Results for 'Sun Lie'

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  1.  8
    Philosophy of Engineering, East and West.Rita Armstrong, Erik W. Armstrong, James L. Barnes, Susan K. Barnes, Roberto Bartholo, Terry Bristol, Cao Dongming, Cao Xu, Carleton Christensen, Chen Jia, Cheng Yifa, Christelle Didier, Paul T. Durbin, Michael J. Dyrenfurth, Fang Yibing, Donald Hector, Li Bocong, Li Lei, Liu Dachun, Heinz C. Luegenbiehl, Diane P. Michelfelder, Carl Mitcham, Suzanne Moon, Byron Newberry, Jim Petrie, Hans Poser, Domício Proença, Qian Wei, Wim Ravesteijn, Viola Schiaffonati, Édison Renato Silva, Patrick Simonnin, Mario Verdicchio, Sun Lie, Wang Bin, Wang Dazhou, Wang Guoyu, Wang Jian, Wang Nan, Yin Ruiyu, Yin Wenjuan, Yuan Deyu, Zhao Junhai, Baichun Zhang & Zhang Kang - 2018 - Springer Verlag.
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  2.  38
    No Ethical Divide Between China and the West in Human Embryo Research.Xiaomei Zhai, Vincent Ng & Reidar Lie - 2016 - Developing World Bioethics 16 (2):116-120.
    This is a discussion of the reaction to the recent research article publication in the journal Protein & Cell by a group of scientists at Sun Yat-sen (...)
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  3.  33
    Base-Rate Neglect and Coarse Probability Representation.Yanlong Sun & Hongbin Wang - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (3):282-282.
    We believe that when assessing the likelihood of uncertain events, statistically unsophisticated people utilize a coarse internal scale that only has a limited number of categories. The (...)
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  4. Some Background.Ron Sun - unknown
    Various forms of life have been existing on earth for hundreds of millions of years and the long history has seen the development of life from single (...)
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  5.  5
    "Wozzeck" and the Apocalypse: An Essay in Historical Criticism.Leo Treitler - 1976 - Critical Inquiry 3 (2):251-270.
    Among the central meanings in Büchner's Woyzeck, there is one that comes clear only when we read the play in the context of the history of (...)ideasspecifically in the light of certain currents of thought about human history and eschatology. Aspects of the play's expression are thereby elucidated, that are forcefully brought forward through the organization and compositional procedures of Berg's Wozzeck. Near the end of the long third scene of the opera, Wozzeck appears suddenly at Marie's window and alludes cryptically to the mysterious signs that had come to him in the field the scene before, confiding to her that he is "on the track of something big." As those signs had first been presented through Wozzeck's eyes, they seemed like the imaginings and fears of a simple man about Freemasons and who knows what other objects of superstition, But now in the third scene he gives them a scriptural context, as though through a sudden insight: "Isn't it written, 'And behold, the smoke went up from the land, as the smoke from a furnace'?" What Wozzeck has recalled here is a passage in the Book of Genesis, chapter 19: "Then the Lord rained upon Sodom brimstone and fire from the Lord out of heaven. . . . and, behold, the smoke went up from the Land as the smoke from a furnace." The image is repeated in the New Testament Book of Revelation , chapter 9: "And the fifth angel sounded, and I saw a star fall from heaven unto the earth; and to him was given the key of the bottomless pit; and there arose a smoke out of the pit as the smoke of the great furnace; and the sun and the air were darkened by reason of the smoke of the pit." Both passages are about a holocaust visited by a wrathful God upon a corrupt and debauched people, and that is the idea that begins to form in Wozzeck's mind as he stands for the first time on the stage before his mistress. And he asks, "What will it all come to?" The answer to this thematic question lies in the strange unfolding of the drama, pressed forward by forces that lie, as Büchner had once put it, "Outside of ourselves"1 and by Wozzeck, who guarantees the outcome as he imagines himself becoming aware of what it must be. · 1. Letter to his family, February 1834: "I scorn no one, least of all because of his understanding or his education, for it lies in no one's power not to become a dumbbell or a criminalbecause we have all become alike through like circumstances, and because the circumstances lie outside of ourselves . . ." Werner Lehmann, George Büchner: Sämtliche Werke und Briefe , 2:422. Leo Treitler, professor and chairman of the department of music at the State University of New York at Stony Brook, is the author of, among other works, "Dufay the Progressive" and "Homer and Gregory: The Transmission of Epic Poetry and Plainchant.". (shrink)
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  6.  74
    Cumposition: Theses on Philosophys Etymology.Vincent W. J. Van Gerven Oei - 2012 - Continent 2 (1):44-45.
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  7. Master Sun's Art of War.Sun Tzu - 2011 - Hackett Publishing Company.
    Philip J. Ivanhoe's translation of Sun Tzu's _Art of War_ will be warmly embraced by students. His discussion in the Introduction about the texts dating (...)
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  8. Sun Tzu: Art of War.Sun Tzu - 1996 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Like Machiavelli's The Prince and the Japanese Book of Five Rings, Sun Tzu's The Art of War is as timely for business people today as it (...) was for military strategists in ancient China. Written in China more than 2,000 years ago, Sun Tzu's classic The Art of War is the first known study of the planning and conduct of military operations. These terse, aphoristic essays are unsurpassed in comprehensiveness and depth of understanding, examining not only battlefield maneuvers, but also relevant economic, political, and psychological factors. Indeed, the precepts outlined by Sun Tzu regularly applied outside the realm of military theory. It is read avidly by Japanese businessmen and was touted in the movie Wall Street as the corporate raider's bible. Providing a much-needed translation of this classic, Samuel Griffith has made this powerful and unique work even more relevant to the modern world. Including an explanatory introduction and selected commentaries on the work, this edition makes Sun Tzu's strategical and tactical principles accessible not only students of Chinese history competition. (shrink)
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  9. Sun Bokui Zhe Xue Wen Cun =.Bokui Sun - 2010 - Jiangsu Ren Min Chu Ban She.
    v. 1. Tan suo zhe dao lu de tan suo -- v. 2. Lukaqi yu Makesi -- v. 3. Makesi zhu yi zhe xue ji ben wen ti (...)yan jiu -- v. 4. Makesi zhu yi zhe xue jing dian wen xian yan jiu. (shrink)
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  10. Sun Guohua Zi Xuan Ji.Guohua Sun - 2007 - Zhongguo Ren Min da Xue Chu Ban She.
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  11. Sun Zhengyu Zhe Xue Wen Ji.Zhengyu Sun - 2007 - Jinlin Ren Min Chu Ban She.
    v.1. zhe xue de mu guang -- v.2. shu ren de shi jie -- v.3. tan suo zhen shan mei -- v.4. chong gao de wei (...)zhi -- v.5. zhe xue guan yan jiu -- v.6-7. bian zheng fa yan jiu -- v.8-9. zhe xue tong lun. (shrink)
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  12.  24
    Aesthetics in the 21st Century: Walter Derungs & Oliver Minder.Peter Burleigh - 2012 - Continent 2 (4):237-243.
    Located in Kleinbasel close to the Rhine, the Kaskadenkondensator is a place of mediation and experimental, research-and process-based art production with a focus on performance and (...) performative expression. The gallery, founded in 1994, and located on the third floor of the former Sudhaus Warteck Brewery (hence cascade condenser), seeks to develop interactions between artists, theorists and audiences. Eight, maybe, nine or ten 40 litre bags of potting compost lie strewn about the floor of a high-ceilinged white washed hall. Dumped, split open, the soil mixed with iridescent specks of green, blue and red glitter. On the walls hang large black and white photographic imagesnegative and positive prints barely clean, hardly sharp, scavenged from the world and presented half processed. On a third wall, hangs a framed golden and charcoal surface. Finally, a huge stain of black dye runs down a wall that descends into a sunken quarter of the Kaskadenkondensator gallery space. The results of a collaboration between Oliver Minder and Walter Derungs reflect on themes addressed in the recent Aesthetics in the 21st Century conference held by the department of English, University of Basel. In particular, the joint show questions how an aesthetic experience may be other than a human-world interaction, hinting at the withdrawal and veiling that objects perform, while demanding that different works engage with each other and play out this game under the non-supervisory eyes of a human audience. Things here are becomingsometimes its a movement towards a more complete ontic whole in a projection of finality, other times its a dispersal, an atrophy to rather disarrayed entities. Yet, in the moment and place in which the objects are, we take them as here and now. Lets get to the material of the stuff that Minder and Derungs have assembled. Oliver Minder employs organic materialspotting earth, cuttlefish ink secretion, rice, and insects; yet his works hardly seem natural in the sense of a harmonic relation between material and the form they are constrained into, the objects they are compelled to occupy. For the substrates on, through, or within which these natural materials are mediated are harshly inorganic substancesPlexiglas, safety glass, acrylic resin, boat varnish, spray paint. Minder, thus, generates a conflict within the materiality of his work between two polar oppositesfrom the human perspectivein the contiguity of materials engaging with each other in a thrown together formation that nonetheless appears to keep the materials and the objects they make in happy accidental relation to each other. Let me expand a little: on the one hand, the things Minder makes query our belief in substance as belonging in a particular domain, an environment suited to precisely that stuff. We are focused on thinking categorically where things belong, both in terms of natural place and natural relations they might extend to each other. Hence, we are driven to think of environment and order. On the other hand, while extracting things from their conventional place and arranging them within awkward constellations that we as observers feel isnt quite right, Minder manages to persuade the viewer that the materials are nonethelessdoing alright.” So, simultaneous to our awareness of the appropriateness of the world according to our global notions of accord and uniformity, we are forced to accept the local discrepancies of disassociation, inappropriateness and misplacement. The tension between these two vectors generates a vacillation that intensifies Minders work. In the Kaskadenkondensator works, then, it is vital to first consider the material of Minders works: potting compostwhat is it doing here in the first place?—seems to enjoy beingpollutedby sparkly glitter. Glitter has a long history, used in cosmetics by the Egyptians, and in cave paintings, too, earlier made of beetle shells and mica, nowadays glitter is made of plastic cut to minute sizes down to 50 microns. So whats the point here? Well shiny bits of dust-like material are actually generated from ultra-thin plastic sheets and are normally cut into shapes that fit contiguously on a two-dimensional surface: squares, triangles, hexagons etc. What then appears to be totally random, chaotic decoration, is actually an array of extremely regular identifiable objects. 1 Of course scale has a role to play here. The minuteness of the dimensions means the regularity is beyond our recognitionall we see are the twinkling surfaces of the multi-coloured grains of plastic. In contrast, potting compost, which appears to be unary in its dull unresponsive lumpen disposition, is in fact an amalgam of a variety of organic and inorganic materials: peat, bark, mushroom compost, and sand and perlite, and should perhaps be more proactively exciting to the viewer because of this complexity. Yes; we can (if we care to) identify different textures, different sizes in the mixture of the medium, but I claim that we tend to treat this organic/inorganic assemblage as just a simple substance. Further and crucially important to our consideration here is that the medium is partially contained, but also partially spilling from the split plastic bags in which it is sold in garden centres. That the compost spills out gives it a movement suggesting life; that the bags are cast here and there in a random fashion by Oliver Minder, lying like discarded carcasses, hacked torsos, dismembered bodies, suggests a horrific murder scene, a Tatort. 2 The glitter flourishes in the medium, lies happy and decorative; that is simply what it does, how it isalways already broken, made-for-scattering, designed to be incomplete; the taken-to-be-natural compost, in contrast, cannot rest content but is forced to speak to us metaphorically in its abject overflowing of violence and rupture. While Oliver Minders elements in the installation direct our attention to material, Walter Derungsworks raise questions around seeing and making in photography. There is a simultaneous flicker between the materials and their use in the production of a sense making representation, on the one hand, and on the other the very notion of what is worthy of picturing, framing, representing on the other. Derungs' images are of non-places. Ranging from archaic decaying monster buildings, buildings that have gone far beyond the ravages of a time that we can safely associate with the genteel preservation of a Bernd and Hill Belcher post-industrial decline, to the backgroundnoiseof an urban world that is falling apart, and to which we most of the time seem to pay little attention, and habitually just pass by. In this respect, their non-ness differs somewhat from the conventional association of the term with Marc Augé 3 , where emphasis is on the specifics (if we do care to examine them for their non-placedness) of the spatial or place containment in which movement between multimodal coordinates occurs in supermodern late capitalist post-urban spaces. In other words, we might be in an Augéian non-place and (not) experiencebe impervious tothat environment, or we might in Derungsmanner look out from such a position at thesceneryaround us. I claim scenery, as this is what Derungs seems to do with his partial photographyconstruct a very purposefully articulated, symmetric, flat world of image. Mostly depopulated, his images construct a space in which the direction of time is uncertain: are these partial structures falling apart, or perhaps terminated in a never-to-be-completed state, or are they a few steps from final completion? Temporal and spatial dimensions figure large in Derungsimage-making: his world, and perhaps this is in fact the only way for it to be registered photographically, is already image before it is photographed. A key combination of images in this show is a matrix of six black and white negative prints measuring 300 x 215 cm that form the image of a semi-derelict (or is it yet incomplete) church, and adjacent on a perpendicular wall, a single black and white positive print 150 x 250 cm of two bricked-up windows of a late-Victorian industrial building. What are we led to believe that we see here? In the negative print, the conditions of perception 4 are sufficiently reproduced for us to recognise the structure of the building, to distinguish ground and form, to relate some partial elements of narrative, and to recognize symbols such as the alter cross and figure of Christ, a looming crane, a traffic cone, and banks of tiered seating. We piece the image together both from the individual forms which we recognize despite the tonal reversal, and we piece the six prints together as a whole, the matrix of lines between them emphasizing our purview onto the world. While we recognise the forms at work in the image and might possibly relate the negative reversals to other figurations such as Vera Lutters camera obscura exposures, we cannot but avoid seeing the partialness of the image in the sponge marks of the developer that was spread by hand across the prints. 5 Derungsthus intervenes with our usual conception of photography as the mimetic realist vehicle sine qua non , by exposing the viewer to tonal reversal and incomplete or over developed areas of the print. We thus confront both the idiom of such image making and its raw (chemical) materiality at once in the simultaneity of the recognition of what the image pictures and the recognition that it is in the act of picturing. The church image, taken from the seriesBW Negativs 2011,” thus orients us towards how we see things in the world via photographs. The single image of the bricked-up wall presents us with a completely different visuality that relates to a faciality 6 which we cannot easily escape from. We look, or rather try to look with no success, through the face of the windows, through the classic Albertian screen 7 which has already been given to us in the church matrix beside. Yet although we should be able to make more of these concealed windows because they are a positive print, because they are complete, because they approach us on a more realistic scale, reproduced at life size, we cannot. The objects pictured here withdraw from us; furthermore, they merely mock our blindness at not seeing how we look. Blocked up with quite a hint of paned glass behind, one window is blanked out with a white blind, the other simply blankly dark. The apertures look like eyes with teeth in them, or a Dogon mask, or even Man Rays Noire et Blanche (1926) if we want to get really perverse. The height of elegant modernist chauvinist beauty thrown against the vacuity of post-industrial decline. Derungs thus catapults us consciously into a world enfolded with and through images, but in such a way that the images themselves become objects that stand resistant to us, impervious to our gaze, indifferent. Weand indeed theydo not attempt to reach out to a real that is beyond, rather the images play in a world that is just theirs, and we can only enter that world if we too submit to their regime: tonal reversal, segmented, partial, inadequate, still, wrenched out of time. In contemplation, in the flood of the imagefallingoff the wall, we too become image-object. Perhaps enough has now been said about the works, yet enough can never really be said, we know the image will always exceed the wordlets accelerate the critique: Derungswork continues in a second space partially partitioned from this first room. Opposing three moreBW Negativswhich figure yet more quotidian aspects of the world is Minders gold spray paint and cuttlefish secretion mix: things that just shouldnt work together do in the dialogue between stuff that Derungs and Minder have constructed. Minder makes things; Derungs makes images; together they make objects which inhabit their own world which we can approach and sensually engage with and come to grips with only on those objectsown terms. This is best summarised by a final work made by Oliver Minder which on a third wall faces these two semi-partitioned spaces. A deep black stain about 100 X 200 cm with streak marks running down a further 2 metres hovers positioned to observe the whole work, and also to be part of this installation, too. This liminal flat suzerain lies in/out of the whole work. The stain of cuttlefish secretion resonates with Derungssponge strokes on the church image; it mirrors the iris of an all-seeing eye; it combines material in situ with the situation itself. Where Minders other works have material and medium or substrate upon which the material is exercised, this single black hole is image which sucks everything up into itself. It draws the viewer, who must otherwise look away attentively at the floor work, and imagine horror, or smile at the ironic play of glitter. Look away at the image constructions that suggest how it is we too look to our world. See the play of thing and image in a third area. Or, finally return to the base of the pyramid that triangulates, to realise the stuff-image that unlocks it all for us. Black on white, organic on inorganic, material to substrate, that which in the falling out of one on the other, in its running down the wall simply gives form to both content and expression in one direction, and content and expression to form in another. NOTES In fact, glitter is used as associative forensic evidence: the 20,000 or so varieties are all uniquely identifiable. Joel Sternfeld, Tatorte: Bilder gegen das Vergessen (München: Schirmer/Mosel, 1996). Marc Augé, Non­places: Introduction to an Anthropology of Supermodernity trans. John Howe (London: Verso, 2006). An echo of the uneven paint strokes of light­sensitive chemicals in the paper preparations made by Henry Talbot some 170 years ago in the first sun drawings that also often pictured architectural forms. It was Talbots surprising discovery that where a weaker chemical solution was more thinly spread, greater light sensitivity was actualized, yet this virtual image had then to be chemically developed in a second step. Thus, Derungs unevenly finished spongings suggestively trace back to this originary technology (although his sweeps are the stains of uneven development and not those of the initial preparation of lightsensitive material). Umberto Eco, “Critique of the ImageinArticulations of Cinematic CodeCinematics 1, 1970. Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia trans. Brian Massumi (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2007). Geoffrey Batchen, Burning With Desire: the Conception of Photography (Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1999). (shrink)
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  13.  45
    Belief: An Essay.Jamie Iredell - 2011 - Continent 1 (4):279-285.
    continent. 1.4 (2011): 279285. Concerning its Transitive Nature, the Conversion of Native Americans of Spanish Colonial California, Indoctrinated Catholicism, & the Creation Theres no direct archaeological (...) evidence that Jesus ever existed. 1 I memorized the Act of Contrition. I dont remember it now, except the beginning: Forgive me Father for I have sinned . . . This was in preparation for the Sacrament of Holy Reconciliation, where in a confessional I confessed my sins to Father Scott, who looked like Jesus, at least in Western cultural representations of Jesus since the middle ages, and if Jesus put on a few pounds. Father Scott was long-haired, redheaded, bearded, chubby, and tall. When he left church with the procession of altar servers and Eucharistic ministers, yelling, “Sing a Good Song Unto the Lord,” he smiled, hands folded, and he gazed over his parishioners, and bounced along. For four months every year he lived among the Crow Nation in Montana, where towards the end of his tenure at Our Lady of Refuge, they adopted him as an honorary member of their tribe. * This is the prayer we chanted, holding hands, every night before dinner: Bless us oh Lord, for these our gifts, which we are about to receive, our bounty through Christ, our Lord, Amen. Then we all said, God bless the cook! When we were with my grandparents, Grandpa said, God bless Chicky, and Holly, and Harvey, and Bootsall the dead dogs. * My sister tells me that she sits next to a handsome man on a flight across the country. After chitchat, she withdraws her book. Shes reading Kevin Sampsells A Common Pornography . After a few moments, the handsome man also reads from his bookhis leather-bound Bible. Sister thinks, Oh, Jesustoo bad. She falls asleep. Later, settled in Nashville, she opens her volume and out falls a Jesus-covered card that reads, You can still find God and Salvation! Because that handsome God-fearing young man saw that wordpornography . * I suppose Father Jims dark hair, beard, and glasses made me think doctoral-ly of him. He called while I was in the midst of a breakup, after Id twice attempted suicide, and my mother was desperate for help. She somehow found and phoned him. And Jim, now years out of Our Lady of Refuges parish, twenty years since my baptism, years even since hed left the priesthood and the Catholic faith, still made the effort to bring me back into the fold. He said, “Have you seen a priest?” I did not respond, as I was more shocked to hear his voice than anything, so I said, “How are you, Father Jim? Sorry, I guess I shouldnt call youFather.’” And I said, “Why did you leave the priesthood? Do you have a girlfriend?” He said that I should call him justJim.” He said, “Do you need someone to talk to?” I said, “Not really.” He said, “Call your mother; shes worried about you.” That was the last time I talked to Father Jim. * Mother let me know just how disappointed Jesus was. I cried and cried, and said I was sorry. Into my hands she placed my missal, ordered forty Rosaries. She said next Saturday I would go to confession. I hated confession. Who wouldnt? * I realize, of course, that this page is a kind of confessional. * The Kumeyaay, Ipai, Tipai, Chumash, Esselen, Rumsenall Native Americans of Alta Californiashared similarities in their religions. Southern Californian tribes made use of Datura, or jimpson weed, a hallucinogen, for religious rituals. In the creation, God made brother sky and sister earth. Brother and sister mated, and sister gave birth to all things on Earth, including people, but it was difficult to distinguish people from all other aspects of Earth because everything was alive: granite and obsidian, the Pacific and its waves, the San Diego and Los Angeles Rivers. Wiyota herowas very powerful, born from lightning, the son of the Creator and a virgin. When Wiyot thought that human womens legs were more beautiful than Frogs, Frog became jealous and poisoned Wiyot. The dying Wiyot went to all the peoples villages, and he distributed his power among them. He said, “When I die, I should be cremated.” The people built the fire and funeral pyre. When the fire was ready, and the people about to place Wiyots body upon it, Coyote came and snatched away Wiyots heart. * My friend Nick told me once how he ate some jimpson weed and that he hallucinated for three days. His family took a road trip and, while driving over the Sierra Nevada mountains, he kept seeing dinosaurs roaming the open meadows and charging down snowy slopes. So its no wonder that Native Americans who ingested this plant would have developed religion. * Walking Castrovilles streets after school I got into fights but mostly watched other boys scrabbling on the asphalt. I went to Burger King for Whoppers. Me and my friends cussed. Antonio admonished me when I said, “damn,” while strutting a sidewalk alongside the church. He said, “Jaime”—pronounced Hi-May, which was what all the Mexicans called me—“youre crazy, eh. Dont cuss at the church.” He meant while at church, as in, within its vicinity. I said, “Were not in church.” Once wed crossed the street, Tony said, “Damn dude, youre fuckin crazy!” * Blessed Father Fray Junípero Serra raised the Eucharistic goblet to his lips, and candlelight danced on the bloods tiny waves. Incense clouded the church so completely that some of the Pame natives grew nauseous. So, too, felt Blessed Father Fray Junípero Serra later that night, as he bent over a ceramic bowl and vomited blood, not only the Lords, but his own, for poison had laced the sacred vessel into which he poured the sacrament. The physician tending to the sick prelate urged him to take the remedy hed prepared. But Blessed Father Fray Junípero Serra refused, said that he would pray, for he had never taken any medicine in his life, and he never would. * The Chumash of El Valle de Los Osos called themselves the Stishni, separating themselves from Chumash of other regions, those varying tribes of the central California coast that spoke mutually unintelligible dialects of their Hokan language. This made learning their languages impossible for the Spanish friars, to say nothing of translating the Doctrina. Thus the priests baptized few natives, despite the help that the tribes offered the fledgling settlements in the form of meat and acorn meal, which the Spaniards found repugnant. Some from these cultures, feeling threatened by the newcomers, shot flaming arrows into the thatched roofs of the mission structures. And why wouldnt they feel threatened when priests chastised them for performing, for example, their Coyote Dance, wherein a man donning a coyote-skin-and-skull costume dances while a singer sings his tale, which laments the human feces strewn imaginatively about the Earth? Coyote, meantime, tries to get an onlooker to lick his genitals, and finally engages in public sexual intercourse with a female tribe member or two, then ends the dance by defecating. Though the Franciscans called such forbidden acts devilry , the Chumash maintained their Datura cult religion, along with the enforced Christianity. For the Chumash, the Earth was made of two enormous snakes that caused earthquakes when they slithered past one anothera vast reptilian tectonics. In the 20th century, long after Blessed Father Fray Junípero Serra and his cohorts had died, when asked by an anthropologist about religious contradictions, conflating the Datura and Christian cults, a Chumash man replied, incredulous: “But these are two different religions.” * When Portolá ordered that if by March 19th, the feast day of St. Joseph, the San Antonio had not arrived in San Diego Bay to relieve them, the Sacred Expedition to Nueva California would be abandoned, Blessed Father Fray Junípero Serra prayed a novena for San Josés intercession. And lo, a lookout sighted the San Antonios sailswhat seemed to the priest a miraclethat very Saints feast day. Europeans would stay in California, and Blessed Father Fray Junípero Serra would continue to reap a great harvest of souls for the Lord. By the end of mission secularization in 1836sixty-six years after the San Antonio rescued the SpaniardsNative American populations in California had declined by seventy-three percent. * When Peter the Aleut would not renounce his Eastern Orthodox faith the padre of San Francisco had a toe severed from each foot with each refusal, totaling ten. The native Ohlones employed in this gruesome tasktheir obsidian chiseled knives tearing through skin and grinding bonecontinued as per their orders, and cut off also each of Peters fingers (equals a total of twenty refusals). They quartered the martyr, spilled his bowels, as if from bear attack, attack by a bear in the shape of a Catholic. * Blessed Father Fray Junípero Serra absolutely believed that the slow rate of conversion for the native people was due to the influence of the Devil, who had been outraged by the coming of the Catholics to California, this region that he had long held in his dominion. * In his reception speech for the Nobel Prize for Literature, John Steinbeck said, “Man himself has become our greatest hazard and our only hope. So that today, St. John the Apostle may well be paraphrased: In the end is the Word, and the Word is Manand the Word is with Men.” * In 1602, when Sebastián Vizcaíno and his friars sang mass on Catalina Island, as many as a hundred Pimungans witnessed the rite, asking by signs what it was about. According to Vizcaínos records, the Californians marveled not a little at the idea of Heaven and at the image of Jesus crucified. * Vizcaíno was brought to a prairie on Santa Catalina Island where the Pimungans worshipped their sun god. Upon the prairie they had placed an icon, a headless figure with horns protruding from the body, a figure that Vizcaíno predictably described as a demon. The Pimungans urged Vizcaíno not to approach the image of their deity, but he ignored them. He placed his crucifix against the wooden figurine and prayed the Our Father. Vizcaíno told the natives that his prayer was from Heaven, and that their god was the Devil. Vizcaíno held out his crucifix, encouraging the Pimungans to touch it and receive Jesus. He pointed at the sky and indicated Heaven. The Pimungans worshipped a sun deity, so they were impressed with this white man and his description of his god, for their gods seemed to be one and the same. Its no wonder then that Vizcaínos diary reports the natives being pleased with this exchange. “Surely,” the diary says, “they will be converted to our Holy Faith.” * The Miwok women wailed and scratched at their faces when their men consorted with Sir Francis Drake and the other Englishmen who had landed on Californias coast in the summer of 1579. “The blood streaming downe along their brests, besides despoiling the upper parts of their bodies of those single coverings . . .they would with furie cast themselves upon the ground . . . on hard stones, knobby hillocks, stocks of wood, and pricking bushes.” Drake and his men fell themselves to their knees in prayer, their eyes Heavenward, so that the natives might see they prayed to God and they too might worship God then their eyes that had been so blinded by the deceiver might be opened. * Father Fray Antonio de la AscenciónCarmelite friar in Vizcaínos partywrites that the Indians of California caneasily and with very little labor be taught our Holy Catholic faith, and that they would receive it well and lovingly.” He calls for two hundred older and honorable soldiers to ensure brotherhood during the conquest, so that peace and lovethe best tools to pacify pagansshould reign. The religious, the friar says, should likewise be wise and loving to easily quell animosities between Spaniards and the heathen, and therefore avoid war. The Spaniards should bring with them trinketsbeads, mirrors, knivesto distribute amongst the gentiles, so that they might come to love the Christians, and seethat they are coming to their lands to give them that of which they bring, and not to take away the Indianspossessions, and may understand that they are seeking the good of their souls.” No women are to accompany the conquest, says Father Fray Antonio, “to avoid offenses to God.” * In 1955 Wallace Stevens admitted himself to St. Francis Hospital in Hartford, Connecticut. There, its rumored he converted to Catholicism before dying of stomach cancer, exclaiming to his priest after the baptism, “Now I am in the fold.” Stevenss late-career poems seem less cynical, more in awe of being and death (readMetaphor as Degenerationfrom The Auroras of Autumn ). He could have chosen from at least three secular hospitals in Hartford at the time. * I was reading Stevenss Collected Poems when I joined eHarmony and listed that as mycurrently readingbook among themore than twelvebooks a year that I would read. I fell in love with my wife when she said, “Are you sending your work out to literary journals?” Prior to this, the first girl I talked to on the phone, when I explained my doctoral exams, said, “So, youre like, reading Stephen King and stuff?” When I said not exactly she responded defensively: “He must be doing something right, since he makes all that money.” * Mom walked me, my brother, and sister, through the Stations of the Cross. We did this on Ash Wednesdays, or whenever she thought we needed extra God after church. It mightve happened before church, though thats unlikely because we were always late. Anyway, its easiest to walk the Stations of the Cross when theres no one else around. To walk the actual Stations means one goes to Jerusalem and walks the Via Dolorosa to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. So the Stations elsewhereusually paintings, or low-relief sculptures upon church wallsserve as a kind of virtual Dolorosa. Mom held our hands and started from the rear of Our Lady of Refuge: the First Station. Mom said we should say a prayer at each Station and to think of all the pain Jesus went through so that we could go to Heaven. It was hard to keep thinking about that one thing for so long. My mind went to that Saturdays little league game, to the donut and chocolate milk (our after-church reward from Castroville Bakery), and as I grew older I thought about girls. When youre thirteen you cant not think about the girls butt in the pew in front of yours as she kneels and stands to pray throughout mass. * It grew increasingly juvenile to lie awake at night daring myself to utter a simple sentence. Even if I said I didnt believe in God, wouldnt He know the truth? He was omniscient, like a narrator. Even the idea of Him as a him ceased making sense. Not only did this come with a budding realization of my paternalistic culture, but due to the simple question of why? If God was everything, everywhere, all knowing, then why would he be a man? Theres that question: If God is a man then God must have a penis, and if so, what for? * The Catholic Church incorporates some modern scientific research into its dogma concerning the formation of the Universe, Solar System, and Earth, as well as evolution. According to Catholic doctrine, in approximately the fifth millennia BCE, humans began to worship the one true God. Those humans were Adam and Eve, though the Church says humans had been around for thousands of years prior to Adam and Eve. The Church claims to be infallible. Every time the Church changes its doctrine it remains infallible. * One Catholic writer, Tom Meagher, writes thatModernism[—]the idea that we come to our beliefs individually through emotional or personal experiences[—]has crept into our Catholic schools.” * Catholics believe that evil spirits, given power through Original Sin, can imbue ordinary inanimate objects of everyday use. Thus, such objects should be blessed in order to induce in them the desire to serve the good. Such objects are not limited to, but include, “new ships and boats, railways and trains, bridges, fountains, wells, cornmills, limekilns, smelting furnaces, telegrams, steam engines, and machines for providing electricity.” * In The Sound of Music Julie Andrews and Christopher Plummer sing together: “Nothing comes from nothing, nothing ever could...” * To explain competing theories on the very early universe, and pre-verse would be another book. What was the inflaton? Did (mem)branes collide, initiating the Big Bang, as opposed to Lemaîtres primordial atom, a singularity? Without a unified theory theres gravity hanging out there, fucking everything up. We cannot make sense of the mechanics of the Planck Epoch0-10-34 seconds into the Universes creationnamed for Max Planck, who stumbled into the discovery of quantum mechanics in the early twentieth century. * My students often ask if I believe in God, since I espouse evolution, the Big Bang, Science, reject a strictly biblical or creationist theory of the Universe. I tell them that yes, I believe in God, though not the God that they imagine one must believe in. * When questioned regarding the rumor that, before his death, founder of quantum mechanics Max Planck had converted to Catholicism, he replied that he did not believein a personal God, let alone a Christian God.” * Physicist and Catholic priest George Lemaître, who formulated the theory and wrote the 1946 book The Primeval Atom Hypothesis , was made a household name by then-detractor Fred Hoyle, who pejoratively referred to the idea as aBig Bang.” * Suicide is a mortal sin. To end ones own life one must have despair, which is to lose hope, which is to lose faith, and to disbelieve in God. * Archaeology has uncovered graffiti in all of Californias missionsIndian pictographs inscribed into the adobe, covered with layers of whitewash. Native deities and depictions of cultural practices show that tribespeople never fully gave up their native traditions even after baptism and coming to the missions. There was something inside Native Californians that would never die. (shrink)
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  14.  25
    The Gravity of Pure Forces.Nico Jenkins - 2011 - Continent 1 (1):60-67.
    continent. 1.1 (2011): 60-67. At the beginning of Martin Heideggers lectureTime and Being,” presented to the University of Freiburg in 1962, he cautions against, (...)
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  15.  45
    Driftwood.Bronwyn Lay - 2013 - Continent 3 (2):22-27.
    This piece, included in the drift special issue of continent. , was created as one step in a thread of inquiry. While each of the contributions to drift (...) stand on their own, the project was an attempt to follow a line of theoretical inquiry as it passed through time and the postal service(s) from October 2012 until May 2013. This issue hosts two threads: between space & place and between intention & attention . The editors recommend that to experience the drifiting thought that attention be paid to the contributions as they entered into conversation one after another. This particular piece is from the BETWEEN INTENTION & ATTENTION thread: Jeremy Fernando, Sitting in the Dock of the bay, watching... * R.H. Jackson, Reading Eyes * Gina Rae Foster, Nyctoleptic Nomadism: The Drift/Swerve of Knowing * Bronwyn Lay, Driftwood * Patricia Reed, Sentences on Drifitng * David Prater, drift: a way * * * * * Australia, Summer, 2012. …. essential humanity exists, and runs its course, within a system whose first principle is the preservation of balance. And arching over it all, is the logos of The Dreaming. How shall we state this when we fully understand it I do not know, but I should think we are more likely to ennoble it than not. Equilibrium ennobled is abidingness.” 1 On return to birthplace I write. Caught between jetlag and surprise, a relentless sun cracks my skin. Upright words fall under cockatoo roars. The attempt to settle, to be attentive, is shaken. Some kind of Dreaming surrounds and elements intrude without consent. Homeless at home. Exhausted, I fight sleeps hard currents. Their victory would confuse the body clock, so the in-between wins. Half-therehalf-awakehere in this placeI am driftwood. Driftwood: wood floating in or washed ashore by a body of water. A severed limb set adrift from the birthing body. Tossed from home its cast into processes of wind, water, sand, bacteria, decay and movement. Driftwood is orphaned members at the mercy and agency of weather, currents, submersion, and being thrown into dry world. Driftwoodsingular plural. White man got no dreaming. Him gonother way. White man, him go different Him got road belong himself. 2 photo: Bronwyn Lay The old man comes from the northern rivers. A while ago, he could no longer pay attention to wage slavery, so retreated north to be with dead redgum that lay abandoned in dry riverbeds. Derived from driftwood peoples tossed here by the sea, he followed the fragile river veins of his birth. He walked along water bodies and through countrys lungs. Some kind of displaced ancestral song compelled his leathered hands to pick up centuries old driftwood from flood plains. It emerged from under muddy creeks, was flung up by salt soaked coves, pushed underground by cracks in the claypan and lay embedded in mud and salinized soil. Smoothed and grooved in equal measure, the branches were marked by an organic alphabet that preceded him. As he held the wood, he touched decomposing circles that started with a blast and never ceased writing into abandoned flesh. When the ute was full the old man returned home having been away with the stuff thatgrowed him up’. His shed filled with red sawdust and the sound of tools at labour. His hands sculptured driftwood. History carved into itinerant skin. I sit opposite the old man. His body no longer holds the repetition of carpentry. He can no longer gift driftwood its detail. Outside redgum bits lie scattered around the fence line and beside the dam. He crouches over an unreliable computer researching the massacres of indigenous peoples that occurred along the same river veins thatgrowed him uplong ago. Staring into the remnants of frontier resistance that he and I inherit, his eyes nurture fire. He discovers severed limbs and the slicing of tribes. In the ashes of sentences he sifts the lies that smoulder into our histories. In the 30s the anthropologist Stanner said that due to certain factorslack of change and isolationthe ideal and real come very close together in indigenous Dreaming. They are a people who were able to defeat history. 3If the Ideal and the Real drift too far away from one another (as they did at the end of the middle ages and seem increasingly to do this century) men face some difficult options. They have to change their way of life, or their philosophy, or both, or live unhappily somewhere in-between.” 4 Stanner says Indigenous Dreaming is blackfella thinking. 5 Dreamtime is not ethereal, not utopic, or otherworldly. Its fused with the real and its not mine. I might never understand, but its the substance of my home. This here placegrowed me up’. Is driftwood the unhappy in-between? Is it a radical itinerant written upon by currents? Where are we? The settler restless? photo: Alison Pouliot I return to the bush late one night, tired from high talk in city cafes, to find the old man at his computer. Hes either researching his white farming ancestors, or tracing unrecorded massacres of blackfellas. I laugh, “You know Dad, if you were indigenous you might go out by the dam and sing up your ancestors rather than try find them on a screen.” He peers over his glasses. His stare delivers an ancestral scold. Hes white man. Of course he archives. This is our way. One may see that, like all men, he is a metaphysician in being able to transcend himself. With the metaphysician goes a mood and spirit, which I can only call a mood or spirit of assent, neither despair nor resignation, optimism not pessimism, quietism nor indifference. The mood, and the outlook beneath it, make him hopelessly out of place in a world in which the renaissance has triumphed only to be perverted, and in which the products of secular humanism, rationalism and science challenge their own hopes, indeed their beginnings.” 6 The clinamen sometimes comes abstractthe rarefied swerve of possibility. But in the place we gather &mdash where this text has landedin the heart of settler colony denialthe clinamen reminds of familiar violence and goes maximum. The earths swerve. Topographys tip. Physics gone violent. Here, drift is initiated by the tear of flesh, scurvy voyages, frontier blood and the deracination from belonging. Here, war precedes drift. We all got tossed. Here. Pay attention. The country has its own gaze. ‘Lest we forget’. The seasonal turn on aborescent substances starts with a fall, an upwards rupture, a drop, a cut, a storm, a violence, a loss, forced migration, refugees, agricultural imperialism, settler wheat and poisoned rations. Pay attention to aftermath debris. Dont drift too far from the real. History hasnt settled into the water. It still tosses limbs back and forth. Surrounded by the backdrop of Dreaming country the old man archives and dreams. Both ways of settling into the real. But lest we forget, time, in this place, has no textual ticktock. Our bodies know this, even though we persist with shipwreck illusions. Its difficult being here. Here. Pay inattention. I walk through eucalyptus, over dried out clay pans and under kookaburras. Its been two years in-between. This time country speaks strong underfoot. Forget books, forget texts, forget other lands and times, beginning and end. Be here. All falls raw. Leaves drop and refuse to compost. Bark untethers quick. Light denudes worlds. The heated horizon melts monoliths. Its enough to make Cartesians shiver. Awake. Refuse the temptation to run. Have enough courage to drift into here. Love with a gum tree. Stand with her whole and dissolving. She moves light between our limbs, tossing them to wind. Shethe original romanceis the dream that dares touch flesh and reaches over nightmares with elemental desire. I gaze and lose me. Theres no distance. The land thatgrowed me upspeaks with symbiotic breath. Theres no division, no separation, no other. The gum is plastic arborescence. You be my body for me, always were. …..but I wake to driftwood histories and recall slaughters. Drifted, wicked fellow citizenthe other is someone elses blind sleep. Betrayal maintains the other as mine. Archives reveal this place doesnt belong to me. Body articulates that it became here. Gumtree cares not………her arms take me in anyway. “Like all men he is a philosopher in being able to use his power of abstract reason. His genius, his metier, and in some sensehis fate is that because of endowment and circumstance this power has channelled itself mainly into one activity, making sense out of social relations among men living together.” 7 The old man excavates seven generations of settler ancestors. Theyre an ordinary lot with written-upon skin. He records genocides that occurred alongside his peoples fertility. Bodies rise from riverbeds like sovereign sacrifices. It hurts. It disrupts. He labours at the past with gestures that might go unnoticed in a country suffocated by rich amnesia. Inside walls, he seems attentive to historical details. Outside he seems inattentive to time, lost to us and embedded in a family of active matterthe bush. His driftwood skin appears around my eyes - grooves of experience, the rush of cruel sun, the push of blind winds, and the love of everything. The sovereigns reluctant children are thrown here by, with and through blood, but country gets in and sculpts us here. photo: Chris CorriganBut his abstractions do not put him at war with himself.” 8 The kangaroo family appears at dusk. When the sun is soft I follow the old man into the back paddock. Children skip behind us. In-between generations, I step into the old mans driftwood leanings. My feet find traces of his understandingthe archivist that reads trees. Here, on home dirt, inattention and attention collapse as we wander into where we are. The roo family gaze at us. Through the grass the old mans wooden finger articulates kins details. He points to the head male, the mother holding a joey in pouch and the young warriors side by side. My children, quieter than ever, meet the laser - eyed silence of another family. In half-light Dad, me, and the kids mirror the kangaroo constellation and stand gentle together. At the bushblocks limit we encounter ancestral desires. White peoples are subject to driftwood histories. Were severed limbs attempting to fuse here now, with what was, only to discover our skin becomes racked and embedded with the weather. Into the shelter and fissures of this difficult and ambiguous inheritance, I fall into dream light until balance saturates. Light breaks when the kangaroos move. They bounce someplace else without effort or impact. We turn and tread through the dark towards home. Its time to sleep. Driftwood skin covers the country. Dreaming is still. photo: Bronwyn Lay NOTES W.E.H. Stanner, The Dreaming and Other Essays , (Melbourne: Black Inc. Agenda, 2009), 72. Ibid., 56. Stanner is recalling one intelligent old man who said to him, “with a cadence almost as though he had been speaking in verse.” Ibid., 60. Ibid., 69. Ibid., 58. Ibid., 67. Ibid., 68. Ibid., 59. &nbsp. (shrink)
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  16. The Dark Room Problem.Zekun Sun & Chaz Firestone - 2020 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 24 (5):346-348.
    Predictive Processing theories hold that the minds core aim is to minimize prediction-error about its experiences. But prediction-error minimization can be 'hacked', by placing oneself (...)
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  17. Bian Jie Shang de Xing Zhe: Sun Zhouxing Xue Shu Sui Bi.Zhouxing Sun - 2011 - Shanghai Ren Min Chu Ban She.
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  18.  79
    The Interaction of the Explicit and the Implicit in Skill Learning: A Dual-Process Approach.Ron Sun - 2005 - Psychological Review 112 (1):159-192.
    This article explicates the interaction between implicit and explicit processes in skill learning, in contrast to the tendency of researchers to study each type in isolation. It (...)
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  19. Duality of the Mind.Ron Sun - manuscript
    Synthesizing situated cognition, reinforcement learning, and hybrid connectionist modeling, a generic cognitive architecture focused on situated involvement and interaction with the world is developed in this book. (...)
     
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  20.  85
    Incubation, Insight, and Creative Problem Solving: A Unified Theory and a Connectionist Model.Ron Sun - 2010 - Psychological Review 117 (3):994-1024.
    This article proposes a unified framework for understanding creative problem solving, namely, the explicitimplicit interaction theory. This new theory of creative problem solving constitutes an attempt (...)at providing a more unified explanation of relevant phenomena (in part by reinterpreting/integrating various fragmentary existing theories of incubation and insight). The explicitimplicit interaction theory relies mainly on 5 basic principles, namely, (a) the coexistence of and the difference between explicit and implicit knowledge, (b) the simultaneous involvement of implicit and explicit processes in most tasks, (c) the redundant representation of explicit and implicit knowledge, (d) the integration of the results of explicit and implicit processing, and (e) the iterative (and possibly bidirectional) processing. A computational implementation of the theory is developed based on the CLARION cognitive architecture and applied to the simulation of relevant human data. This work represents an initial step in the development of process-based theories of creativity encompassing incubation, insight, and various other related.. (shrink)
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  21.  54
    The Cambridge Handbook of Computational Psychology.Ron Sun (ed.) - 2008 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book is a definitive reference source for the growing, increasingly more important, and interdisciplinary field of computational cognitive modeling, that is, computational psychology. It combines breadth (...)
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  22. Optimism and Pessimism in the Predictive Brain.Zekun Sun & Chaz Firestone - 2020 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences (9):683-685.
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  23.  25
    Feasibility of Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Investigate the Mirror Neuron System: An Experimental Study in a Real-Life Situation.Pei-Pei Sun, Fu-Lun Tan, Zong Zhang, Yi-Han Jiang, Yang Zhao & Chao-Zhe Zhu - 2018 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 12.
  24.  49
    To Lie or Not to Lie? The Influence of Parenting and Theory-of-Mind Understanding on Three-Year-Old Childrens Honesty.Fengling Ma, Angela D. Evans, Ying Liu, Xianming Luo & Fen Xu - 2015 - Journal of Moral Education 44 (2):198-212.
    Prior studies have demonstrated that social-cognitive factors such as childrens false-belief understanding and parenting style are related to childrens lie-telling behaviors. The present study (...) aimed to investigate how earlier forms of theory-of-mind understanding contribute to childrens lie-telling as well as how parenting practices are related to childrens antisocial lie-telling behaviors. Seventy-three three-year-olds from Hangzhou, P. R. China were asked not to peek at a toy in the experimenters absence. The majority of children who peeked, lied about it. Childrens lies were positively related to performance on the knowledge-ignorance theory-of-mind task. Additionally, Control parenting, characterized by high levels of monitoring and demanding, unquestioning obedience, was negatively related to three-year-oldslying. The relation between Control parenting and lie-telling was partially mediated by childrens theory-of-mind understanding. These findings suggest that childrens early lie-telling behaviors are influenced by social and social-cognitive factors. (shrink)
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  25.  25
    Reexamining Corporate Social Responsibility and Shareholder Value: The Inverted-U-Shaped Relationship and the Moderation of Marketing Capability.Wenbin Sun, Shanji Yao & Rahul Govind - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 160 (4):1001-1017.
    In the literature, CSRs roles on firm performance are found to be positive, negative, or neutral. This inconclusive pattern suggests there may be a more complicated (...)mechanism at work than the traditional focus on simple linear associations. We propose and test an inverted-U-shaped relationship between CSR and shareholder value, the fundamental measure of firm performance. Further, we incorporate a critical firm attribute, marketing capability, to moderate the nonlinear link between CSR and shareholder value, thereby exploring a previous understudied area involving the interplay between CSR and market-side competency. The results show that an initial increase in CSR engagement positively drives firm shareholder value, but the effect turns negative when a firm pursues excessive CSR engagement. Notably, however, this negative association does not apply to firms that have a high marketing capability. Our research generates meaningful implications for a stakeholder view of CSR, strategic management, firm valuation, resource-based theories, and business practices. (shrink)
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  26.  25
    Common Weak Linear Copositive Lyapunov Functions for Positive Switched Linear Systems.Yuangong Sun, Zhaorong Wu & Fanwei Meng - 2018 - Complexity 2018:1-7.
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  27.  57
    On Levels of Cognitive Modeling.Ron Sun, L. Andrew Coward & Michael J. Zenzen - 2005 - Philosophical Psychology 18 (5):613-637.
  28. Top-Down Versus Bottom-Up Learning in Cognitive Skill Acquisition.Ron Sun - unknown
    This paper explores the interaction between implicit and explicit processes during skill learning, in terms of top-down learning (that is, learning that goes from explicit to (...)implicit knowledge) versus bottom-up learning (that is, learning that goes from implicit to explicit knowledge). Instead of studying each type of knowledge (implicit or explicit) in isolation, we stress the interaction between the two types, especially in terms of one type giving rise to the other, and its effects on learning. The work presents an integrated model of skill learning that takes into account both implicit and explicit processes and both top-down and bottom-up learning. We examine and simulate human data in the Tower of Hanoi task. The paper shows how the quantitative data in this task may be captured using either top-down or bottom-up approaches, although top-down learning is a more apt explanation of the human data currently available. These results illustrate the two different directions of learning (top-down versus bottom-up), and thereby provide a new perspective on skill learning. Ó 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. (shrink)
     
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  29.  44
    Calm and Smart? A Selective Review of Meditation Effects on Decision Making.Sai Sun, Ziqing Yao, Jaixin Wei & Rongjun Yu - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
  30. Better Lie!Clea F. Rees - unknown
    I argue that lying is generally morally better than mere deliberate misleading because the latter involves the exploitation of a greater trust and more seriously abuses our (...)
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  31.  29
    Potential of full humanmachine symbiosis through truly intelligent cognitive systems.Ron Sun - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (1):17-28.
    It is highly likely that, to achieve full humanmachine symbiosis, truly intelligent cognitive systemshuman-likemay have to be developed first. Such systems should not only (...)
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  32. Motivational Representations Within a Computational Cognitive Architecture.Ron Sun - unknown
    This paper discusses essential motivational representations necessary for a comprehensive computational cognitive architecture. It hypothesizes the need for implicit drive representations, as well as explicit goal representations. (...)
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  33.  56
    The Iconic Logic of Peirce's Graphs.Sun-Joo Shin - 2002 - MIT Press.
    A case study of multimodal systems and a new interpretation of Charles S. Peirce's theory of reasoning and signs based on an analysis of his system (...) of ... (shrink)
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  34.  9
    A Time-Dependent Fuzzy Programming Approach for the Green Multimodal Routing Problem with Rail Service Capacity Uncertainty and Road Traffic Congestion.Yan Sun, Martin Hrušovský, Chen Zhang & Maoxiang Lang - 2018 - Complexity 2018:1-22.
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  35.  60
    Black Sun: Depression and Melancholia.Julia Kristeva - 1992 - Columbia University Press.
    Looks at the psychological nature of depression and discusses its portrayal in literature and art.
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  36. Theoretical Status of Computational Cognitive Modeling.Ron Sun - unknown
    This article explores the view that computational models of cognition may constitute valid theories of cognition, often in the full sense of the term ‘‘theory”. In this (...)
     
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  37. Simulating Organizational Decision-Making Using a Cognitively Realistic Agent Model.Ron Sun - manuscript
    Most of the work in agent-based social simulation has assumed highly simplified agent models, with little attention being paid to the details of individual cognition. Here, (...)in an effort to counteract that trend, we substitute a realistic cognitive agent model (CLARION) for the simpler models previously used in an organizational design task. On that basis, an exploration is made of the interaction between the cognitive parameters that govern individual agents, the placement of agents in different organizational structures, and the performance of the organization. It is suggested that the two disciplines, cognitive modeling and social simulation, which have so far been pursued in relative isolation from each other, can be profitably integrated. (shrink)
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  38.  53
    Does Female Directorship on Independent Audit Committees Constrain Earnings Management?Jerry Sun, Guoping Liu & George Lan - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 99 (3):369 - 382.
    This study examines whether the gender of the directors on fully independent audit committees affects the ability of the committees in constraining earnings management and thus their (...)
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  39.  91
    Learning, Action, and Consciousness: A Hybrid Approach Toward Modeling Consciousness.Ron Sun - 1997 - Neural Networks 10:1317-33.
    _role, especially in learning, and through devising hybrid neural network models that (in a qualitative manner) approxi-_ _mate characteristics of human consciousness. In doing so, the (...)paper examines explicit and implicit learning in a variety_ _of psychological experiments and delineates the conscious/unconscious distinction in terms of the two types of learning_ _and their respective products. The distinctions are captured in a two-level action-based model C_larion_. Some funda-_ _mental theoretical issues are also clari?ed with the help of the model. Comparisons with existing models of conscious-_. (shrink)
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  40. On Levels of Cognitive Modeling.Ron Sun, Andrew Coward & Michael J. Zenzen - 2005 - Philosophical Psychology 18 (5):613-637.
    The article first addresses the importance of cognitive modeling, in terms of its value to cognitive science (as well as other social and behavioral sciences). In particular, (...)
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  41. Desiderata for Cognitive Architectures.Ron Sun - 2004 - Philosophical Psychology 17 (3):341-373.
    This article addresses issues in developing cognitive architectures--generic computational models of cognition. Cognitive architectures are believed to be essential in advancing understanding of the mind, and (...)therefore, developing cognitive architectures is an extremely important enterprise in cognitive science. The article proposes a set of essential desiderata for developing cognitive architectures. It then moves on to discuss in detail some of these desiderata and their associated concepts and ideas relevant to developing better cognitive architectures. It argues for the importance of taking into full consideration these desiderata in developing future architectures that are more cognitively and ecologically realistic. A brief and preliminary evaluation of existing cognitive architectures is attempted on the basis of these ideas. (shrink)
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  42.  16
    Liquid Hydrocarbon Characterization of the Lacustrine Yanchang Formation, Ordos Basin, China: Organic-Matter Source Variation and Thermal Maturity.Xun Sun, Quansheng Liang, Chengfu Jiang, Daniel Enriquez, Tongwei Zhang & Paul Hackley - 2017 - Interpretation: SEG 5 (2):SF225-SF242.
    Source-rock samples from the Upper Triassic Yanchang Formation in the Ordos Basin of China were geochemically characterized to determine variations in depositional environments, organic-matter source, and (...) thermal maturity. Total organic carbon content varies from 4 wt% to 10 wt% in the Chang 7, Chang 8, and Chang 9 membersthe three OM-rich shale intervals. The Chang 7 has the highest TOC and hydrogen index values, and it is considered the best source rock in the formation. Geochemical evidence indicates that the main sources of OM in the Yanchang Formation are freshwater lacustrine phytoplanktons, aquatic macrophytes, aquatic organisms, and land plants deposited under a weakly reducing to suboxic depositional environment. The elevated [Formula: see text] sterane concentration and depleted [Formula: see text] values of OM in the middle of the Chang 7 may indicate the presence of freshwater cyanobacteria blooms that corresponds to a period of maximum lake expansion. The OM deposited in deeper parts of the lake is dominated by oil-prone type I or type II kerogen or a mixture of both. The OM deposited in shallower settings is characterized by increased terrestrial input with a mixture of types II and III kerogen. These source rocks are in the oil window, with maturity increasing with burial depth. The measured solid-bitumen reflectance and calculated vitrinite reflectance from the temperature at maximum release of hydrocarbons occurs during Rock-Eval pyrolysis and the methylphenanthrene index chemical maturity parameters range from 0.8 to [Formula: see text]. Because the thermal labilities of OM are associated with the kerogen type, the required thermal stress for oil generation from types I and II mixed kerogen has a higher and narrower range of temperature for hydrocarbon generation than that of OM dominated by type II kerogen or types II and III mixed kerogen deposited in the prodelta and delta front. (shrink)
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  43.  73
    Accounting for the Computational Basis of Consciousness: A Connectionist Approach.Ron Sun - 1999 - Consciousness and Cognition 8 (4):529-565.
    This paper argues for an explanation of the mechanistic (computational) basis of consciousness that is based on the distinction between localist (symbolic) representation and distributed representation, the (...)
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  44.  16
    Advancing Lie Detection by Inducing Cognitive Load on Liars: A Review of Relevant Theories and Techniques Guided by Lessons From Polygraph-Based Approaches[REVIEW]Jeffrey J. Walczyk, Frank P. Igou, Alexa P. Dixon & Talar Tcholakian - 2013 - Frontiers in Psychology 4.
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    Reachable Set Estimation for a Class of Nonlinear Time-Varying Systems.Yuangong Sun & Fanwei Meng - 2017 - Complexity 2017:1-6.
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  46. The Importance of Cognitive Architectures: An Analysis Based on CLARION.Ron Sun - unknown
    Research in computational cognitive modeling investigates the nature of cognition through developing process-based understanding by specifying computational models of mechanisms (including representations) and processes. In this (...)enterprise, a cognitive architecture is a domaingeneric computational cognitive model that may be used for a broad, multiple-level, multipledomain analysis of behavior. It embodies generic descriptions of cognition in computer algorithms and programs. Developing cognitive architectures is a difficult but important task. In this article, discussions of issues and challenges in developing cognitive architectures will be undertaken, and an example cognitive architecture (CLARION) will be described. (shrink)
     
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  47.  39
    The Logical Status of Diagrams.Sun-joo Shin - 1997 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 48 (2):290-291.
  48. Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning: Weighting and Partitioning.Ron Sun & Todd Peterson - unknown
    This paper addresses weighting and partitioning in complex reinforcement learning tasks, with the aim of facilitating learning. The paper presents some ideas regarding weighting of multiple agents (...)
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  49.  11
    What Makes CSR Communication Lead to<