equivalence. Applying a version of Maehara technique modified in several ways, we prove that bi-intuitionistic logic enjoys the classical Craig interpolation property and Maximova variable separation property; its Halldén completeness follows.
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  11.  15
    Schemata, CONSORT, and the Salk Polio Vaccine Trial.Charles J. Kowalski & Adam J. Mrdjenovich - 2018 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 43 (1):64-82.
    In this essay, we defend the design of the Salk polio vaccine trial and try to put some limits on the role schemata should play in designing clinical research studies. Our presentation is structured as a response to de Freitas and Pietrobon who identified the CONSORT statement as a schema that would have, had it existed at the time, ruled out the design of the Salk polio vaccine trial of 1954 in favor of a completely randomized controlled clinical trial. We (...)
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  12.  16
    A Note on Monothetic BCI.Tomasz Kowalski & Sam Butchart - 2006 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 47 (4):541-544.
    In "Variations on a theme of Curry," Humberstone conjectured that a certain logic, intermediate between BCI and BCK, is none other than monothetic BCI—the smallest extension of BCI in which all theorems are provably equivalent. In this note, we present a proof of this conjecture.
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  13.  15
    BCK is Not Structurally Complete.Tomasz Kowalski - 2014 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 55 (2):197-204.
    We exhibit a simple inference rule, which is admissible but not derivable in BCK, proving that BCK is not structurally complete. The argument is proof-theoretical.
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  14.  39
    Outcomes in Branching Space-Time and GHZ-Bell Theorems.Tomasz Kowalski & Tomasz Placek - 1999 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 50 (3):349-375.
    The paper intends to provide an algebraic framework in which subluminal causation can be analysed. The framework merges Belnap's 'outcomes in branching time' with his 'branching space-time' (BST). it is shown that an important structure in BST, called 'family of outcomes of an event', is a boolean algebra. We define next non-stochastic common cause and analyse GHZ-Bell theorems. We prove that there is no common cause that accounts for results of GHZ-Bell experiment but construct common causes for two other quantum (...)
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  15.  15
    Self-Implications in BCI.Tomasz Kowalski - 2008 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 49 (3):295-305.
    Humberstone asks whether every theorem of BCI provably implies $\phi\to\phi$ for some formula $\phi$. Meyer conjectures that the axiom $\mathbf{B}$ does not imply any such "self-implication." We prove a slightly stronger result, thereby confirming Meyer's conjecture.
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  16.  40
    Derivations of the Frobenius Map.Piotr Kowalski - 2005 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 70 (1):99-110.
    We prove that the theory of fields with a derivation of Frobenius has the model companion which is stable and admits elimination of quantifiers up to the level of the λ-functions. Along the way, we give new geometric axioms of DCFp.
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  17.  39
    Semisimplicity, EDPC and Discriminator Varieties of Residuated Lattices.Tomasz Kowalski - 2004 - Studia Logica 77 (2):255 - 265.
    We prove that all semisimple varieties of FL ew-algebras are discriminator varieties. A characterisation of discriminator and EDPC varieties of FL ew-algebras follows. It matches exactly a natural classification of logics over FL ew proposed by H. Ono.
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  18.  31
    Semisimple Varieties of Modal Algebras.Tomasz Kowalski & Marcus Kracht - 2006 - Studia Logica 83 (1-3):351-363.
    In this paper we show that a variety of modal algebras of finite type is semisimple iff it is discriminator iff it is both weakly transitive and cyclic. This fact has been claimed already in [4] (based on joint work by the two authors) but the proof was fatally flawed.
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  19.  40
    Residuated Lattices: An Algebraic Glimpse at Substructural Logics.Nikolaos Galatos, Peter Jipsen, Tomasz Kowalski & Hiroakira Ono - 2007 - Elsevier.
    This is also where we begin investigating lattices of logics and varieties, rather than particular examples.
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  20.  11
    Comparative Effectiveness Research: Decision-Based Evidence.Charles Joseph Kowalski & Adam Joel Mrdjenovich - 2014 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 57 (2):224-248.
    Survival of the fittest in evolutionary biology has a counterpart in the evolution of research paradigms. It’s called survival of the funded, and there is a sense in which paradigms are even more adaptable than species. Whereas species may become extinct if their fitness declines below a critical threshold, paradigms can rise again, perhaps with a new name, following fiscal collapse, provided only that funding is once again made available.A current example is the born-again concept of comparative effectiveness research , (...)
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  21.  3
    Scientism Recognizes Evidence Only of the Quantitative/General Variety.Charles J. Kowalski, Adam J. Mrdjenovich & Richard W. Redman - 2020 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 26 (2):452-457.
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  22.  32
    Abstract Argumentation.Robert A. Kowalski & Francesca Toni - 1996 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 4 (3-4):275-296.
    In this paper we explore the thesis that the role of argumentation in practical reasoning in general and legal reasoning in particular is to justify the use of defeasible rules to derive a conclusion in preference to the use of other defeasible rules to derive a conflicting conclusion. The defeasibility of rules is expressed by means of non-provability claims as additional conditions of the rules.We outline an abstract approach to defeasible reasoning and argumentation which includes many existing formalisms, including default (...)
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  23.  13
    Le'sniewski's Ontology Extended with the Axiom of Choice.James George Kowalski - 1977 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 18 (1):1-78.
  24.  17
    Pragmatic Problems with Clinical Equipoise.Charles J. Kowalski - 2010 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 53 (2):161-173.
  25.  30
    The Use of Logical Models in Legal Problem Solving.Robert Kowalski & Marek Sergot - 1990 - Ratio Juris 3 (2):201-218.
  26. Hart's Methodological Positivism: Stephen R. Perry.Stephen R. Perry - 1998 - Legal Theory 4 (4):427-467.
    To understand H.L.A. Hart's general theory of law, it is helpful to distinguish between substantive and methodological legal positivism. Substantive legal positivism is the view that there is no necessary connection between morality and the content of law. Methodological legal positivism is the view that legal theory can and should offer a normatively neutral description of a particular social phenomenon, namely law. Methodological positivism holds, we might say, not that there is no necessary connection between morality and law, but rather (...)
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  27.  30
    When Ethics Precludes Randomization: Put Prospective, Matched-Pair Observational Studies to Work.Charles Joseph Kowalski - 2013 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 56 (2):184-197.
    In a recent paper in this journal, John Worrall (2008) used the example of a series of trials involving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), a technology for the treatment of respiratory failure in newborns, to illustrate the relationship between ethics and epistemology in medical research. One of the issues considered was whether or not it was ethical to perform a particular clinical trial at all, and he showed clearly that the answer was intimately related to epistemological judgments about the weight to (...)
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  28.  30
    Patient Preference Clinical Trials: Why and When They Will Sometimes Be Preferred.Charles Joseph Kowalski & Adam Joel Mrdjenovich - 2013 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 56 (1):18-35.
    David Sackett and Jack Wennberg have each introduced and developed ideas and methods that have had major impacts on how we think about and perform clinical research. Sackett is best known for his work in Evidence-Based Medicine (Sackett et al. 1997); Wennberg, upon noting wide geographic (and other) variations in best practices for the same conditions, stressed the importance of comparative effectiveness in clinical decision-making (Wennberg et al. 1993). When these two collaborated in an editorial about the current state of (...)
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  29.  41
    Quasi-Subtractive Varieties.Tomasz Kowalski, Francesco Paoli & Matthew Spinks - 2011 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 76 (4):1261-1286.
    Varieties like groups, rings, or Boolean algebras have the property that, in any of their members, the lattice of congruences is isomorphic to a lattice of more manageable objects, for example normal subgroups of groups, two-sided ideals of rings, filters (or ideals) of Boolean algebras.algebraic logic can explain these phenomena at a rather satisfactory level of generality: in every member A of a τ-regular variety the lattice of congruences of A is isomorphic to the lattice of deductive filters on (...)
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  30.  16
    Weakly Associative Relation Algebras Hold the Key to the Universe.Tomasz Kowalski - 2007 - Bulletin of the Section of Logic 36 (3/4):145-157.
  31. An Uneasy Case Against Property Rights in Body Parts*: STEPHEN R. MUNZER.Stephen R. Munzer - 1994 - Social Philosophy and Policy 11 (2):259-286.
    This essay deals with property rights in body parts that can be exchanged in a market. The inquiry arises in the following context. With some exceptions, the laws of many countries permit only the donation, not the sale, of body parts. Yet for some years there has existed a shortage of body parts for transplantation and other medical uses. It might then appear that if more sales were legally permitted, the supply of body parts would increase, because people would have (...)
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  32.  28
    Felicitometry: Measuring the 'Quality' in Quality of Life.Charles Kowalski, Steven Pennell & Amiram Vinokur - 2008 - Bioethics 22 (6):307–313.
    Following Bernheim,1 we examine aspects of 'felicitometrics,'2 the measurement of the 'quality' term in Quality of Life (QOL). Bernheim argued that overall QOL is best captured as the Gestalt3 of a global self-assessment and suggested that the Anamnestic Comparative Self Assessment (ACSA) approach, in which subjects' memories of the best and worst times of their lives are used to anchor a Visual Analog Scale (VAS), provided a serious answer to the serious question, 'How have you been?' Bernheim compares and contrasts (...)
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  33.  4
    Beware Dichotomies.Charles J. Kowalski & Adam J. Mrdjenovich - 2016 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 59 (4):517-535.
    That dichotomization is, at least under certain circumstances, a bad idea is not news. A well-known, early example is the biblical story of King Solomon, who used the absurdity of the procedure to help adjudicate a dispute between two women who each claimed to be the mother of a contested child. Solomon reasoned that his proposal to split the child into two, giving half to each woman, would be abhorrent to the real mother, and when one of the women objected (...)
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  34.  26
    Placebo Controls: Scientific and Ethical Issues.Charles J. Kowalski - 2002 - American Journal of Bioethics 2 (2):33 – 34.
  35.  35
    Sense And Sustainability: The Paradoxes That Sustain.R. Kowalski - 2013 - World Futures 69 (2):75 - 88.
    The Royal Society report updates the anthropogenic impacts on ecosystems services and our inability to rise to this challenge. Sustainable development is argued to be a linguistic device that has been instrumental in deflecting us from addressing the paradox at the heart of the oxymoron. The relationships between the social, environmental, and economic are explored together with the utility of the I = PAT equation, with reference to the Hardin Taboo, Jevons's, and Easterlin's paradoxes. A more prominent role for phronesis (...)
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  36.  30
    Felicitometric Hermeneutics: Interpreting Quality of Life Measurements.Charles J. Kowalski, Jan L. Bernheim, Nancy Adair Birk & Peter Theuns - 2012 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 33 (3):207-220.
    The use of quality of life (QOL) outcomes in clinical trials is increasing as a number of practical, ethical, methodological, and regulatory reasons for their use have become apparent. It is important, then, that QOL measurements and differences between QOL scores be readily interpretable. We study interpretation in two contexts: when determining QOL and when basing decisions on QOL differences. We consider both clinical situations involving individual patients and research contexts, e.g., randomized clinical trials, involving groups of patients. We note (...)
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  37. Aristotle on Modality: Stephen Makin.Stephen Makin - 2000 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 74 (1):143-161.
    [Stephen Makin] Aristotle draws two sets of distinctions in Metaphysics 9.2, first between non-rational and rational capacities, and second between one way and two way capacities. He then argues for three claims: [A] if a capacity is rational, then it is a two way capacity [B] if a capacity is non-rational, then it is a one way capacity [C] a two way capacity is not indifferently related to the opposed outcomes to which it can give rise I provide explanations (...)
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  38. Economic Equality: Rawls Versus Utilitarianism: Stephen W. Ball.Stephen W. Ball - 1986 - Economics and Philosophy 2 (2):225-244.
    Perhaps the most salient feature of Rawls's theory of justice which at once attracts supporters and repels critics is its apparent egalitarian conclusion as to how economic goods are to be distributed. Indeed, many of Rawls's sympathizers may find this result intuitively appealing, and regard it as Rawls's enduring contribution to the topic of economic justice, despite technical deficiencies in Rawls's contractarian, decision-theoretic argument for it which occupy the bulk of the critical literature. Rawls himself, having proposed a “coherence” theory (...)
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  39.  5
    I–Stephen Makin.Stephen Makin - 2000 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 74 (1):143-161.
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  40. On Terrorism and the Politics of Compulsion.Robert Kowalski - 2005 - World Futures 61 (3):188 – 198.
    The concept of "terrorism" is problematized and argued to be at one end of a continuum of behavior that can be characterized as "compulsion." This approach to conflict is explained in terms of Transactional Analysis and the inadequacy of compulsion as a means of managing human affairs (politics) is explored in relation to the use of power that it requires, and to the responses it generates. An alternative behavior, based on "turning the other cheek" and Satyagraha (confronting), is advocated in (...)
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  41.  33
    The Lattice of Subvarieties of $${\Sqrt{\Prime}}$$ Quasi-MV Algebras.T. Kowalski, F. Paoli, R. Giuntini & A. Ledda - 2010 - Studia Logica 95 (1-2):37-61.
    In the present paper we continue the investigation of the lattice of subvarieties of the variety of ${\sqrt{\prime}}$ quasi-MV algebras, already started in [6]. Beside some general results on the structure of such a lattice, the main contribution of this work is the solution of a long-standing open problem concerning these algebras: namely, we show that the variety generated by the standard disk algebra D r is not finitely based, and we provide an infinite equational basis for the same variety.
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  42.  4
    International Development, Paradox and Phronesis.Robert Kowalski - 2012 - ProtoSociology 29:183-205.
    Three out of five paradoxes previously identified within international development are considered to be the core challenges to professional practice and congruence. The first, that of fostering autonomy, is considered from the perspective of the role that language plays in maintaining inappropriate donor ascendancy taking the concept of participation as an exemplar. The second, based in determinism and free will, is discussed in terms of the gap between practitioners’ espoused theory and theory-in-use that creates a syndrome of dissonance that undermines (...)
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  43.  26
    Naturalizing Epistemology: Quine, Simon and the Prospects for Pragmatism: Stephen Stich.Stephen Stich - 1993 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 34:1-17.
    In recent years there has been a great deal of discussion about the prospects of developing a ‘naturalized epistemology’, though different authors tend to interpret this label in quite different ways. One goal of this paper is to sketch three projects that might lay claim to the ‘naturalized epistemology’ label, and to argue that they are not all equally attractive. Indeed, I'll maintain that the first of the three—the one I'll attribute to Quine—is simply incoherent. There is no way we (...)
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  44.  15
    The Lattice of Subvarieties of √′ Quasi-MV Algebras.T. Kowalski, F. Paoli, R. Giuntini & A. Ledda - 2010 - Studia Logica 95 (1-2):37 - 61.
    In the present paper we continue the investigation of the lattice of subvarieties of the variety of √′ P quasi-MV algebras, already started in [6]. Beside some general results on the structure of such a lattice, the main contribution of this work is the solution of a long-standing open problem concerning these algebras: namely, we show that the variety generated by the standard disk algebra D r is not finitely based, and we provide an infinite equational basis for the same (...)
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  45.  1
    Dialectic Proof Procedures for Assumption-Based, Admissible Argumentation.P. M. Dung, R. A. Kowalski & F. Toni - 2006 - Artificial Intelligence 170 (2):114-159.
  46.  24
    Wittgenstein and Connectionism: A Significant Complementarity?*: Stephen Mills.Stephen Mills - 1993 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 34:137-157.
    Between the later views of Wittgenstein and those of connectionism 1 on the subject of the mastery of language there is an impressively large number of similarities. The task of establishing this claim is carried out in the second section of this paper.
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  47.  41
    The Power of a Propositional Constant.Robert Goldblatt & Tomasz Kowalski - 2012 - Journal of Philosophical Logic (1):1-20.
    Monomodal logic has exactly two maximally normal logics, which are also the only quasi-normal logics that are Post complete, and they are complete for validity in Kripke frames. Here we show that addition of a propositional constant to monomodal logic allows the construction of continuum many maximally normal logics that are not valid in any Kripke frame, or even in any complete modal algebra. We also construct continuum many quasi-normal Post complete logics that are not normal. The set of extensions (...)
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  48.  9
    Development – Paradox, Paralysis and Praxis.Robert Kowalski - 2004 - ProtoSociology 20:390-411.
    Development is permeated by paradoxes. These are primarily the result of a confusion of logical types that characterises human communication. When these paradoxes are turned into double binds they have a distinctly disabling impact upon the partners and the processes of development. The two main causes of double binds are an inability to withdraw from the no win choices of paradox, and an interdiction against discussing the existence of the paradox. A number of examples of double binds in development and (...)
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  49. The Second-Person Standpoint An Interview with Stephen Darwall.Stephen Darwall - 2009 - The Harvard Review of Philosophy 16 (1):118-138.
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  50.  34
    Global Religion: Stephen R. L. Clark.Stephen R. L. Clark - 1994 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 36:113-128.
    The social and environmental problems that we face at this tail end of twentieth-century progress require us to identify some cause, some spirit that transcends the petty limits of our time and place. It is easy to believe that there is no crisis. We have been told too often that the oceans will soon die, the air be poisonous, our energy reserves run dry; that the world will grow warmer, coastlands be flooded and the climate change; that plague, famine and (...)
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