23 found
Order:
Disambiguations
Stephen E. Newstead [21]Stephen Newstead [2]
  1.  22
    Conditional Reasoning with Realistic Material.Stephen E. Newstead - 1997 - Thinking and Reasoning 3 (1):49 – 76.
    Four experiments are reported which investigated the types of truth tables that people associate with conditional sentences and the kinds of inferences that they will draw from them. The present studies differed from most previous ones in using different types of content in the conditionals, for example promises and warnings. It was found that the type of content had a strong and consistent effect on both truth tables and inferences. It is suggested that this is because in real life conditionals (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   9 citations  
  2.  5
    The Source of Belief Bias Effects in Syllogistic Reasoning.Stephen E. Newstead, Paul Pollard, Jonathan StB. T. Evans & Julie L. Allen - 1992 - Cognition 45 (3):257-284.
  3. The Source of Belief Bias Effects in Syllogistic Reasoning.Stephen E. Newstead, Paul Pollard, Jonathan St B. T. Evans & Julie L. Allen - 1992 - Cognition 45 (3):257-284.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   8 citations  
  4.  23
    Quantifier Interpretation and Syllogistic Reasoning.Maxwell J. Roberts, Stephen E. Newstead & Richard A. Griggs - 2001 - Thinking and Reasoning 7 (2):173 – 204.
    Many researchers have suggested that premise interpretation errors can account, at least in part, for errors on categorical syllogisms. However, although it is possible to show that people make such errors in simple inference tasks, the evidence for them is far less clear when actual syllogisms are administered. Part of the problem is due to the lack of clear predictions for the solutions that would be expected when using modified quantifiers, assuming that correct inferences are made from them. This paper (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  5.  35
    Attentional Factors in a Disjunctive Reasoning Task.A. Griggs Richard, D. Platt Richard, E. Newstead Stephen & L. Jackson Sherri - 1998 - Thinking and Reasoning 4 (1):1-14.
    Girotto and Legrenzi's 1993 facilitation effect for their SARS version of Wason s THOG problem a disjunctive reasoning task was examined. The effect was not replicated when the standard THOG problem instructions were used in Experiments 1 and 2. However, in Experiment 3 when Girotto and Legrenzi's precise instructions were used, facilitation was observed. Experiment 4 further investigated the role of the type of instructions in the observed facilitation. The results suggest that such facilitation may result from attentional factors rather (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  6.  31
    Individual Differences in Strategies for Syllogistic Reasoning.Alison Bacon, Simon Handley & Stephen Newstead - 2003 - Thinking and Reasoning 9 (2):133 – 168.
    Current theories of reasoning such as mental models or mental logic assume a universal cognitive mechanism that underlies human reasoning performance. However, there is evidence that this is not the case, for example, the work of Ford (1995), who found that some people adopted predominantly spatial and some verbal strategies in a syllogistic reasoning task. Using written and think-aloud protocols, the present study confirmed the existence of these individual differences. However, in sharp contrast to Ford, the present study found few (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  7.  2
    Response Bias in Relational Reasoning.Stephen E. Newstead, Paul Pollard & Richard A. Griggs - 1986 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 24 (2):95-98.
  8.  11
    Can Natural Language Semantics Explain Syllogistic Reasoning?Stephen E. Newstead - 2003 - Cognition 90 (2):193-199.
  9.  17
    Are There Two Different Types of Thinking?Stephen E. Newstead - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):690-691.
    Stanovich & West's claim that there are two coherent and conceptually distinct types of thinking, System 1 and System 2, is questioned. Some authors equate System 2 with intelligence whereas other do not; and some authors regard the two types of system as distinct while others regard them as lying on a continuum.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  10.  51
    Effects of Training and Instruction on Analytic and Belief-Based Reasoning Processes.Helen L. Neilens, Simon J. Handley & Stephen E. Newstead - 2009 - Thinking and Reasoning 15 (1):37 – 68.
    Two studies are reported which demonstrate that analytic responding on everyday reasoning problems can be increased and bias eliminated after training on the law of large numbers. Critical thinking problems involving belief-consistent, neutral, and inconsistent conclusions were presented. Belief bias was eliminated when a written justification of argument strength was elicited. However, belief-based responding was still evident when evaluations of the arguments were elicited using rating scales. This finding demonstrates a dissociation between analytic and belief-based responding as a function of (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  11.  37
    Inductive Reasoning, Deductive Reasoning and Mental Models.Stephen E. Newstead - 1994 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 8 (1):65 – 67.
    (1994). Inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning and mental models. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science: Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 65-67. doi: 10.1080/02698599408573483.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  12.  39
    Predicting the Difficulty of Complex Logical Reasoning Problems.Stephen E. Newstead, Peter Bradon, Simon J. Handley, Ian Dennis & Jonathan St B. T. Evans - 2006 - Thinking and Reasoning 12 (1):62 – 90.
    The aim of the present research was to develop a difficulty model for logical reasoning problems involving complex ordered arrays used in the Graduate Record Examination. The approach used involved breaking down the problems into their basic cognitive elements such as the complexity of the rules used, the number of mental models required to represent the problem, and question type. Weightings for these different elements were derived from two experimental studies and from the reasoning literature. Based on these weights, difficulty (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  13.  1
    Mental Models as an Explanation of Belief Bias Effects in Syllogistic Reasoning.Stephen E. Newstead & Jonathan StB. T. Evans - 1993 - Cognition 46 (1):93-97.
  14.  24
    Effects of Training and Instruction on Analytic and Belief-Based Reasoning Processes.Stephen E. Newstead, Simon J. Handley & Helen L. Neilens - 2009 - Thinking and Reasoning 15 (1):37-68.
    Two studies are reported which demonstrate that analytic responding on everyday reasoning problems can be increased and bias eliminated after training on the law of large numbers. Critical thinking problems involving belief-consistent, neutral, and inconsistent conclusions were presented. Belief bias was eliminated when a written justification of argument strength was elicited. However, belief-based responding was still evident when evaluations of the arguments were elicited using rating scales. This finding demonstrates a dissociation between analytic and belief-based responding as a function of (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  15.  7
    Peter Wason (1924-2003).Stephen Newstead - 2003 - Thinking and Reasoning 9 (3):177-184.
  16.  16
    What is an Ecologically Rational Heuristic?Stephen E. Newstead - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):759-760.
    The notion of ecological rationality, although plausible, does not readily lead to testable predictions. This is illustrated with respect to heuristics in syllogistic reasoning. Several possible heuristics have been proposed but ecological rationality does not appear to offer a sensible rationale for choosing between these.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  17.  4
    Mental Models as an Explanation of Belief Bias Effects in Syllogistic Reasoning.Stephen E. Newstead & Jonathan St B. T. Evans - 1993 - Cognition 46 (1):93-97.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  18.  2
    Children’s Performance on Set-Inclusion and Linear-Ordering Relationships.Stephen E. Newstead, Stephanie Keeble & Kenneth I. Manktelow - 1985 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 23 (2):105-108.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  19.  2
    Do Mental Models Provide an Adequate Account of Syllogistic Reasoning Performance?Stephen E. Newstead - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (2):359.
  20.  3
    Do Verbs Act as Implicit Quantifiers?Stephen E. Newstead - 1994 - Journal of Semantics 11 (3):215-230.
    A number of studies suggest that verbs can act as implicit quantifiers on the subjects and objects of the sentences in which they are used; thus a sentence such as Children like animals has truth conditions which fall short of the universal. Furthermore, it has been claimed that the quantity implied varies as a function of the type of verb used, for example, whether the verb describes an observable event or a subjective state. The present research investigated this effect further (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  21. Janet Cohen Sherman (Massachusetts General Hospital) and Barbara Lust (Cornell University) Children Are in Control.Gary F. Marcus, Jane Oakhill, Alan Garnham, Stephen E. Newstead, Jonathan St Bt Evans, Kimj Vicente, William F. Brewer, Jc Marshall, Karen Emmorey & Stephen M. Kosslyn - 1993 - Cognition 46:297.
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  22. Comments on Johnson-Laird By.Stephen E. Newstead - 1994 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 8 (1):65-68.
  23. Semantics and Psychology Part 1: The Semantics of Quantification.Stephen E. Newstead - 1994 - Journal of Semantics 11 (3):147.
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography