Results for 'Stephen M. Patterson'

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  1.  6
    Camera Perspective Bias in Videotaped Confessions: Evidence That Visual Attention is a Mediator.Lezlee J. Ware, G. Daniel Lassiter, Stephen M. Patterson & Michael R. Ransom - 2008 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 14 (2):192-200.
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  2.  67
    Image and Mind.Stephen M. Kosslyn - 1980 - Harvard University Press.
    The book also introduces a host of new experimental techniques and major hypotheses to guide future research.
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  3.  73
    Image and Brain: The Resolution of the Imagery Debate.Stephen M. Kosslyn - 1994 - MIT Press.
    This long-awaited work by prominent Harvard psychologist Stephen Kosslyn integrates a twenty-year research program on the nature of high-level vision and mental ...
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  4.  79
    A Perfect Moral Storm: The Ethical Tragedy of Climate Change.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2011 - Oup Usa.
    Climate change is a global problem that is predominantly an intergenerational conflict, and which takes place in a setting where our ethical impulses are weak. This "perfect moral storm" poses a profound challenge to humanity. This book explains how the "perfect storm" metaphor makes sense of our current malaise, and why a better ethics can help see our way out.
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  5.  66
    On the Demystification of Mental Imagery.Stephen M. Kosslyn, Steven Pinker, Sophie Schwartz & G. Smith - 1979 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (4):535-81.
    What might a theory of mental imagery look like, and how might one begin formulating such a theory? These are the central questions addressed in the present paper. The first section outlines the general research direction taken here and provides an overview of the empirical foundations of our theory of image representation and processing. Four issues are considered in succession, and the relevant results of experiments are presented and discussed. The second section begins with a discussion of the proper form (...)
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  6.  23
    On the Demystification of Mental Imagery.Stephen M. Kosslyn, Steven Pinker, George E. Smith & Steven P. Shwartz - 1979 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (4):535-548.
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  7.  98
    A Broader Understanding of Moral Distress.Stephen M. Campbell, Connie Ulrich & Christine Grady - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (12):2-9.
    On the traditional view, moral distress arises only in cases where an individual believes she knows the morally right thing to do but fails to perform that action due to various constraints. We seek to motivate a broader understanding of moral distress. We begin by presenting six types of distress that fall outside the bounds of the traditional definition and explaining why they should be recognized as forms of moral distress. We then propose and defend a new and more expansive (...)
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  8.  2
    Debating Climate Ethics.Stephen M. Gardiner & David A. Weisbach - 2016 - Oxford University Press USA.
    In this volume, Stephen M. Gardiner and David A. Weisbach present arguments for and against the relevance of ethics to global climate policy. Gardiner argues that climate change is fundamentally an ethical issue, since it is an early instance of a distinctive challenge to ethical action, and ethical concerns are at the heart of many of the decisions that need to be made. Consequently, climate policy that ignores ethics is at risk of.
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  9. Ethics and Global Climate Change.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2004 - Ethics 114 (3):555-600.
    Very few moral philosophers have written on climate change.1 This is puzzling, for several reasons. First, many politicians and policy makers claim that climate change is not only the most serious environmental problem currently facing the world, but also one of the most important international problems per se.2 Second, many of those working in other disciplines describe climate change as fundamentally an ethical issue.3.
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  10.  22
    Climate Ethics: Essential Readings.Stephen M. Gardiner, Simon Caney, Dale Jamieson & Henry Shue - 2010 - Oup Usa.
    This collection gathers a set of central papers from the emerging area of ethics and climate change.
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  11.  17
    Components of High-Level Vision: A Cognitive Neuroscience Analysis and Accounts of Neurological Syndromes.Stephen M. Kosslyn, Rex A. Flynn, Jonathan B. Amsterdam & Gretchen Wang - 1990 - Cognition 34 (3):203-277.
  12.  16
    The Medium and the Message in Mental Imagery: A Theory.Stephen M. Kosslyn - 1981 - Psychological Review 88 (1):46-66.
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  13.  19
    A Simulation of Visual Imagery.Stephen M. Kosslyn & Steven P. Shwartz - 1977 - Cognitive Science 1 (3):265-295.
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  14. The Importance of Models in Theorizing: A Deflationary Semantic View.Stephen M. Downes - 1992 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1992:142 - 153.
    I critically examine the semantic view of theories to reveal the following results. First, models in science are not the same as models in mathematics, as holders of the semantic view claim. Second, when several examples of the semantic approach are examined in detail no common thread is found between them, except their close attention to the details of model building in each particular science. These results lead me to propose a deflationary semantic view, which is simply that model construction (...)
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  15.  39
    How to Measure Metacognition.Stephen M. Fleming & Hakwan C. Lau - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  16.  22
    Models and Modelling in the Sciences: A Philosophical Introduction.Stephen M. Downes - 2020 - Routledge.
    Biologists, climate scientists, and economists all rely on models to move their work forward. In this book, I explore the use of models in these and other fields to introduce readers to the various philosophical issues that arise in scientific modeling. I show that paying attention to models plays a crucial role in appraising scientific work. -/- After surveying a wide range of models from a number of different scientific disciplines, I demonstrate how focusing on models sheds light on many (...)
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  17. A Perfect Moral Storm: Climate Change, Intergenerational Ethics and the Problem of Moral Corruption.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2006 - Environmental Values 15 (3):397 - 413.
    The peculiar features of the climate change problem pose substantial obstacles to our ability to make the hard choices necessary to address it. Climate change involves the convergence of a set of global, intergenerational and theoretical problems. This convergence justifies calling it a 'perfect moral storm'. One consequence of this storm is that, even if the other difficult ethical questions surrounding climate change could be answered, we might still find it difficult to act. For the storm makes us extremely vulnerable (...)
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  18. A Core Precautionary Principle.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2006 - Journal of Political Philosophy 14 (1):33–60.
    “[T]he Precautionary Principle still has neither a commonly accepted definition nor a set of criteria to guide its implementation. “There is”, Freestone … cogently observes, “a certain paradox in the widespread and rapid adoption of the Precautionary Principle”: While it is applauded as a “good thing”, no one is quite sure about what it really means or how it might be..
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  19. The Complicated Relationship of Disability and Well-Being.Stephen M. Campbell & Joseph A. Stramondo - 2017 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 27 (2):151-184.
    It is widely assumed that disability is typically a bad thing for those who are disabled. Our purpose in this essay is to critique this view and defend a more nuanced picture of the relationship between disability and well-being. We first examine four interpretations of the above view and argue that it is false on each interpretation. We then ask whether disability is thereby a neutral trait. Our view is that most disabilities are neutral in one sense, though we cannot (...)
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  20.  3
    Seeing and Imagining in the Cerebral Hemispheres: A Computational Approach.Stephen M. Kosslyn - 1987 - Psychological Review 94 (2):148-175.
  21.  26
    The Tollgate Principles for the Governance of Geoengineering: Moving Beyond the Oxford Principles to an Ethically More Robust Approach.Stephen M. Gardiner & Augustin Fragnière - 2018 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 21 (2):143-174.
    ABSTRACTThis article offers a constructive critique of the Oxford Principles for the governance of geoengineering and proposes an alternative set of principles, the Tollgate Principles, based on that critique. Our main concern is that, despite their many merits, the Oxford Principles remain largely instrumental and dominated by procedural considerations; therefore, they fail to lay the groundwork sufficiently for the more substantive ethical debate that is needed. The article aims to address this gap by making explicit many of the important ethical (...)
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  22.  22
    Heritability.Stephen M. Downes & Lucas J. Matthews - 2019 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Lucas Matthews and I substantially revised my SEP entry on Heritability. This version includes discussion of the missing heritability problem and other issues that arise from the use of Genome Wide Association Studies by Behavioral Geneticists.
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  23.  37
    Representation Without Symbol Systems.Stephen M. Kosslyn & Gary Hatfield - 1984 - Social Research: An International Quarterly 51 (4):1019-1045.
    The concept of representation has become almost inextricably bound to the concept of symbol systems. the concepts is nowhere more prevalent than in descriptions of "internal representations." These representations are thought to occur in an internal symbol system that allows the brain to store and use information. In this paper we explore a different approach to understanding psychological processes, one that retains a commitment to representations and computations but that is not based on the idea that information must be stored (...)
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  24. The Concept of Well-Being.Stephen M. Campbell - 2016 - In Guy Fletcher (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Well-Being. Routledge.
  25. Imagery, Propositions and the Form of Internal Representations.Stephen M. Kosslyn & J. Pomerantz - 1977 - Cognitive Psychology 9:52-76.
     
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  26.  10
    Self-Evaluation of Decision-Making: A General Bayesian Framework for Metacognitive Computation.Stephen M. Fleming & Nathaniel D. Daw - 2017 - Psychological Review 124 (1):91-114.
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  27.  2
    Category and Continuum in Mental Comparisons.Stephen M. Kosslyn, Gregory L. Murphy, Mary E. Bemesderfer & Karen J. Feinstein - 1977 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 106 (4):341-375.
  28. Evolutionary Psychology.Stephen M. Downes - 2017 - In Lee McIntyre & Alex Rosenberg (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Social Science. New York, NY, USA: pp. 330-339.
  29. The Medium and the Message in Mental Imagery: A Theory.Stephen M. Kosslyn - 1981 - In Ned Block (ed.), Imagery. MIT Press.
     
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  30. Arguing About Human Nature: Contemporary Debates.Stephen M. Downes & Edouard Machery (eds.) - 2013 - Routledge.
    Arguing About Human Nature covers recent debates--arising from biology, philosophy, psychology, and physical anthropology--that together systematically examine what it means to be human. Thirty-five essays--several of them appearing here for the first time in print--were carefully selected to offer competing perspectives on 12 different topics related to human nature. The context and main threads of the debates are highlighted and explained by the editors in a short, clear introduction to each of the 12 topics. Authors include Louise Anthony, Patrick Bateson, (...)
     
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  31. Scientific Models.Stephen M. Downes - 2011 - Philosophy Compass 6 (11):757-764.
    This contribution provides an assessment of the epistemological role of scientific models. The prevalent view that all scientific models are representations of the world is rejected. This view points to a unified way of resolving epistemic issues for scientific models. The emerging consensus in philosophy of science that models have many different epistemic roles in science is presented and defended.
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  32. Heritability.Stephen M. Downes - 2015 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  33.  22
    The How, What, and Why of Mental Imagery.Stephen M. Kossyln, Steven Pinker, George E. Smith & Steven P. Shwartz - 1979 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (4):570-581.
  34. Anti-Meaning and Why It Matters.Stephen M. Campbell & Sven Nyholm - 2015 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 1 (4): 694-711.
    It is widely recognized that lives and activities can be meaningful or meaningless, but few have appreciated that they can also be anti-meaningful. Anti-meaning is the polar opposite of meaning. Our purpose in this essay is to examine the nature and importance of this new and unfamiliar topic. In the first part, we sketch four theories of anti-meaning that correspond to leading theories of meaning. In the second part, we argue that anti-meaning has significance not only for our attempts to (...)
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  35.  34
    A Computational Analysis of Mental Image Generation: Evidence From Functional Dissociations in Split-Brain Patients.Stephen M. Kosslyn, Jeffrey D. Holtzman, Martha J. Farah & Michael S. Gazzaniga - 1985 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 114 (3):311-341.
  36. The Real Tragedy of the Commons.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2001 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 30 (4):387-416.
    In two celebrated and widely-anthologized articles, as well as several books, the biologist Garrett Hardin claims (a) that the world population problem has a certain structure – it is a tragedy of the commons - and, (b) that, given this structure, the only tenable solutions involve either coercion or immense human suffering. In this paper, I shall argue for two claims. First, Hardin’s arguments are deeply flawed. The population problem as he conceives it does not have the structure of a (...)
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  37. Climate Ethics in a Dark and Dangerous Time.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2017 - Ethics 127 (2):430-465.
    A critical study of two recent books in climate ethics by Dale Jamieson (Reason in a Dark Time, Oxford 2014), and Darrel Moellendorf (The Moral and Political Challenges of Climate Change, Cambridge 2014).
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  38.  65
    Mental Imagery: Against the Nihilistic Hypothesis.Stephen M. Kosslyn, Giorgio Ganis & William L. Thompson - 2003 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (3):109-111.
  39. Evolutionary Psychology, Adaptation and Design.Stephen M. Downes - 2014 - In P. Huneman & M. Silberstein (eds.), Handbook of Evolutionary Thinking in the Sciences. Springer. pp. 659-673.
    I argue that Evolutionary Psychologists’ notion of adaptationism is closest to what Peter Godfrey-Smith (2001) calls explanatory adaptationism and as a result, is not a good organizing principle for research in the biology of human behavior. I also argue that adopting an alternate notion of adaptationism presents much more explanatory resources to the biology of human behavior. I proceed by introducing Evolutionary Psychology and giving some examples of alternative approaches to the biological explanation of human behavior. Next I characterize adaptation (...)
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  40. Rawls and Climate Change: Does Rawlsian Political Philosophy Pass the Global Test?Stephen M. Gardiner - 2011 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 14 (2):125-151.
    Climate change and other global environmental problems constitute a significant challenge to contemporary political philosophy, especially with respect to complacency. This paper assesses Rawls? theory, and argues for three conclusions. First, Rawls does not already solve such problems, and simple extensions of his theory are unlikely to do so. This is so despite the rich structure of Rawls? philosophy, and the appeal of some of its parts. Second, the most promising areas for extension ? the circumstances of justice, the duty (...)
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  41.  17
    The Role of Ancient DNA Research in Archaeology.Stephen M. Downes - 2021 - Topoi 40 (1):285-293.
    In this paper I briefly introduce work on ancient-DNA and give some examples of the impact this work has had on responses to questions in archaeology. Next, I spell out David Reich’s reasons for his optimism about the contribution aDNA research makes to archaeology. I then use Robert Chapman and Alison Wylie’s framework to offer an alternative to Reich’s view of relations between aDNA research and archaeology. Finally, I develop Steven Mithen’s point about the different questions archaeologists and geneticists ask, (...)
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  42. Roles of Imagery in Perception: Or, There is No Such Thing as Immaculate Perception.Stephen M. Kosslyn & Amy L. Sussman - 1995 - In Michael S. Gazzaniga (ed.), The Cognitive Neurosciences. MIT Press. pp. 1035--1042.
     
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  43. Socializing Naturalized Philosophy of Science.Stephen M. Downes - 1993 - Philosophy of Science 60 (3):452-468.
    I propose an approach to naturalized philosophy of science that takes the social nature of scientific practice seriously. I criticize several prominent naturalistic approaches for adopting "cognitive individualism", which limits the study of science to an examination of the internal psychological mechanisms of scientists. I argue that this limits the explanatory capacity of these approaches. I then propose a three-level model of the social nature of scientific practice, and use the model to defend the claim that scientific knowledge is socially (...)
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  44.  66
    A Call For A Global Constitutional Convention Focused On Future Generations.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2014 - Ethics and International Affairs 28 (3):299-315.
    The Carnegie Council's work “is rooted in the premise that the incorporation of ethical concerns into discussions of international affairs will yield more effective policies both in the United States and abroad.” In honor of the Council's centenary, we have been asked to present our views on the ethical and policy issues posed by climate change, focusing on what people need to know that they probably do not already know, and what should be done. In that spirit, this essay argues (...)
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  45. The Oxford Handbook of Intergenerational Ethics.Stephen M. Gardiner (ed.) - forthcoming - Oxford University Press.
  46. A Contract on Future Generations?Stephen M. Gardiner - 2009 - In Axel Gosseries & Lukas H. Meyer (eds.), Intergenerational Justice. Oxford University Press.
    Contract theories – such as contractarianism and contractualism - seek to justify (and sometimes to explain) moral and political ideals and principles through the notion of “mutually agreeable reciprocity or cooperation between equals” (Darwall 2002). This chapter argues that such theories face fundamental difficulties in the intergenerational setting. Most prominently, the standard understanding of cooperation appears not to apply, and the intergenerational setting brings on a more severe collective action problem than the traditional prisoner’s dilemma. Mainstream contract theorists (such as (...)
     
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  47. The Global Warming Tragedy and the Dangerous Illusion of the Kyoto Protocol.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2004 - Ethics and International Affairs 18 (1):23-39.
    Gardiner insists that the Kyoto agreement, far from being too demanding, does too little to protect future generations.
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  48. An Analysis of Prudential Value.Stephen M. Campbell - 2013 - Utilitas 25 (3):334-54.
    This essay introduces and defends a new analysis of prudential value. According to this analysis, what it is for something to be good for you is for that thing to contribute to the appeal or desirability of being in your position. I argue that this proposal fits well with our ways of talking about prudential value and well-being; enables promising analyses of the related concepts of luck, selfishness, self-sacrifice, and paternalism; preserves the relationship between prudential value and the attitudes of (...)
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  49.  50
    Some Early Ethics of Geoengineering the Climate: A Commentary on the Values of the Royal Society Report.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2011 - Environmental Values 20 (2):163 - 188.
    The Royal Society's landmark report on geoengineering is predicated on a particular account of the context and rationale for intentional manipulation of the climate system, and this ethical framework probably explains many of the Society's conclusions. Critical reflection on the report's values is useful for understanding disagreements within and about geoengineering policy, and also for identifying questions for early ethical analysis. Topics discussed include the moral hazard argument, governance, the ethical status of geoengineering under different rationales, the implications of understanding (...)
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  50. Models, Pictures, and Unified Accounts of Representation: Lessons From Aesthetics for Philosophy of Science.Stephen M. Downes - 2009 - Perspectives on Science 17 (4):417-428.
    Several prominent philosophers of science, most notably Ron Giere, propose that scientific theories are collections of models and that models represent the objects of scientific study. Some, including Giere, argue that models represent in the same way that pictures represent. Aestheticians have brought the picturing relation under intense scrutiny and presented important arguments against the tenability of particular accounts of picturing. Many of these arguments from aesthetics can be used against accounts of representation in philosophy of science. I rely on (...)
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