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Stephen Turner [78]Stephen P. Turner [52]Stephen B. Turner [1]Stephen Francis Turner [1]
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Stephen Turner
University of South Florida
  1.  32
    The Social Theory of Practices: Tradition, Tacit Knowledge, and Presuppositions.Stephen P. Turner - 1994 - University of Chicago Press.
    The concept of "practices"--whether of representation, of political or scientific traditions, or of organizational culture--is central to social theory. In this book, Stephen Turner presents the first analysis and critique of the idea of practice as it has developed in the various theoretical traditions of the social sciences and the humanities. Understood broadly as a tacit understanding "shared" by a group, the concept of a practice has a fatal difficulty, Turner argues: there is no plausible mechanism by which a "practice" (...)
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  2.  5
    Explaining the Normative.Stephen P. Turner - 2013 - Polity.
    Normativity is what gives reasons their force, makes words meaningful, and makes rules and laws binding. It is present whenever we use such terms as ‘correct,' ‘ought,' ‘must,' and the language of obligation, responsibility, and logical compulsion. Yet normativists, the philosophers committed to this idea, admit that the idea of a non-causal normative realm and a body of normative objects is spooky. Explaining the Normative is the first systematic, historically grounded critique of normativism. It identifies the standard normativist pattern of (...)
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  3.  19
    Durkheim, Sellars, and the Origins of Collective Intentionality.Peter Olen & Stephen Turner - 2015 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 23 (5):954-975.
    Wilfrid Sellars read and annotated Celestine Bouglé’s Evolution of Values, translated by his mother with an introduction by his father. The book expounded Émile Durkheim's account of morality and elaborated his account of origins of value in collective social life. Sellars replaced elements of this account in constructing his own conception of the relationship between the normative and community, but preserved a central one: the idea that conflicting collective and individual intentions could be found in the same person. These notoriously (...)
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  4.  27
    Was Sellars an Error Theorist?Peter Olen & Stephen P. Turner - 2016 - Synthese 193 (7):2053-2075.
    Wilfrid Sellars described the moral syllogism that supports the inference “I ought to do x” from “Everyone ought to do x” as a “syntactical disguise” which embodies a “mistake.” He nevertheless regarded this form of reasoning as constitutive of the moral point of view. Durkheim was the source of much of this reasoning, and this context illuminates Sellars’ unusual philosophical reconstruction of the moral point of view in terms of the collective intentions of an ideal community of rational members for (...)
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  5.  43
    Social Theory of Practices.Stephen Turner - 1994 - Human Studies 20 (3):315-323.
    The concept of "practices"—whether of representation, of political or scientific traditions, or of organizational culture—is central to social theory. In this book, Stephen Turner presents the first analysis and critique of the idea of practice as it has developed in the various theoretical traditions of the social sciences and the humanities. Understood broadly as a tacit understanding "shared" by a group, the concept of a practice has a fatal difficulty, Turner argues: there is no plausible mechanism by which a "practice" (...)
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  6. Brains/Practices/Relativism Social Theory After Cognitive Science.Stephen P. Turner - 2002
    In a series of tightly argued essays, Turner traces out the implications that discarding the notion of shared frameworks has for relativism, social constructionism, normativity, and a number of other concepts. He suggests ways in which these ideas might be reformulated more productively, in part through extended critiques of the work of scholars such as Ian Hacking, Andrew Pickering, Pierre Bourdieu, Quentin Skinner, Robert Brandom, Clifford Geertz, and Edward Shils.
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  7. The Survey in Nineteenth-Century American Geology: The Evolution of a Form of Patronage. [REVIEW]Stephen P. Turner - 1987 - Minerva 25 (3):282-330.
  8. Liberal Democracy 3.0 Civil Society in an Age of Experts.Stephen P. Turner - 2003
     
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  9.  8
    Tacit Knowledg and the Problem of Computer Modelling Cognitive Processes in Science.Stephen P. Turner - 1989 - In Steve Fuller (ed.), The Cognitive Turn: Sociological and Psychological Perspectives on Science. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    In what follows I propose to bring out certain methodological properties of projects of modelling the tacit realm that bear on the kinds of modelling done in connection with scientific cognition by computer as well as by ethnomethodological sociologists, both of whom must make some claims about the tacit in the course of their efforts to model cognition. The same issues, I will suggest, bear on the project of a cognitive psychology of science as well.
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  10.  10
    The Disappearance of Tradition in Weber.Stephen Turner & Regis Factor - 1990 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 15:400-24.
    In this essay we will consider another basic topic: the problem of the nature of the distinctions between Sitte, Brauch, Wert, Mode, and Recht, on which Weber's discussion relies. These discussions typically involved the untranslatable concept of Sitte, which marks a contrast between practices or customs with normative force and “mere practice.” There is a close parallel to this distinction in American social thought in W. G. Sumner's latinate distinction between the mores and folkways of a society. In what follows (...)
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  11.  36
    Many Approaches, but Few Arrivals: Merton and the Columbia Model of Theory Construction.Stephen Turner - 2009 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 39 (2):174-211.
    Robert Merton's essays on theories of the middle range and his essays on functional explanation and the structural approach are among the most influential in the history of sociology. But their import is a puzzle. He explicitly allied himself with some of the most extreme scientistic formalists and contributed to and endorsed the Columbia model of theory construction. But Merton never responded to criticisms by Ernest Nagel of his arguments or acknowledged the rivalry between Lazarsfeld and Herbert Simon, rarely cited (...)
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  12.  3
    Erratology and the Ill-Logic of the Seismotic University.Sean Sturm & Stephen Francis Turner - 2014 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 46 (7):1-11.
  13.  2
    The Strength of Weak Empathy.Stephen Turner - 2012 - Science in Context 25 (3):383-399.
    This paper builds on a neglected philosophical idea, Evidenz.MaxWeber used it in his discussion of Verstehen, as the goal of understanding either action or such things as logic. It was formulated differently by Franz Brentano, but with a novel twist: that anyone who understood something would see the thing to be understood as self-evident, not something dependent on inference, argument, or reasoning. The only way one could take something as evident in this sense is by being able to treat other (...)
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  14.  7
    "Theoretical Logic in Sociology", Volume 2: "The Antinomies of Classical Thought: Marx and Durkheim" by Jeffrey C. Alexander.Stephen P. Turner - 1985 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 15 (2):211-216.
    The four volume work of which this book is a part has been praised as one of the great monuments of theoretical scholarship in sociology of the century. The praise has come largely from the older generation of students of Parsons and Merton. A great deal of dispraise has come from Alexander's own generation. Alan Sica's (1983) brilliant, biting review of Volume I speaks for many of Alexander's peers. Volume II is likely to be even more controversial. This volume begins (...)
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  15.  38
    Starting with Tacit Knowledge, Ending with Durkheim? [REVIEW]Stephen P. Turner - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (3):472-476.
  16.  84
    Explaining Normativity.Stephen P. Turner - 2007 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 37 (1):57-73.
    In this reply, I raise some questions about the account of "normativity" given by Joseph Rouse. I discuss the historical form of disputes over normativity in such thinkers as Kelsen and show that the standard issue with these accounts is over the question of whether there is anything added to the normal stream of explanation by the problem of normativity. I suggest that Rouse’s attempt to avoid the issues that arise with substantive explanatory theories of practices of the kind criticized (...)
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  17.  3
    Public Sociology and Democratic Theory.Stephen P. Turner - 2009 - In Jeroen Van Bouwel (ed.), The Social Sciences and Democracy. Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Sociology, as conceived by Comte, was to put an end to the anarchy of opinions characteristic of liberal democracy by replacing opinion with the truths of sociology, imposed through indoctrination. Later sociologists backed away from this, making sociology acceptable to liberal democracy by being politically neutral. The critics of this solution asked 'whose side are we on?' Burawoy provides a novel justification for advocacy scholarship in sociology. Public sociology is intended to have political effects, but also to be funded by (...)
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  18.  34
    Mirror Neurons and Practices: A Response to Lizardo.Stephen P. Turner - 2007 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 37 (3):351–371.
    Lizardo argues that The Social Theory of Practices is refuted by the discovery of mirror neurons. The book argues that the kind of sameness of tacit mental content assumed by practice theorists such as Bourdieu is fictional, because there is no actual process by which the same mental content can be transmitted. Mirror neurons, Lizardo claims, provide such a mechanism, as they imply that bodily automatisms, which can be understood as the basis of habitus and concepts, can be shared and (...)
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  19.  41
    Searle's Social Reality.Stephen P. Turner - 1999 - History and Theory 38 (2):211–231.
    In The Construction of Social Reality, John Searle expends an argument left undeveloped in Speech Acts about the nature of the rules which underlie and constitute social life. It is argued in this review that one problem for this account was its apparent incompatibility with connectionism. They cannot be rules shared in the head, so to speak. He now understands our relation to these rules not as one of simple internalization but of skillful accustoming. But this makes appeal to rules (...)
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  20. Max Weber and the Dispute Over Reason and Value: A Study in Philosophy, Ethics, and Politics.Stephen P. Turner - 1984 - Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  21.  69
    Can There Be a Pragmatist Philosophy of Social Science?Stephen P. Turner - 2009 - Human Studies 32 (3):365-374.
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  22. Cause, the Persistence of Teleology, and the Origins of the Philosophy of Social Science.Stephen P. Turner - 2003 - In Stephen P. Turner and Paul Roth (ed.), Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of the Social Sciences. pp. 21-42.
    The subject of this chapter is the complex and confusing course of the discussion of cause and teleology before and during the period of Mill and Comte, and its aftermath up to the early years of the twentieth century in the thinking of several of the major founding figures of disciplinary social science. The discussion focused on the problem of the sufficiency of causal explanations, and particularly the question of whether some particular fact could be explained without appeal to purpose. (...)
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  23.  20
    What is the Problem with Experts?Stephen Turner - 2001 - Social Studies of Science 31 (1):123-149.
    The phenomenon of expertise produces two problems for liberal democratic theory: the first is whether it creates inequalities that undermine citizen rule or make it a sham; the second is whether the state can preserve its neutrality in liberal ’government by discussion’ while subsidizing, depending on, and giving special status to, the opinions of experts and scientists. A standard Foucauldian critique suggests that neutrality is impossible, expert power and state power are inseparable, and that expert power is the source of (...)
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  24. The Disobedient Generation: Social Theorists in the Sixties.Alan Sica & Stephen Turner - 2007 - Human Studies 30 (4):467-470.
     
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  25. Weltgeist, Intention, and Reproduction: A Code.Stephen P. Turner - 1985 - Sociological Theory 3 (1):23-28.
  26.  22
    The Significance of Shils.Stephen Turner - 1999 - Sociological Theory 17 (2):125-145.
    Edward Shils was a widely recognized but misunderstood thinker. The original contexts of his thought are not well understood and greatly distorted by associating him with the concerns of Parsons. Shils provides a fully comparable alternative to the thought of Habermas and Foucault, with essentially similar roots: practice theory, the dissolution of Marxism in the twenties, and Carl Schmitt. Though Shils was indebted to the American sociological tradition, with respect to these issues his sources were outside it: in Hendrik de (...)
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  27.  46
    Making the Tacit Explicit.Stephen Turner - 2012 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 42 (4):385-402.
    Tacit knowledge is both a ubiquitous and puzzling notion, related to the idea of hidden assumptions. The puzzle is partly a result of the conflict between the idea that assumptions are in the mind and the apparent audience-relativity of the "fact" of possessing an assumption or of the tacit knowledge that is articulated. If we think of making the tacit explicit as constructing a certain kind of inference repairing explanation for a particular audience "on the fly" we come closer to (...)
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  28.  24
    Where Explanation Ends: Understanding as the Place the Spade Turns in the Social Sciences.Stephen Turner - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (3):532-538.
    Explanations implicitly end with something that makes sense, and begin with something that does not make sense. A statistical relationship, for example, a numerical fact, does not make sense; an explanation of this relationship adds something, such as causal information, which does make sense, and provides an endpoint for the sense-making process. Does social science differ from natural science in this respect? One difference is that in the natural sciences, models are what need ‘‘understanding.’’ In the social sciences, matters are (...)
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  29.  56
    Obituary for Edward Shils.Stephen Turner - 1995 - Tradition and Discovery 22 (2):5-9.
    Michael Polanyi and Edward Shils shared a great many views, and in their long mutual relationship influenced one another. This memorial note examines the relationship and some of the respects in which Shils presented a Polanyian social theory organized around the notion of tradition.
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  30. Cause, Law, and Probability.Stephen P. Turner - 1987 - Sociological Theory 5 (1):15-19.
  31.  30
    The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of the Social Sciences.Stephen P. Turner & Paul A. Roth (eds.) - 2003 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    _The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of the Social Sciences _collects newly commissioned essays that examine fundamental issues in the social sciences.
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  32.  10
    Political Epistemology, Experts, and the Aggregation of Knowledge.Stephen Turner - 2007 - Spontaneous Generations 1 (1):36.
  33.  79
    Relativism Hot and Cold.Stephen Turner - 1994 - History of the Human Sciences 7 (1):109-115.
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  34.  5
    Practice Then and Now.Stephen Turner - 2007 - Human Affairs 17 (2).
    "Practice theory" has a long history in philosophy, under various names, but current practice theory is a response to failures of projects of modernity or enlightenment which attempt to reduce science or politics to formulae. Heidegger, Oakeshott, and Macintyre are each examples of .philosophers who turned to practice conceptions. Foucault and Bourdieu made similar turns. Practice accounts come in different forms: some emphasize skill-like individual accomplishments, others emphasize the social character or presupposition-like character of the tacit conditions of activities. The (...)
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  35.  33
    Collingwood and Weber Vs. Mink: History After the Cognitive Turn.Stephen Turner - 2011 - Journal of the Philosophy of History 5 (2):230-260.
    Louis Mink wrote a classic study of R. G. Collingwood that led to his most important contribution to the philosophy of history, his account of narrative. Central to this account was the non-detachability thesis, that facts became historical facts through incorporation into narratives, and the thesis that narratives were not comparable to the facts or to one another. His book on Collingwood was critical of Collingwood's idea that there were facts in history that we get through self-knowledge but which are (...)
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  36.  32
    The Origins of 'Mainstream Sociology' and Other Issues in the History of American Sociology.Stephen Turner - 1994 - Social Epistemology 8 (1):41 – 67.
    The writing of history typically involves opinions that cannot be established by historical evidence. This 'involvement' takes two main forms: first, the intimation of evaluative opinions is often the point of historical narratives; and second, as Weber maintained, opinion plays a constitutive role-the identification of historical objects, of explanatory problems, and perhaps even the selection of solutions to these problems is governed by opinions or commitments that cannot be proven historically. The comments of both Bulmer and Camic, for example, presume (...)
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  37.  30
    Tradition and Cognitive Science: Oakeshott’s Undoing of the Kantian Mind.Stephen Turner - 2003 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 33 (1):53-76.
    In this discussion, the author asks the question if Oakeshott’s famous depiction of a practice might be understood in relation to contemporary cognitive science, in particular connectionism (the contemporary cognitive science approach concerned with the problem of skills and skilled knowing) and in terms of the now conventional view of "normativity" in Anglo-American philosophy. The author suggests that Oakeshott meant to contrast practices to an alternative "Kantian" model of a shared tacit mental frame or set of rules. If cognitive science, (...)
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  38.  21
    On the Relevance of Statistical Relevance Theory.Stephen P. Turner - 1982 - Theory and Decision 14 (2):195-205.
    In Salmon's discussion of his account of statistical relevance and statistical explanation there is a peculiarity in the selection of examples. Where he wishes to show that statistical accounts are reasonably treated as explanatory, he draws examples from the social sciences, such as juvenile delinquency. But when he explains the concept of 'causal' relevance, the examples are selected from the natural sciences. This conceals difficulties with salmon's account of causality in the face of multiple causes such as are characteristic of (...)
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  39.  1
    Review: Searle's Social Reality. [REVIEW]Stephen Turner - 1999 - History and Theory 38:211-231.
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  40.  2
    What Do We Mean by 'We'?Stephen Turner - 2003 - ProtoSociology 18:139-162.
    Abtract: The analytic philosophy form of the problem of collective intentionality originated with the claim that individual statements of the form ''I intend x" cannot add up to a "we intend x" statement. Analytic philosophers from Wilfrid Sellars on have pursued a strategy that construes these sentences as individual tellings of statements whose form is collective. The point of the strategy is to avoid the problematic idea of a real collective subject. This approach creates unusual epistemic problems. Although ''telling" of (...)
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  41.  69
    Polanyian in Spirit.Stephen Turner - 1998 - Tradition and Discovery 25 (1):12-20.
    Walter Gulick criticizes The Social Theory of Practices for its non-Polanyian views of the problem of the objective character of tacit knowledge, its insistence that there should be plausible causal mechanisms that correspond to claims about tacit knowledge and its “social” transmission, and its denial of the social, telic character of practices. In this reply it is asserted that the demand for causally plausible mechanisms is not scientistic or for that matter non-Polanyian, that the book has a view of objectivity (...)
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  42.  71
    Responses to 'in Defense of Relativism'.Robert Ackermann, Brian Baigrie, Harold I. Brown, Michael Cavanaugh, Paul Fox-Strangways, Gonzalo Munevar, Stephen David Ross, Philip Pettit, Paul Roth, Frederick Schmitt, Stephen Turner & Charles Wallis - 1988 - Social Epistemology 2 (3):227 – 261.
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  43.  53
    Social Constructionism and Social Theory.Stephen Turner - 1991 - Sociological Theory 9 (1):22-33.
    The major emphasis of the "sociology of scientific knowledge" has been on the natural sciences. Recently, however, the field has taken a reflexive turn. I examine the relation between this kind of reflexivity and that in the history of the sociology of knowledge generally with an eye to assessing its place in social theory. Although reflexive adequacy, like other criteria for choice of theory, is not an absolute and overriding cognitive good, reflexive considerations often are critical in assessing the prospective (...)
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  44.  88
    Normal Accidents of Expertise.Stephen Turner - 2010 - Minerva 48 (3):239-258.
    Charles Perrow used the term normal accidents to characterize a type of catastrophic failure that resulted when complex, tightly coupled production systems encountered a certain kind of anomalous event. These were events in which systems failures interacted with one another in a way that could not be anticipated, and could not be easily understood and corrected. Systems of the production of expert knowledge are increasingly becoming tightly coupled. Unlike classical science, which operated with a long time horizon, many current forms (...)
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  45.  23
    Normative All the Way Down.Stephen Turner - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 36 (2):419-429.
  46.  2
    Did Funding Matter to the Development of Research Methods in Sociology? [REVIEW]Stephen P. Turner - 1998 - Minerva 36 (1):69-79.
    Review of: A History of Sociological Research Methods in America, 1920-1960, by Jennifer Platt. -/- One might expect a history of research methods in sociology during the 40 years this book examines to deal with such questions as the conceptual preconditions for the statistical techniques employed during the period, the changes in statistical practice, the failure of the effort to measure attitudes in a dramatically more precise way, the failure of the many hopes and expectations of methodologists, for the creation (...)
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  47.  31
    Tacit Knowledge Meets Analytic Kantianism.Stephen Turner - 2014 - Tradition and Discovery 41 (1):33-47.
    Neil Gascoigne and Tim Thornton’s Tacit Knowledge is an attempt to find a place for tacit knowledge as “knowledge” within the limits of analytic epistemology. They do so by reference to Jason Stanley and Timothy Williamson’s analysis of the term “way” and by the McDowell-like claim that reference to the tacitly rooted “way” of doing something exhausts the knowledge aspect of tacit knowledge, which preserves the notion of tacit knowledge, while excluding most of Michael Polanyi’s examples, and rendering Hubert Dreyfus’s (...)
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  48.  4
    The Belief-Desire Model of Action Explanation Reconsidered: Thoughts on Bittner.Stephen Turner - 2018 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 48 (3):290-308.
    The belief-desire model of action explanation is deeply ingrained in multiple disciplines. There is reason to think that it is a cultural artifact. But is there an alternative? In this discussion, I will consider the radical critique of this action explanation model by Rüdiger Bittner, which argues that the model appeals to dubious mental entities, and argues for a model of reasons as responses to states or events. Instead, for Bittner, agents are reason-selectors—selecting the states or events to respond to (...)
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  49.  24
    The Politics of the Word and the Politics of the Eye.Stephen Turner - 2003 - Thesis Eleven 73 (1):51-69.
    The concept of worldviews gives a visual sense to the notion of a shared ideological frame, but misleadingly suppresses the visual itself. Against the standard image of worldviews, it is argued that the notion makes sense in connection with particular technologies of representation, notably newspapers, and is no longer informative about political beliefs. The example of Kristin Luker's work on abortion politics is used to show how weak the evidential base is for claims about worldviews. It is then argued that (...)
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  50.  4
    Philosophical Argument and Wicked Problems. [REVIEW]Stephen Turner - 2018 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 48 (1):71-79.
    This comment on Frodeman and Briggle’s Socrates Tenured raises questions about the project of applying philosophy or philosophical skills to wicked problems such as terrorism. By definition, these problems cannot be solved by appeal to principles, but involve conflicting values and goals. The societal problems to which the book refers are of this kind. The argument of the book vacillates between recognizing this and asserting some sort of special disciplinary authority for philosophy in the face of these problems. Examples illustrate (...)
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