Results for 'Steven A. Carr'

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  1. Celebrate Life: Hope for a Culture Preoccupied with Death.Steven A. Carr - 1990 - Wolgemuth & Hyatt.
     
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  2. Individualized Responses to Ipsilesional High-Frequency and Contralesional Low-Frequency rTMS in Chronic Stroke: A Pilot Study to Support the Individualization of Neuromodulation for Rehabilitation.John Harvey Kindred, Elizabeth Carr Wonsetler, Charalambos Costas Charalambous, Shraddha Srivastava, Barbara Khalibinzwa Marebwa, Leonardo Bonilha, Steven A. Kautz & Mark G. Bowden - 2020 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
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  3.  13
    Mixed Messages: The Heterogeneity of Historical Discourse.Steven G. Crowell - 1998 - History and Theory 37 (2):220–244.
    If, as many historians and theorists now believe, narrative is the form proper to historical explanation, this raises the problem of the terms in which such narratives are to be evaluated. Without a clear account of evaluation, the status of historical knowledge remains obscure. Beginning with the view, found in Hayden White and others, that historical narrative constitutes a meaning not reducible to the factual content it engages, this essay argues that such meaning can arise only through a synthesis of (...)
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  4.  23
    The Scientific Research Output of U.S. Research Universities, 1980–2010: Continuing Dispersion, Increasing Concentration, or Stable Inequality? [REVIEW]Steven Brint & Cynthia E. Carr - 2017 - Minerva 55 (4):435-457.
    Extending and expanding Geiger and Feller’s analysis of increasing dispersion in R&D expenditures during the 1980s, the paper analyzes publication and citation counts as well as R&D expenditures for 194 top producers using Web of Science data. We find high and stable levels of inequality in the 1990s and 2000s, combined with robust growth both in the system and on individual campuses, considerable opportunities for short-range mobility and very limited opportunities for long-range mobility. Initial investments in research, private control, and (...)
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  5.  27
    The Empirical Case for Two Systems of Reasoning.Steven A. Sloman - 1996 - Psychological Bulletin 119 (1):3-22.
    Distinctions have been proposed between systems of reasoning for centuries. This article distills properties shared by many of these distinctions and characterizes the resulting systems in light of recent findings and theoretical developments. One system is associative because its computations reflect similarity structure and relations of temporal contiguity. The other is "rule based" because it operates on symbolic structures that have logical content and variables and because its computations have the properties that are normally assigned to rules. The systems serve (...)
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  6.  62
    A Causal Model of Intentionality Judgment.Steven A. Sloman, Philip M. Fernbach & Scott Ewing - 2012 - Mind and Language 27 (2):154-180.
    We propose a causal model theory to explain asymmetries in judgments of the intentionality of a foreseen side-effect that is either negative or positive (Knobe, 2003). The theory is implemented as a Bayesian network relating types of mental states, actions, and consequences that integrates previous hypotheses. It appeals to two inferential routes to judgment about the intentionality of someone else's action: bottom-up from action to desire and top-down from character and disposition. Support for the theory comes from three experiments that (...)
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  7.  21
    A Genealogical Analysis of the Concept of ‘Good’ Teaching: A Polemic.Steven A. Stolz - 2018 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 52 (1):144-162.
    In this essay I intentionally employ Nietzsche's genealogical method as a means to critique the complex concept of ‘good’ teaching, and at the same time reconstitute ‘good’ teaching in a form that is radically different from contemporary accounts. In order to do this, I start out by undertaking a genealogical analysis to both reveal the complicated historical development of ‘good’ teaching and also disentangle the intertwining threads that remain hidden from us so we are aware of the core threads that (...)
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  8.  26
    Do We “Do‘?Steven A. Sloman & David A. Lagnado - 2005 - Cognitive Science 29 (1):5-39.
    A normative framework for modeling causal and counterfactual reasoning has been proposed by Spirtes, Glymour, and Scheines. The framework takes as fundamental that reasoning from observation and intervention differ. Intervention includes actual manipulation as well as counterfactual manipulation of a model via thought. To represent intervention, Pearl employed the do operator that simplifies the structure of a causal model by disconnecting an intervened-on variable from its normal causes. Construing the do operator as a psychological function affords predictions about how people (...)
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  9.  23
    Feature Centrality and Conceptual Coherence.Steven A. Sloman, Bradley C. Love & Woo-Kyoung Ahn - 1998 - Cognitive Science 22 (2):189-228.
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  10.  9
    Thought as a Determinant of Political Opinion.Steven A. Sloman & Nathaniel Rabb - 2019 - Cognition 188:1-7.
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  11.  12
    When Explanations Compete: The Role of Explanatory Coherence on Judgements of Likelihood.Steven A. Sloman - 1994 - Cognition 52 (1):1-21.
    The likelihood of a statement is often derived by generating an explanation for it and evaluating the plausibility of the explanation. The explanation discounting principle states that people tend to focus on a single explanation; alternative explanations compete with the effect of reducing one another’s credibility. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that this principle applies to inductive inferences concerning the properties of everyday categories. In both experiments, subjects estimated the probability of a series of statements and the conditional probabilities of (...)
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  12.  2
    Phenomenology and Phenomenography in Educational Research: A Critique.Steven A. Stolz - 2020 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 52 (10):1077-1096.
    The use of phenomenology and phenomenography as a method in the educational research literature has risen in popularity, particularly by researchers who are interested in understanding and generati...
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  13.  15
    Synthesis as a Route to Knowledge.Steven A. Benner - 2013 - Biological Theory 8 (4):357-367.
    A science is an intellectual activity defined by its mechanisms that prevent its scientists from always reaching the conclusions that they set out to reach. Such mechanisms are needed because, if scientists are given full control over what hypotheses they select, what data they discard, and what results they publish, they can communicate any conclusion that they desire. Synthesis, by setting a grand challenge, forces scientists across uncharted territory where they encounter and solve unscripted problems. When theory is inadequate, the (...)
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  14.  52
    The Causal Psycho-Logic of Choice.Steven A. Sloman & York Hagmayer - 2006 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (9):407-412.
  15.  21
    The Problem of Induction.Steven A. Sloman & D. Lagnado - 2005 - In K. Holyoak & B. Morrison (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning. Cambridge University Press. pp. 95--116.
  16. Constant Battles: The Myth of the Peaceful, Noble Savage.Steven A. LeBlanc - 2003 - St. Martin's Press.
    With armed conflict in the Persian Gulf now upon us, Harvard archaeologist Steven LeBlanc takes a long-term view of the nature and roots of war, presenting a controversial thesis: The notion of the "noble savage" living in peace with one another and in harmony with nature is a fantasy. In Constant Battles: The Myth of the Peaceful, Noble Savage , LeBlanc contends that warfare and violent conflict have existed throughout human history, and that humans have never lived in ecological (...)
     
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  17.  27
    Phenomenology and Physical Education.Steven A. Stolz - 2013 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 45 (9):949-962.
    Physical education is often justified within the curriculum as academic study, as a worthwhile activity on a par with other academic subjects on offer and easy to assess. Part of the problem has been that movement studies in physical education are looked upon as disembodied and disconnected from its central concerns which are associated with employing physical means to develop the whole person. But this, Merleau-Ponty would say, is to ignore the nature of experience and to consider the cognitive aspects (...)
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  18.  14
    Similarity as an Explanatory Construct.Steven A. Sloman & Lance J. Rips - 1998 - Cognition 65 (2-3):87-101.
  19.  31
    Nietzsche on Aesthetics, Educators and Education.Steven A. Stolz - 2017 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 36 (6):683-695.
    This essay argues that much can be gained from a close examination of Nietzsche’s work with respect to education. In order to contextualise my argument, I provide a brief critique of Nietzsche’s thinking on aesthetics, educators and education. I then turn my attention to the work of Thus Spoke Zarathustra, the figures Zarathustra and the Übermensch, and other Nietzschean works with a view to outline what I mean by a Nietzschean education. My central thesis being that a Nietzschean education is (...)
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  20.  26
    A Cognitive Process Shell.Steven A. Vere - 1992 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15 (3):460-461.
  21.  21
    Self-Deception Requires Vagueness.Steven A. Sloman, Philip M. Fernbach & York Hagmayer - 2010 - Cognition 115 (2):268-281.
  22.  11
    Prosociality in Business: A Human Empowerment Framework.Steven A. Brieger, Siri A. Terjesen, Diana M. Hechavarría & Christian Welzel - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 159 (2):361-380.
    This study introduces a human empowerment framework to better understand why some businesses are more socially oriented than others in their policies and activities. Building on Welzel’s theory of emancipation, we argue that human empowerment—comprised of four components: action resources, emancipative values, social movement activity, and civic entitlements—enables, motivates, and entitles individuals to pursue social goals for their businesses. Using a sample of over 15,000 entrepreneurs from 43 countries, we report strong empirical evidence for two ecological effects of the framework (...)
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  23.  19
    Empowering Women: The Role of Emancipative Forces in Board Gender Diversity.Steven A. Brieger, Claude Francoeur, Christian Welzel & Walid Ben-Amar - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 155 (2):495-511.
    This study investigates the effect of country-level emancipative forces on corporate gender diversity around the world. Based on Welzel’s theory of emancipation, we develop an emancipatory framework of board gender diversity that explains how action resources, emancipative values and civic entitlements enable, motivate and encourage women to take leadership roles on corporate boards. Using a sample of 6390 firms operating in 30 countries around the world, our results show positive single and combined effects of the framework components on board gender (...)
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  24.  28
    Decisions That Hasten Death: Double Effect and the Experiences of Physicians in Australia.Steven A. Trankle - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):26.
    In Australian end-of-life care, practicing euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide is illegal. Despite this, death hastening practices are common across medical settings. Practices can be clandestine or overt but in many instances physicians are forced to seek protection behind ambiguous medico-legal imperatives such as the Principle of Double Effect. Moreover, the way they conceptualise and experience such practices is inconsistent. To complement the available statistical data, the purpose of this study was to understand the reasoning behind how and why physicians in (...)
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  25.  37
    Embodied Learning.Steven A. Stolz - 2015 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 47 (5):474-487.
    This article argues that psychological discourse fails miserably to provide an account of learning that can explain how humans come to understand, particularly understanding that has been grasped meaningfully. Part of the problem with psychological approaches to learning is that they are disconnected from the integral role embodiment plays in how I perceive myself, other persons and other things in the world. In this sense, it is argued that a central tenet of any educational learning involves being taught to perceive, (...)
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  26.  16
    When Dyads Act in Parallel, a Sense of Agency for the Auditory Consequences Depends on the Order of the Actions.John A. Dewey & Thomas H. Carr - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):155-166.
    The sense of agency is the perception of willfully causing something to happen. Wegner and Wheatley proposed three prerequisites for SA: temporal contiguity between an action and its effect, congruence between predicted and observed effects, and exclusivity . We investigated how temporal contiguity, congruence, and the order of two human agents’ actions influenced SA on a task where participants rated feelings of self-agency for producing a tone. SA decreased when tone onsets were delayed, supporting contiguity as important, but the order (...)
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  27.  66
    Counterfactuals and Causal Models: Introduction to the Special Issue.Steven A. Sloman - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (6):969-976.
    Judea Pearl won the 2010 Rumelhart Prize in computational cognitive science due to his seminal contributions to the development of Bayes nets and causal Bayes nets, frameworks that are central to multiple domains of the computational study of mind. At the heart of the causal Bayes nets formalism is the notion of a counterfactual, a representation of something false or nonexistent. Pearl refers to Bayes nets as oracles for intervention, and interventions can tell us what the effect of action will (...)
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  28.  30
    Explanatory Coherence and the Induction of Properties.Steven A. Sloman - 1997 - Thinking and Reasoning 3 (2):81 – 110.
    Statements that share an explanation tend to lend inductive support to one another. For example, being told that Many furniture movers have a hard time financing a house increases the judged probability that Secretaries have a hard time financing a house. In contrast, statements with different explanations reduce one another s judged probability. Being told that Many furniture movers have bad backs decreases the judged probability that Secretaries have bad backs. I pose two questions concerning such discounting effects. First, does (...)
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  29.  9
    Response Interference Between Functional and Structural Actions Linked to the Same Familiar Object.Steven A. Jax & Laurel J. Buxbaum - 2010 - Cognition 115 (2):350-355.
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  30. Linguistic Understanding and Belief.Steven A. Gross - 2005 - Mind 114 (453):61-66.
    Comment on Dean Pettit, who replies in same issue.
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  31.  5
    Too Much of a Good Thing? On the Relationship Between CSR and Employee Work Addiction.Steven A. Brieger, Stefan Anderer, Andreas Fröhlich, Anne Bäro & Timo Meynhardt - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 166 (2):311-329.
    Recent research highlights the positive effects of organizational CSR engagement on employee outcomes, such as job and life satisfaction, performance, and trust. We argue that the current debate fails to recognize the potential risks associated with CSR. In this study, we focus on the risk of work addiction. We hypothesize that CSR has per se a positive effect on employees and can be classified as a resource. However, we also suggest the existence of an array of unintended negative effects of (...)
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  32.  23
    Steven M. Cahn and Andrew T. Forechimes, Eds., Principles of Moral Philosophy: Classic and Contemporary Approaches.Steven A. Benko - 2018 - Teaching Ethics 18 (1):104-106.
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  33.  22
    Opening Editorial: The Changing Face of Cognition.Steven A. Sloman - 2015 - Cognition 135:1-3.
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  34. The Meaning of Cause and Prevent: The Role of Causal Mechanism.Clare R. Walsh & Steven A. Sloman - 2011 - Mind and Language 26 (1):21-52.
    How do people understand questions about cause and prevent? Some theories propose that people affirm that A causes B if A's occurrence makes a difference to B's occurrence in one way or another. Other theories propose that A causes B if some quantity or symbol gets passed in some way from A to B. The aim of our studies is to compare these theories' ability to explain judgements of causation and prevention. We describe six experiments that compare judgements for causal (...)
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  35.  3
    Doing Good, Feeling Good? Entrepreneurs’ Social Value Creation Beliefs and Work-Related Well-Being.Steven A. Brieger, Dirk De Clercq & Timo Meynhardt - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics.
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  36.  27
    Problems of Somatic Mutation and Cancer.Steven A. Frank & Martin A. Nowak - 2004 - Bioessays 26 (3):291-299.
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  37.  38
    Part-Set Cuing Inhibition in Category-Instance and Reason Generation.Steven A. Sloman - 1991 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 29 (2):136-138.
  38.  51
    Fundamental Errors of the New Natural Law Theory.Steven A. Long - 2013 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 13 (1):105-132.
    This essay argues that the new natural law theory propounds five errors that place it on a collision course with the traditional Thomistic understanding central to the moral magisterium of the Roman Catholic Church. These root errors are argued to be the denial of the primacy of speculative over practical truth, the negation of unified normative natural teleology expressed in the NNLT doctrine of the putative “incommensurability” of basic goods prior to choice, failure to affirm the transcendence of the common (...)
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  39. A Brief Disquisition Regarding the Nature of the Object of the Moral Act According to St. Thomas Aquinas.Steven A. Long - 2003 - The Thomist 67 (1):45-71.
     
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  40.  15
    The Cortical Microstructural Basis of Lateralized Cognition: A Review.Steven A. Chance - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  41.  5
    Schematic Representations of Local Environmental Space Guide Goal-Directed Navigation.Steven A. Marchette, Jack Ryan & Russell A. Epstein - 2017 - Cognition 158:68-80.
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  42. Base-Rate Respect: From Ecological Rationality to Dual Processes.Aron K. Barbey & Steven A. Sloman - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (3):241-254.
    The phenomenon of base-rate neglect has elicited much debate. One arena of debate concerns how people make judgments under conditions of uncertainty. Another more controversial arena concerns human rationality. In this target article, we attempt to unpack the perspectives in the literature on both kinds of issues and evaluate their ability to explain existing data and their conceptual coherence. From this evaluation we conclude that the best account of the data should be framed in terms of a dual-process model of (...)
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  43.  14
    Is That What I Wanted to Do? Cued Vocalizations Influence the Phenomenology of Controlling a Moving Object.John A. Dewey & Thomas H. Carr - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):507-525.
    The phenomenology of controlled action depends on comparisons between predicted and actually perceived sensory feedback called action-effects. We investigated if intervening task-irrelevant but semantically related information influences monitoring processes that give rise to a sense of control. Participants judged whether a moving box “obeyed” or “disobeyed” their own arrow keystrokes or visual cues representing the computer’s choices . During 1 s delays between keystrokes/cues and box movements, participants vocalized directions cued by letters inside the box. Congruency of cued vocalizations was (...)
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  44.  15
    Professionalization of Agriculture and Distributed Innovation for Multifunctional Landscapes and Territorial Development.Steven A. Wolf - 2008 - Agriculture and Human Values 25 (2):203-207.
    Professionalization of farmers and rural entrepreneurs is identified as a potential resource to advance transition to multifunctional landscapes and territorial development. Drawing on interactive conceptions of knowledge creation and technical change, I argue that collective structures that support pooling of experiential knowledge can complement public and private sector engagement in innovation systems. Through exercise of leadership in advancing integration of farming into regional development and in integrating ecological and social concerns into agriculture, farmers can forge a professional identity and broker (...)
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  45.  6
    Predictable and Self-Initiated Visual Motion is Judged to Be Slower Than Computer Generated Motion.John A. Dewey & Thomas H. Carr - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):987-995.
    Self-initiated action effects are often perceived as less intense than identical but externally generated stimuli. It is thought that forward models within the sensorimotor system pre-activate cortical representations of predicted action effects, reducing perceptual sensitivity and attenuating neural responses. As self-agency and predictability are seldom manipulated simultaneously in behavioral experiments, it is unclear if self-other differences depend on predictable action effect contingencies, or if both self- and externally generated stimuli are modulated similarly by predictability. We factorially combined variation in predictability (...)
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  46.  16
    Theophrastus on Lyngurium: Medieval and Early Modern Lore From the Classical Lapidary Tradition.Steven A. Walton - 2001 - Annals of Science 58 (4):357-379.
    The ancient philosopher Theophrastus described a gemstone called lyngurium, purported to be solidified lynx urine, in his work De lapidibus . Knowledge of the stone passed from him to other classical authors and into the medieval lapidary tradition, but there it was almost always linked to the 'learned master Theophrastus'. Although no physical example of the stone appears to have been seen or touched in ancient, medieval, or early modern times, its physical and medicinal properties were continually reiterated and elaborated (...)
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  47. Finite Transcendence: Existential Exile and the Myth of Home.Steven A. Burr - 2014 - Lexington Books.
    Finite Transcendence: Existential Exile and the Myth of Home introduces and situates “existential exile” as an experience of the fundamental finitude of human existence and demonstrates how a particular way of responding in faith may enable one to find home in exile. Using the literary and philosophical oeuvre of Albert Camus as a model, this book demonstrates the manner in which mythic literature can both present and engage the condition of exile toward its possible transcendence.
     
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  48. Systems Thinking for Knowledge.Steven A. Cavaleri - 2005 - World Futures 61 (5):378 – 396.
    The capacity to engage in systems thinking is often viewed as being a product of being able to understand complex systems due to one's facility in mastering systems theories, methods, and being able to adeptly reason. Relatively little attention is paid in the systems literature to the processes of learning from experience and creating knowledge as a direct consequence of individuals engaging systems thinking itself over time. In fact, the potential efficacy of systems thinking to improve performance normally seen as (...)
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  49. Richard Rorty’s Sellarsian Uptake.Steven A. Miller - 2011 - Pragmatism Today 2 (1):94-104.
  50.  12
    Understanding Belief Using Citation Networks.Steven A. Greenberg - 2011 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (2):389-393.
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