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Stephen Turner [259]Stephen P. Turner [36]Stephen B. Turner [1]Stephen Francis Turner [1]
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Stephen Turner
University of South Florida
  1.  11
    Explaining the Normative.Stephen Turner - 2013 - Polity.
    Normativity is what gives reasons their force, makes words meaningful, and makes rules and laws binding. It is present whenever we use such terms as ‘correct,' ‘ought,' ‘must,' and the language of obligation, responsibility, and logical compulsion. Yet normativists, the philosophers committed to this idea, admit that the idea of a non-causal normative realm and a body of normative objects is spooky. Explaining the Normative is the first systematic, historically grounded critique of normativism. It identifies the standard normativist pattern of (...)
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  2.  59
    The Social Theory of Practices: Tradition, Tacit Knowledge, and Presuppositions.Stephen P. Turner - 1994 - University of Chicago Press.
    The concept of "practices"--whether of representation, of political or scientific traditions, or of organizational culture--is central to social theory. In this book, Stephen Turner presents the first analysis and critique of the idea of practice as it has developed in the various theoretical traditions of the social sciences and the humanities. Understood broadly as a tacit understanding "shared" by a group, the concept of a practice has a fatal difficulty, Turner argues: there is no plausible mechanism by which a "practice" (...)
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  3.  59
    Social Theory of Practices.Stephen Turner - 1994 - Human Studies 20 (3):315-323.
    The concept of "practices"—whether of representation, of political or scientific traditions, or of organizational culture—is central to social theory. In this book, Stephen Turner presents the first analysis and critique of the idea of practice as it has developed in the various theoretical traditions of the social sciences and the humanities. Understood broadly as a tacit understanding "shared" by a group, the concept of a practice has a fatal difficulty, Turner argues: there is no plausible mechanism by which a "practice" (...)
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  4.  4
    Explaining the Normative.Stephen Turner - 2010 - Polity.
    Normativity is what gives reasons their force, makes words meaningful, and makes rules and laws binding. It is present whenever we use such terms as ‘correct,' ‘ought,' ‘must,' and the language of obligation, responsibility, and logical compulsion. Yet normativists, the philosophers committed to this idea, admit that the idea of a non-causal normative realm and a body of normative objects is spooky. Explaining the Normative is the first systematic, historically grounded critique of normativism. It identifies the standard normativist pattern of (...)
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  5.  5
    Brains/Practices/Relativism Social Theory After Cognitive Science.Stephen Turner - 2002 - Scholar Commons.
    In a series of tightly argued essays, Turner traces out the implications that discarding the notion of shared frameworks has for relativism, social constructionism, normativity, and a number of other concepts. He suggests ways in which these ideas might be reformulated more productively, in part through extended critiques of the work of scholars such as Ian Hacking, Andrew Pickering, Pierre Bourdieu, Quentin Skinner, Robert Brandom, Clifford Geertz, and Edward Shils.
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  6.  28
    Verstehen Naturalized.Stephen Turner - 2019 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 49 (4):243-264.
    Verstehen, understanding another human being through some form of empathy, is a natural process with the involvement, probably in a complex way, of the brain. There is a temptation to describe Vers...
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  7.  41
    Was Sellars an Error Theorist?Peter Olen & Stephen Turner - 2016 - Synthese 193 (7):2053-2075.
    Wilfrid Sellars described the moral syllogism that supports the inference “I ought to do x” from “Everyone ought to do x” as a “syntactical disguise” which embodies a “mistake.” He nevertheless regarded this form of reasoning as constitutive of the moral point of view. Durkheim was the source of much of this reasoning, and this context illuminates Sellars’ unusual philosophical reconstruction of the moral point of view in terms of the collective intentions of an ideal community of rational members for (...)
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  8.  31
    What is the Problem with Experts?Stephen Turner - 2001 - Social Studies of Science 31 (1):123-149.
    The phenomenon of expertise produces two problems for liberal democratic theory: the first is whether it creates inequalities that undermine citizen rule or make it a sham; the second is whether the state can preserve its neutrality in liberal ’government by discussion’ while subsidizing, depending on, and giving special status to, the opinions of experts and scientists. A standard Foucauldian critique suggests that neutrality is impossible, expert power and state power are inseparable, and that expert power is the source of (...)
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  9.  10
    Charisma Reconsidered.Stephen Turner - unknown - Journal of Classical Sociology 3 (1):5-26.
    Charisma is a concept with a peculiar history. It arose from theological obscurity through social science, from which it passed into popular culture. As a social science concept, its significance derives in large part from the fact that it captures a particular type of leadership. But it fits poorly with other concepts in social science, and is problematic as an explanatory concept. Even Weber himself was torn in his use of the concept between the individual type-concept and a broader use (...)
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  10.  2
    The Politics of Expertise.Stephen Turner - 2013 - New York, USA: Routledge.
    This book collects case studies and theoretical papers on expertise, focusing on four major themes: legitimation, the aggregation of knowledge, the distribution of knowledge and the distribution of power. It focuses on the institutional means by which the distribution of knowledge and the distribution of power are connected, and how the problems of aggregating knowledge and legitimating it are solved by these structures. The radical novelty of this approach is that it places the traditional discussion of expertise in democracy into (...)
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  11. The Survey in Nineteenth-Century American Geology: The Evolution of a Form of Patronage. [REVIEW]Stephen Turner - 1987 - Minerva 25 (3):282-330.
  12.  36
    Durkheim, Sellars, and the Origins of Collective Intentionality.Peter Olen & Stephen P. Turner - 2015 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 23 (5):954-975.
    Wilfrid Sellars read and annotated Celestine Bouglé’s Evolution of Values, translated by his mother with an introduction by his father. The book expounded Émile Durkheim's account of morality and elaborated his account of origins of value in collective social life. Sellars replaced elements of this account in constructing his own conception of the relationship between the normative and community, but preserved a central one: the idea that conflicting collective and individual intentions could be found in the same person. These notoriously (...)
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  13.  2
    Introduction: Tacit Knowledge: Between Habit and Presupposition.Stephen Turner - 2014 - In Understanding the Tacit. New York, USA: Routledge.
    Harry Collins is a science studies scholar no other description fits without qualification who has contributed enormously to the discussion of tacit knowledge. Collins says that he is providing an account for the ontologically bashful, meaning, presumably, that it does not carry the burdens of Durkheim's notion of the collective consciousness. Polanyi says that 'a wholly explicit knowledge is unthinkable'. Collins wants to translate this into 'strings must be interpreted before they are meaningful'. Somatic limits are the source of the (...)
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  14.  2
    Social Theory as a Cognitive Neuroscience.Stephen Turner - 2007 - European Journal of Social Theory 10 (3):357-374.
    In the nineteenth century, there was substantial and sophisticated interest in neuroscience on the part of social theorists, including Comte and Spencer, and later Simon Patten and Charles Ellwood. This body of thinking faced a dead end: it could do little more than identify highly general mechanisms, and could not provide accounts of such questions as `why was there no proletarian revolution?' Psychologically dubious explanations, relying on neo-Kantian views of the mind, replaced them. With the rise of neuroscience, however, some (...)
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  15.  5
    Liberal Democracy 3.0: Civil Society in an Age of Experts.Stephen Turner - 2003 - Scholar Commons.
  16.  85
    Public Sociology and Democratic Theory.Stephen Turner - 2007 - In Jeroen Van Bouwel (ed.), The Social Sciences and Democracy. Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Sociology, as conceived by Comte, was to put an end to the anarchy of opinions characteristic of liberal democracy by replacing opinion with the truths of sociology, imposed through indoctrination. Later sociologists backed away from this, making sociology acceptable to liberal democracy by being politically neutral. The critics of this solution asked 'whose side are we on?' Burawoy provides a novel justification for advocacy scholarship in sociology. Public sociology is intended to have political effects, but also to be funded by (...)
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  17.  2
    Knowledge Formations: An Analytic Framework.Stephen Turner - 2017 - In R. Frodeman (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Interdisciplinarity (2nd Ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 9-20.
    Knowledge is socially distributed, and the distribution of knowledge is socially structured, but the distribution and the structures within which it is produced and reproduced—often two separate things—have varied enormously. Disciplines are one knowledge formation of special significance. They can be thought of as very old, or as a very recent phenomenon: In the very old sense, disciplines begin with the creation of rituals of certification and exclusion related to knowledge; in the more recent sense, they are the product of (...)
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  18.  14
    The Strength of Weak Empathy.Stephen Turner - 2012 - Science in Context 25 (3):383-399.
    This paper builds on a neglected philosophical idea, Evidenz.MaxWeber used it in his discussion of Verstehen, as the goal of understanding either action or such things as logic. It was formulated differently by Franz Brentano, but with a novel twist: that anyone who understood something would see the thing to be understood as self-evident, not something dependent on inference, argument, or reasoning. The only way one could take something as evident in this sense is by being able to treat other (...)
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  19.  6
    Causality In Crisis?: Statistical Methods & Search for Causal Knowledge in Social Sciences.Vaughn McKim & Stephen Turner (eds.) - 1997 - Notre Dame Press.
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  20. Cause, the Persistence of Teleology, and the Origins of the Philosophy of Social Science.Stephen Turner - 2003 - In Stephen P. Turner and Paul Roth (ed.), Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of the Social Sciences. pp. 21-42.
    The subject of this chapter is the complex and confusing course of the discussion of cause and teleology before and during the period of Mill and Comte, and its aftermath up to the early years of the twentieth century in the thinking of several of the major founding figures of disciplinary social science. The discussion focused on the problem of the sufficiency of causal explanations, and particularly the question of whether some particular fact could be explained without appeal to purpose. (...)
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  21.  43
    Many Approaches, but Few Arrivals: Merton and the Columbia Model of Theory Construction.Stephen Turner - 2009 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 39 (2):174-211.
    Robert Merton's essays on theories of the middle range and his essays on functional explanation and the structural approach are among the most influential in the history of sociology. But their import is a puzzle. He explicitly allied himself with some of the most extreme scientistic formalists and contributed to and endorsed the Columbia model of theory construction. But Merton never responded to criticisms by Ernest Nagel of his arguments or acknowledged the rivalry between Lazarsfeld and Herbert Simon, rarely cited (...)
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  22. Explaining Normativity.Stephen Turner - 2007 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 37 (1):57-73.
    In this reply, I raise some questions about the account of "normativity" given by Joseph Rouse. I discuss the historical form of disputes over normativity in such thinkers as Kelsen and show that the standard issue with these accounts is over the question of whether there is anything added to the normal stream of explanation by the problem of normativity. I suggest that Rouse’s attempt to avoid the issues that arise with substantive explanatory theories of practices of the kind criticized (...)
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  23.  20
    3.What Are Disciplines? And How Is Interdisciplinarity Different?Stephen Turner - 2000 - In Peter Weingart & Nico Stehr (eds.), Practising Interdisciplinarity. University of Toronto Press. pp. 46-65.
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  24.  42
    Book Symposium on Expertise: Philosophical Reflections by Evan Selinger Automatic Press/Vip, Vince Inc. Press 2011.Stephen Turner, William Rehg, Heather Douglas & Evan Selinger - 2013 - Philosophy and Technology 26 (1):93-109.
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  25.  42
    Mirror Neurons and Practices: A Response to Lizardo.Stephen P. Turner - 2007 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 37 (3):351–371.
    Lizardo argues that The Social Theory of Practices is refuted by the discovery of mirror neurons. The book argues that the kind of sameness of tacit mental content assumed by practice theorists such as Bourdieu is fictional, because there is no actual process by which the same mental content can be transmitted. Mirror neurons, Lizardo claims, provide such a mechanism, as they imply that bodily automatisms, which can be understood as the basis of habitus and concepts, can be shared and (...)
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  26.  42
    Starting with Tacit Knowledge, Ending with Durkheim? [REVIEW]Stephen P. Turner - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (3):472-476.
  27.  55
    Tacit Knowledg and the Problem of Computer Modelling Cognitive Processes in Science.Stephen Turner - 1989 - In Steve Fuller (ed.), The Cognitive Turn: Sociological and Psychological Perspectives on Science. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    In what follows I propose to bring out certain methodological properties of projects of modelling the tacit realm that bear on the kinds of modelling done in connection with scientific cognition by computer as well as by ethnomethodological sociologists, both of whom must make some claims about the tacit in the course of their efforts to model cognition. The same issues, I will suggest, bear on the project of a cognitive psychology of science as well.
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  28.  57
    Searle's Social Reality.Stephen P. Turner - 1999 - History and Theory 38 (2):211–231.
    In The Construction of Social Reality, John Searle expends an argument left undeveloped in Speech Acts about the nature of the rules which underlie and constitute social life. It is argued in this review that one problem for this account was its apparent incompatibility with connectionism. They cannot be rules shared in the head, so to speak. He now understands our relation to these rules not as one of simple internalization but of skillful accustoming. But this makes appeal to rules (...)
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  29.  55
    The Disappearance of Tradition in Weber.Stephen P. Turner & Regis A. Factor - 1990 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 15 (1):400-24.
    In this essay we will consider another basic topic: the problem of the nature of the distinctions between Sitte, Brauch, Wert, Mode, and Recht, on which Weber's discussion relies. These discussions typically involved the untranslatable concept of Sitte, which marks a contrast between practices or customs with normative force and “mere practice.” There is a close parallel to this distinction in American social thought in W. G. Sumner's latinate distinction between the mores and folkways of a society. In what follows (...)
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  30.  18
    Practice Then and Now.Stephen Turner - 2007 - Human Affairs 17 (2).
    "Practice theory" has a long history in philosophy, under various names, but current practice theory is a response to failures of projects of modernity or enlightenment which attempt to reduce science or politics to formulae. Heidegger, Oakeshott, and Macintyre are each examples of .philosophers who turned to practice conceptions. Foucault and Bourdieu made similar turns. Practice accounts come in different forms: some emphasize skill-like individual accomplishments, others emphasize the social character or presupposition-like character of the tacit conditions of activities. The (...)
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  31. Normal Accidents of Expertise.Stephen Turner - 2010 - Minerva 48 (3):239-258.
    Charles Perrow used the term normal accidents to characterize a type of catastrophic failure that resulted when complex, tightly coupled production systems encountered a certain kind of anomalous event. These were events in which systems failures interacted with one another in a way that could not be anticipated, and could not be easily understood and corrected. Systems of the production of expert knowledge are increasingly becoming tightly coupled. Unlike classical science, which operated with a long time horizon, many current forms (...)
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  32.  4
    Max Weber and the Dispute Over Reason and Value: A Study in Philosophy, Ethics, and Politics.Stephen P. Turner - 1984 - Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    The problem of the nature of values and the relation between values and rationality is one of the defining issues of twentieth-century thought and Max Weber was one of the defining figures in the debate. In this book, Turner and Factor consider the development of the dispute over Max Weber's contribution to this discourse, by showing how Weber's views have been used, revised and adapted in new contexts. The story of the dispute is itself fascinating, for it cuts across the (...)
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  33.  15
    What Do We Mean by 'We'?Stephen P. Turner - 2003 - ProtoSociology 18:139-162.
    Abtract: The analytic philosophy form of the problem of collective intentionality originated with the claim that individual statements of the form ''I intend x" cannot add up to a "we intend x" statement. Analytic philosophers from Wilfrid Sellars on have pursued a strategy that construes these sentences as individual tellings of statements whose form is collective. The point of the strategy is to avoid the problematic idea of a real collective subject. This approach creates unusual epistemic problems. Although ''telling" of (...)
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  34.  22
    Practice Relativism.Stephen Turner - 2007 - Critica 39 (115):5-29.
    Practice relativism is the idea that practices are foundational for bodies of activity and thought, and differ from one another in ways that lead those who constitute the world in terms of them to incommensurable or conflicting conclusions. It is true that practices are not criticizable in any simple way because they are largely tacit and inaccessible. But to make them relativistic one needs an added claim: that practices are "normative", or conceptual in character. It is argued that this is (...)
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  35.  70
    Making the Tacit Explicit.Stephen Turner - 2012 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 42 (4):385-402.
    Tacit knowledge is both a ubiquitous and puzzling notion, related to the idea of hidden assumptions. The puzzle is partly a result of the conflict between the idea that assumptions are in the mind and the apparent audience-relativity of the "fact" of possessing an assumption or of the tacit knowledge that is articulated. If we think of making the tacit explicit as constructing a certain kind of inference repairing explanation for a particular audience "on the fly" we come closer to (...)
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  36.  18
    Political Epistemology, Experts, and the Aggregation of Knowledge.Stephen Turner - 2007 - Spontaneous Generations 1 (1):36.
    Expert claims routinely “affect, combat, refute, and negate” someone or some faction or grouping of persons. When scientists proclaim the truth of Darwinism, they refute, negate, and whatnot the Christian view of the creation, and thus Christians. When research is done on racial differences, it affects, negates, and so on, those who are negatively characterized. This is why Phillip Kitcher argues that it should be banned. Some truths are too dangerous to ever inquire into, because, he reasons, even by inquiring (...)
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  37.  7
    Erratology and the Ill-Logic of the Seismotic University.Sean Sturm & Stephen Francis Turner - 2014 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 46 (7):1-11.
    With the tertiary education mantra of creativity, critical thinking and innovation in mind, we consider the critical-creativity of error. Taking the university to model social orthography, or ‘correct writing’, according to the norms of disciplines, we consider the role of error in the classroom. Looked at another way, error questions the norms governing norms and the instability of disciplinary grounds. Beyond correction, error involves a mis-taking, or taking another way. Tracing the origin of error we are able to reconstruct the (...)
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  38.  37
    Where Explanation Ends: Understanding as the Place the Spade Turns in the Social Sciences.Stephen Turner - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (3):532-538.
    Explanations implicitly end with something that makes sense, and begin with something that does not make sense. A statistical relationship, for example, a numerical fact, does not make sense; an explanation of this relationship adds something, such as causal information, which does make sense, and provides an endpoint for the sense-making process. Does social science differ from natural science in this respect? One difference is that in the natural sciences, models are what need ‘‘understanding.’’ In the social sciences, matters are (...)
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  39.  2
    Merton's `Norms' in Political and Intellectual Context.Stephen Turner - 2007 - Journal of Classical Sociology 7 (2):161-178.
    Merton's two papers on the norms of science were written in a period of intense political activity in science, and responded to this context, using conceptual tools from classical sociology and Harvard thinking of the time. The basic reasoning was Weberian: science and politics each had a different ethos. One target was the Left view of science as a model for society. Another was the view of the American Left that complex societies required regulation, but that science should be free (...)
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  40.  4
    Morgenthau as a Weberian Methodologist.Stephen Turner & George D. Mazur - 2009 - European Journal of International Relations 15 (3):477-504.
    Hans Morgenthau was a founder of the modern discipline of International Relations, and his Politics among Nations was for decades the dominant textbook in the field. The character of his Realism has frequently been discussed in debates on methodology and the nature of theory in International Relations. Almost all of this discussion has mischaracterized his views. The clues given in his writings, as well as his biography, point directly to Max Weber’s methodological writings. Morgenthau, it is argued, was a sophisticated (...)
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  41.  53
    Tradition and Cognitive Science: Oakeshott’s Undoing of the Kantian Mind.Stephen Turner - 2003 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 33 (1):53-76.
    In this discussion, the author asks the question if Oakeshott’s famous depiction of a practice might be understood in relation to contemporary cognitive science, in particular connectionism (the contemporary cognitive science approach concerned with the problem of skills and skilled knowing) and in terms of the now conventional view of "normativity" in Anglo-American philosophy. The author suggests that Oakeshott meant to contrast practices to an alternative "Kantian" model of a shared tacit mental frame or set of rules. If cognitive science, (...)
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  42.  36
    The Significance of Shils.Stephen Turner - 1999 - Sociological Theory 17 (2):125-145.
    Edward Shils was a widely recognized but misunderstood thinker. The original contexts of his thought are not well understood and greatly distorted by associating him with the concerns of Parsons. Shils provides a fully comparable alternative to the thought of Habermas and Foucault, with essentially similar roots: practice theory, the dissolution of Marxism in the twenties, and Carl Schmitt. Though Shils was indebted to the American sociological tradition, with respect to these issues his sources were outside it: in Hendrik de (...)
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  43.  36
    The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of the Social Sciences.Stephen Turner & Paul A. Roth (eds.) - 2003 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    _The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of the Social Sciences _collects newly commissioned essays that examine fundamental issues in the social sciences.
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  44.  3
    Cognitive Science.David Eck & Stephen Turner - 2016 - In Lee McIntyre & Alex Rosenberg (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Social Science. New York, USA: Routledge.
    The relationship between the social sciences and the cognitive sciences is underdeveloped and complicated, for reasons we will explain in this chapter, and the philosophical discussion of this relationship has the same properties. Many reasons for the lack of development relate to a traditional philosophical issue: explanation. The explanatory structure of cognitive science reasoning and argumentation is unusual and difcult to t into the traditional model of scientic explanation, though they do relate, in an odd way, to the traditional “reasons” (...)
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  45.  13
    Cognitive Science and Social Theory.David Eck & Stephen Turner - 2019 - In Wayne E. Brekus & Gabe Ignatow (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Sociology. Oxford University Press.
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  46.  37
    "Theoretical Logic in Sociology", Volume 2: "The Antinomies of Classical Thought: Marx and Durkheim" by Jeffrey C. Alexander.Stephen P. Turner - 1985 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 15 (2):211-216.
    The four volume work of which this book is a part has been praised as one of the great monuments of theoretical scholarship in sociology of the century. The praise has come largely from the older generation of students of Parsons and Merton. A great deal of dispraise has come from Alexander's own generation. Alan Sica's (1983) brilliant, biting review of Volume I speaks for many of Alexander's peers. Volume II is likely to be even more controversial. This volume begins (...)
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  47.  11
    The Impossible Science: An Institutional Analysis of American Sociology.Stephen Turner & Jonathan H. Turner - 1990 - Sage Publications.
    Tracing the history of American sociology since the Civil War, the authors of this important volume explain the field′s diversity, its lack of unifying paradigms, its broad, eclectic research agenda and its general weakness as an institutional force in either academia or the policy arena. They highlight the equivocal and often contradictory missions that sociologists prescribe for themselves and the variable nature of human, financial and intellectual resources available to the profession.
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  48.  2
    Understanding the Tacit.Stephen Turner - 2014 - New York, USA: Routledge.
    This book outlines a new account of the tacit, meaning tacit knowledge, presuppositions, practices, traditions, and so forth. It includes essays on topics such as underdetermination and mutual understanding, and critical discussions of the major alternative approaches to the tacit, including Bourdieu’s habitus and various practice theories, Oakeshott’s account of tradition, Quentin Skinner’s theory of historical meaning, Harry Collins’s idea of collective tacit knowledge, as well as discussions of relevant cognitive science concepts, such as non-conceptual content, connectionism, and mirror neurons. (...)
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  49.  20
    Robert Merton and Dorothy Emmet: Deflated Functionalism and Structuralism.Stephen P. Turner - 2014 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 44 (6):817-836.
    Dorothy Emmet, in two books, one of which was based on extensive personal contact with Robert Merton and Columbia sociology, provides the closest thing we have to an authorized philosophical defense of Merton. It features a deflationary account of functionalism which dispenses with the idea of general teleological ends. What it replaces it with is an account of “structures” that have various consequences and that are maintained because, on Emmet’s account, of the mutual reinforcement of motives produced by the structure.
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  50.  18
    The Limits of Social Constructionism.Stephen Turner - 1998 - In Irving Velody & Robin Williams (eds.), The Politics of Constructionism. Sage Publications. pp. 109--120.
    What is social constructionism? Is it a form of relativism that is essentially similar to cultural relativism and historical relativism? Is it a thesis about the contingency of knowledge? What is the point of saying constructionism is 'social'? Partly as a result of the fact that the term 'social construction' had its origins in sociology, in Berger and Luckmann's influential book The Social Construction of Reality, these simple 'philosophical' questions have not been systematically addressed. In this chapter I will give (...)
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