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Stephen Read [120]Stephen J. Read [6]Stephen L. Read [1]Stephen Louis Read [1]
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Stephen Read
University of St. Andrews
  1.  26
    ‘Everything True Will Be False’: Paul of Venice’s Two Solutions to the Insolubles.Stephen Read - manuscript
    In his Quadratura, Paul of Venice considers a sophism involving time and tense which appears to show that there is a valid inference which is also invalid. His argument runs as follows: consider this inference concerning some proposition A: A will signify only that everything true will be false, so A will be false. Call this inference B. Then B is valid because the opposite of its conclusion is incompatible with its premise. In accordance with the standard doctrine of ampliation, (...)
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  2. Aristotle's Theory of the Assertoric Syllogism.Stephen Read - manuscript
    Although the theory of the assertoric syllogism was Aristotle's great invention, one which dominated logical theory for the succeeding two millenia, accounts of the syllogism evolved and changed over that time. Indeed, in the twentieth century, doctrines were attributed to Aristotle which lost sight of what Aristotle intended. One of these mistaken doctrines was the very form of the syllogism: that a syllogism consists of three propositions containing three terms arranged in four figures. Yet another was that a syllogism is (...)
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  3. General-Elimination Harmony and the Meaning of the Logical Constants.Stephen Read - 2010 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 39 (5):557-576.
    Inferentialism claims that expressions are meaningful by virtue of rules governing their use. In particular, logical expressions are autonomous if given meaning by their introduction-rules, rules specifying the grounds for assertion of propositions containing them. If the elimination-rules do no more, and no less, than is justified by the introduction-rules, the rules satisfy what Prawitz, following Lorenzen, called an inversion principle. This connection between rules leads to a general form of elimination-rule, and when the rules have this form, they may (...)
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  4. General-Elimination Stability.Bruno Miguel Jacinto & Stephen Louis Read - 2017 - Studia Logica 105 (2):361-405.
    General-elimination harmony articulates Gentzen’s idea that the elimination-rules are justified if they infer from an assertion no more than can already be inferred from the grounds for making it. Dummett described the rules as not only harmonious but stable if the E-rules allow one to infer no more and no less than the I-rules justify. Pfenning and Davies call the rules locally complete if the E-rules are strong enough to allow one to infer the original judgement. A method is given (...)
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  5. Anti-Exceptionalism About Logic.Stephen Read - 2019 - Australasian Journal of Logic 16 (7):298.
    Anti-exceptionalism about logic is the doctrine that logic does not require its own epistemology, for its methods are continuous with those of science. Although most recently urged by Williamson, the idea goes back at least to Lakatos, who wanted to adapt Popper's falsicationism and extend it not only to mathematics but to logic as well. But one needs to be careful here to distinguish the empirical from the a posteriori. Lakatos coined the term 'quasi-empirical' `for the counterinstances to putative mathematical (...)
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  6.  62
    Aristotle and Łukasiewicz on Existential Import.Stephen Read - 2015 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 1 (3):535--544.
    Jan Lukasiewicz's treatise on Aristotle's Syllogistic, published in the 1950s, has been very influential in framing contemporary understanding of Aristotle's logical systems. However, Lukasiewicz's interpretation is based on a number of tendentious claims, not least, the claim that the syllogistic was intended to apply only to non-empty terms. I show that this interpretation is not true to Aristotle's text and that a more coherent and faithful interpretation admits empty terms while maintaining all the relations of the traditional square of opposition.
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  7. Harmony and Autonomy in Classical Logic.Stephen Read - 2000 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 29 (2):123-154.
    Michael Dummett and Dag Prawitz have argued that a constructivist theory of meaning depends on explicating the meaning of logical constants in terms of the theory of valid inference, imposing a constraint of harmony on acceptable connectives. They argue further that classical logic, in particular, classical negation, breaks these constraints, so that classical negation, if a cogent notion at all, has a meaning going beyond what can be exhibited in its inferential use. I argue that Dummett gives a mistaken elaboration (...)
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  8.  71
    Relevant Logic: A Philosophical Examination of Inference.Stephen Read - 1988 - Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
    The logician's central concern is with the validity of argument. A logical theory ought, therefore, to provide a general criterion of validity. This book sets out to find such a criterion, and to describe the philosophical basis and the formal theory of a logic in which the premises of a valid argument are relevant to its conclusion. The notion of relevance required for this theory is obtained by an analysis of the grounds for asserting a formula in a proof.
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  9. Truthmakers and the Disjunction Thesis.Stephen Read - 2000 - Mind 109 (432):67-80.
    The correspondence theory of truth has experienced something of a revival recently in the form of the Truthmaker Axiom: whatever is true, something makes it true. We consider various postulates which have been proposed to characterize truthmaking, in particular, the Disjunction Thesis (DT), that whatever makes a disjunction true must make one or other disjunct true. In conjunction with certain other assumptions, DT leads to triviality. We show that there are elaborations of truthmaking on which DT holds (which must therefore (...)
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  10. Merely Confused Supposition.Graham Priest & Stephen Read - 1980 - Franciscan Studies 40 (1):265-97.
    In this article, we discuss the notion of merely confused supposition as it arose in the medieval theory of suppositio personalis. The context of our analysis is our formalization of William of Ockham's theory of supposition sketched in Mind 86 (1977), 109-13. The present paper is, however, self-contained, although we assume a basic acquaintance with supposition theory. The detailed aims of the paper are: to look at the tasks that supposition theory took on itself and to use our formalization to (...)
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  11.  50
    Thinking About Logic: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Logic.Stephen Read - 1994 - Oxford University Press.
    In this book, Stephen Read sets out to rescue logic from its undeserved reputation as an inflexible, dogmatic discipline by demonstrating that its technicalities and processes are founded on assumptions which are themselves amenable to philosophical investigation. He examines the fundamental principles of consequence, logical truth and correct inference within the context of logic, and shows that the principles by which we delineate consequences are themselves not guaranteed free from error. Central to the notion of truth is the beguiling issue (...)
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  12.  2
    Swyneshed, Aristotle and the Rule of Contradictory Pairs.Stephen Read - 2020 - Logica Universalis 14 (1):27-50.
    Roger Swyneshed, in his treatise on insolubles, dating from the early 1330s, drew three notorious corollaries from his solution. The third states that there is a contradictory pair of propositions both of which are false. This appears to contradict what Whitaker, in his iconoclastic reading of Aristotle’s De Interpretatione, dubbed “The Rule of Contradictory Pairs”, which requires that in every such pair, one must be true and the other false. Whitaker argued that, immediately after defining the notion of a contradictory (...)
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  13. The Liar Paradox From John Buridan Back to Thomas Bradwardine.Stephen Read - 2002 - Vivarium 40 (2):189-218.
  14. Monism: The One True Logic.Stephen Read - 2006 - In D. de Vidi & T. Kenyon (eds.), A Logical Approach to Philosophy: Essays in Memory of Graham Solomon. Springer.
    Logical pluralism is the claim that different accounts of validity can be equally correct. Beall and Restall have recently defended this position. Validity is a matter of truth-preservation over cases, they say: the conclusion should be true in every case in which the premises are true. Each logic specifies a class of cases, but differs over which cases should be considered. I show that this account of logic is incoherent. Validity indeed is truth-preservation, provided this is properly understood. Once understood, (...)
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  15. Formal and Material Consequence.Stephen Read - 1994 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 23 (3):247 - 265.
  16.  52
    Semantic Pollution and Syntactic Purity.Stephen Read - 2015 - Review of Symbolic Logic 8 (4):649-661.
    Logical inferentialism claims that the meaning of the logical constants should be given, not model-theoretically, but by the rules of inference of a suitable calculus. It has been claimed that certain proof-theoretical systems, most particularly, labelled deductive systems for modal logic, are unsuitable, on the grounds that they are semantically polluted and suffer from an untoward intrusion of semantics into syntax. The charge is shown to be mistaken. It is argued on inferentialist grounds that labelled deductive systems are as syntactically (...)
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  17. Swyneshed, Paradox and the Rule of Contradictory Pairs.Stephen Read - manuscript
    Roger Swyneshed, in his treatise on insolubles (logical paradoxes), dating from the early 1330s, drew three notorious corollaries of his solution. The third states that there is a contradictory pair of propositions both of which are false. This appears to contradict the Rule of Contradictory Pairs, which requires that in every such pair, one must be true and the other false. Looking back at Aristotle's treatise De Interpretatione, we find that Aristotle himself, immediately after defining the notion of a contradictory (...)
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  18.  25
    Proof-Theoretic Validity.Stephen Read - 2015 - In Colin R. Caret & Ole T. Hjortland (eds.), Foundations of Logical Consequence. Oxford, UK: pp. 136-158.
    The idea of proof-theoretic validity originated in the work of Gentzen, when he suggested that the meaning of each logical expression was encapsulated in its introduction-rules. The idea was developed by Prawitz and Dummett, but came under attack by Prior under the soubriquet 'analytic validity'. Logical truths and logical consequences are deemed analytically valid by virtue of following, in a way which the present chapter clarifies, from the meaning of the logical constants. But different logics are based on different rules, (...)
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  19.  13
    A Neural Network Model of the Structure and Dynamics of Human Personality.Stephen J. Read, Brian M. Monroe, Aaron L. Brownstein, Yu Yang, Gurveen Chopra & Lynn C. Miller - 2010 - Psychological Review 117 (1):61-92.
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  20.  67
    Plural Signification and the Liar Paradox.Stephen Read - 2009 - Philosophical Studies 145 (3):363-375.
    In recent years, speech-act theory has mooted the possibility that one utterance can signify a number of different things. This pluralist conception of signification lies at the heart of Thomas Bradwardine’s solution to the insolubles, logical puzzles such as the semantic paradoxes, presented in Oxford in the early 1320s. His leading assumption was that signification is closed under consequence, that is, that a proposition signifies everything which follows from what it signifies. Then any proposition signifying its own falsity, he showed, (...)
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  21. The Philosophy of Alternative Logics.Andrew Aberdein & Stephen Read - 2009 - In Leila Haaparanta (ed.), The Development of Modern Logic. Oxford University Press. pp. 613-723.
    This chapter focuses on alternative logics. It discusses a hierarchy of logical reform. It presents case studies that illustrate particular aspects of the logical revisionism discussed in the chapter. The first case study is of intuitionistic logic. The second case study turns to quantum logic, a system proposed on empirical grounds as a resolution of the antinomies of quantum mechanics. The third case study is concerned with systems of relevance logic, which have been the subject of an especially detailed reform (...)
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  22.  15
    William Ockham.Stephen Read - 1990 - Philosophical Quarterly 40 (161):537-538.
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  23.  32
    Revisiting the Role of the Insula in Addiction.Vita Droutman, Stephen J. Read & Antoine Bechara - 2015 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 19 (7):414-420.
  24.  61
    Harmonic Inferentialism and the Logic of Identity.Stephen Read - 2016 - Review of Symbolic Logic 9 (2):408-420.
    Inferentialism claims that the rules for the use of an expression express its meaning without any need to invoke meanings or denotations for them. Logical inferentialism endorses inferentialism specically for the logical constants. Harmonic inferentialism, as the term is introduced here, usually but not necessarily a subbranch of logical inferentialism, follows Gentzen in proposing that it is the introduction-rules whch give expressions their meaning and the elimination-rules should accord harmoniously with the meaning so given. It is proposed here that the (...)
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  25.  51
    Field's Paradox and Its Medieval Solution.Stephen Read - 2010 - History and Philosophy of Logic 31 (2):161-176.
    Hartry Field's revised logic for the theory of truth in his new book, Saving Truth from Paradox , seeking to preserve Tarski's T-scheme, does not admit a full theory of negation. In response, Crispin Wright proposed that the negation of a proposition is the proposition saying that some proposition inconsistent with the first is true. For this to work, we have to show that this proposition is entailed by any proposition incompatible with the first, that is, that it is the (...)
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  26.  64
    The Medieval Theory of Consequence.Stephen Read - 2012 - Synthese 187 (3):899-912.
    The recovery of Aristotle’s logic during the twelfth century was a great stimulus to medieval thinkers. Among their own theories developed to explain Aristotle’s theories of valid and invalid reasoning was a theory of consequence, of what arguments were valid, and why. By the fourteenth century, two main lines of thought had developed, one at Oxford, the other at Paris. Both schools distinguished formal from material consequence, but in very different ways. In Buridan and his followers in Paris, formal consequence (...)
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  27.  43
    Symmetry and Paradox.Stephen Read - 2006 - History and Philosophy of Logic 27 (4):307-318.
    The ?no???no? paradox (so-called by Sorensen) consists of a pair of propositions each of which says of the other that it is false. It is not immediately paradoxical, since it has a solution in which one proposition is true, the other false. However, that is itself paradoxical, since there is no clear ground for determining which is which. The two propositions should have the same truth-value. The paper shows how a proposal by the medieval thinker Thomas Bradwardine solves not only (...)
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  28. Identity and Harmony.Stephen Read - 2004 - Analysis 64 (2):113–119.
  29.  93
    Hairier Than Putnam Thought.Stephen Read & Crispin Wright - 1985 - Analysis 45 (1):56.
    " In 'Vagueness and Alternative Logic' (Realism and Reason, Cambridge 1983, pp. 271-86, especially 285-6), Hilary Putnam puts forward a suggestion for a formal treatment of the logic of vagueness. … Putnam admits that, at the time of writing, he had not thought this idea through. What will already be apparent to the alert reader is that, in order to disclose serious difficulties for the proposal, Putnam would not have had to think far.".
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  30.  93
    The Unity of the Fact.Stephen Read - 2005 - Philosophy 80 (3):317-342.
    What binds the constituents of a state of affairs together and provides unity to the fact they constitute? I argue that the fact that they are related is basic and fundamental. This is the thesis of Factualism: the world is a world of facts. I draw three corollaries: first, that the Identity of truth is mistaken, in conflating what represents (the proposition) with what is represented (the fact). Secondly, a popular interpretation of Wittgenstein's Tractatus, due to Steinus, whereby false propositions (...)
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  31.  28
    John Buridan's Theory of Consequence and His Octagons of Opposition.Stephen Read - 2012 - In J.-Y. Beziau & Dale Jacquette (eds.), Around and Beyond the Square of Opposition. Birkhäuser. pp. 93--110.
    One of the manuscripts of Buridan’s Summulae contains three figures, each in the form of an octagon. At each node of each octagon there are nine propositions. Buridan uses the figures to illustrate his doctrine of the syllogism, revising Aristotle's theory of the modal syllogism and adding theories of syllogisms with propositions containing oblique terms (such as ‘man’s donkey’) and with ‘propositions of non-normal construction’ (where the predicate precedes the copula). O-propositions of non-normal construction (i.e., ‘Some S (some) P is (...)
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  32.  81
    Insolubilia and the Fallacy Secundum Quid Et Simpliciter.Catarina Dutilh Novaes & Stephen Read - 2008 - Vivarium 46 (2):175-191.
    Thomas Bradwardine makes much of the fact that his solution to the insolubles is in accordance with Aristotle's diagnosis of the fallacy in the Liar paradox as that of secundum quid et simpliciter. Paul Spade, however, claims that this invocation of Aristotle by Bradwardine is purely "honorary" in order to confer specious respectability on his analysis and give it a spurious weight of authority. Our answer to Spade follows Bradwardine's response to the problem of revenge: any proposition saying of itself (...)
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  33. Thinking About Logic: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Logic.Stephen Read - 1997 - Philosophical Quarterly 47 (189):529-531.
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  34.  64
    Obligations, Sophisms and Insolubles.Stephen Read - 2013 - National Research University “Higher School of Economics” - (Series WP6 “Humanities”).
    The focus of the paper is a sophism based on the proposition ‘This is Socrates’ found in a short treatise on obligational casus attributed to William Heytesbury. First, the background to the puzzle in Walter Burley’s traditional account of obligations (the responsio antiqua), and the objections and revisions made by Richard Kilvington and Roger Swyneshed, are presented. All six types of obligations described by Burley are outlined, including sit verum, the type used in the sophism. Kilvington and Swyneshed disliked the (...)
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  35.  63
    Self-Reference and Validity.Stephen Read - 1979 - Synthese 42 (2):265 - 274.
  36. Relevant Logic : a Philosophical Examination of Inference.Stephen Read - 1989 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 179 (4):656-656.
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  37.  78
    Completeness and Categoricity: Frege, Gödel and Model Theory.Stephen Read - 1997 - History and Philosophy of Logic 18 (2):79-93.
    Frege?s project has been characterized as an attempt to formulate a complete system of logic adequate to characterize mathematical theories such as arithmetic and set theory. As such, it was seen to fail by Gödel?s incompleteness theorem of 1931. It is argued, however, that this is to impose a later interpretation on the word ?complete? it is clear from Dedekind?s writings that at least as good as interpretation of completeness is categoricity. Whereas few interesting first-order mathematical theories are categorical or (...)
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  38. Review: The Law of Non-Contradiction: New Philosophical Essays. [REVIEW]Stephen Read - 2007 - Mind 116 (461):203-206.
  39. The Philosophy of Thomas Reid: A Collection of Essays.John Haldane & Stephen L. Read (eds.) - 2003 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    Thomas Reid was one of the greatest philosophers of the eighteenth century and a contemporary of Kant's. This volume is part of a new wave of international interest in Reid from a new generation of scholars. The volume opens with an introduction to Reid's life and work, including biographical material previously little known. A classic essay by Reid himself - 'Of Power' - is then reproduced, in which he sets out his distinctive account of causality and agency. This is followed (...)
     
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  40.  28
    Square of Opposition: A Diagram and a Theory in Historical Perspective.Jean-Yves Beziau & Stephen Read - 2014 - History and Philosophy of Logic 35 (4):315-316.
  41.  94
    Conditionals Are Not Truth-Functional: An Argument From Peirce.Stephen Read - 1992 - Analysis 52 (1):5 - 12.
  42. Relevant Logic: A Philosophical Examination of Inference.Stephen Read - 1990 - Mind 99 (393):140-142.
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  43.  52
    Richard Kilvington and the Theory of Obligations.Stephen Read - 2015 - Vivarium 53 (2-4):391-404.
    Kretzmann and Spade were led by Richard Kilvington’s proposed revisions to the rules of obligations in his discussion of the 47th sophism in his Sophismata to claim that the purpose of obligational disputations was the same as that of counterfactual reasoning. Angel d’Ors challenged this interpretation, realising that the reason for Kilvington’s revision was precisely that he found the art of obligation unsuited to the kind of reasoning which lay at the heart of the sophismatic argument. In his criticism, Kilvington (...)
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  44.  92
    What Is Wrong with Disjunctive Syllogism?Stephen Read - 1980 - Analysis 41 (2):66 - 70.
  45.  38
    Conditionals and the Ramsey Test.Stephen Read & Dorothy Edgington - 1995 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 69 (1):47 - 86.
  46. Medieval Theories: Properties of Terms.Stephen Read - 2002 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 1:1-13.
  47.  46
    Thomas of Cleves and Collective Supposition.Stephen Read - 1991 - Vivarium 29 (1):50-84.
  48.  41
    Necessary Truth and Proof.Stephen Read - 2010 - Kriterion: Journal of Philosophy 51 (121):47-67.
    What makes necessary truths true? I argue that all truth supervenes on how things are, and that necessary truths are no exception. What makes them true are proofs. But if so, the notion of proof needs to be generalized to include verification-transcendent proofs, proofs whose correctness exceeds our ability to verify it. It is incumbent on me, therefore, to show that arguments, such as Dummett's, that verification- truth is not compatible with the theory of meaning, are mistaken. The answer is (...)
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  49. Bradwardine's Revenge.Stephen Read - 2007 - In J. C. Beall (ed.), Revenge of the Liar: New Essays on the Paradox. Oxford University Press.
  50.  45
    How Is Material Supposition Possible?Stephen Read - 1999 - Medieval Philosophy and Theology 8 (1):1-20.
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