7 found
  1.  2
    Adaptationism and Optimality.Steven Hecht Orzack & Elliott Sober (eds.) - 2001 - Cambridge University Press.
    The debate over the relative importance of natural selection as compared to other forces affecting the evolution of organisms is a long-standing and central controversy in evolutionary biology. The theory of adaptationism argues that natural selection contains sufficient explanatory power in itself to account for all evolution. However, there are differing views about the efficiency of the adaptation model of explanation. If the adaptationism theory is applied, are energy and resources being used to their optimum? This book presents an up-to-date (...)
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  2.  30
    Discussion: What, If Anything, Is "The Strategy of Model Building in Population Biology?" A Comment on Levins (1966) and Odenbaugh (2003). [REVIEW]Steven Hecht Orzack - 2003 - Philosophy of Science 72 (3):479-485.
    In our 1993 paper, “A Critical Look,‘ Elliott Sober and I concluded that the famous claim about model formulation and constraints made by Richard Levins in his influential 1966 article on model building in population biology is neither true nor normative. Here, I comment upon the claim of Odenbaugh that the conclusions of “A Critical Look‘ are incorrect. My conclusions remain that Levins’ claim about the tradeoff between model properties lacks logical coherence, generates an arbitrary model classification, and lacks normative (...)
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  3.  24
    Adaptationism.Steven Hecht Orzack - 2010 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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    A Commentary on “The Formal Darwinism Project”: There is No Grandeur in This View of Life.Steven Hecht Orzack - 2014 - Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):259-270.
    The Formal Darwinism Project is an attempt to use mathematical theory to prove the claim that fitness maximization is the outcome of evolution in nature. Grafen’s (2014, p. 12) conclusion from this project is that “….there is a very general expectation of something close to fitness maximisation, which will convert into fitness-maximisation unless there are particular kinds of circumstances—and further, that fitness is the same quantity for all genetic architectures.” Grafen’s claim appears to mean to him that natural populations are (...)
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    Common Ancestry and Natural Selection.Elliott Sober & Steven Hecht Orzack - 2003 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 54 (3):423-437.
    We explore the evidential relationships that connect two standard claims of modern evolutionary biology. The hypothesis of common ancestry (which says that all organisms now on earth trace back to a single progenitor) and the hypothesis of natural selection (which says that natural selection has been an important influence on the traits exhibited by organisms) are logically independent; however, this leaves open whether testing one requires assumptions about the status of the other. Darwin noted that an extreme version of adaptationism (...)
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    Modeling in Biology: Looking Backward and Looking Forward.Steven Hecht Orzack & Brian McLoone - 2019 - Studia Metodologiczne 39.
    Understanding modeling in biology requires understanding how biology is organized as a discipline and how this organization influences the research practices of biologists. Biology includes a wide range of sub-disciplines, such as cell biology, population biology, evolutionary biology, molecular biology, and systems biology among others. Biologists in sub-disciplines such as cell, molecular, and systems biology believe that the use of a few experimental models allows them to discover biological universals, whereas biologists in sub-disciplines such as ecology and evolutionary biology believe (...)
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    The Toolbox Dialogue Initiative: The Power of Cross-Disciplinary Practice.Graham Hubbs, Michael O'Rourke & Steven Hecht Orzack (eds.) - 2020 - New York, NY, USA: CRC Press.
    Cross-disciplinary scientific collaboration is emerging as standard operating procedure for many scholarly research enterprises. And yet, the skill set needed for effective collaboration is neither taught nor mentored. The goal of the Toolbox Dialogue Initiative is to facilitate cross-disciplinary collaboration. This book, inspired by this initiative, presents dialogue-based methods designed to increase mutual understanding among collaborators so as to enhance the quality and productivity of cross-disciplinary collaboration. It provides a theoretical context, principal activities, and evidence for effectiveness that will assist (...)
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