The primary argument against Rachlin's act-versus-pattern analysis of self-control is that it is wrong to think of a temptation as a solitary act while the alternative is conceived of as an element of a pattern. Either both are solitary acts or both are members of patterns, however different the patterns may be in their complexity and abstractness.
Translations across symbolic forms necessarily involve shifts and transformations of meaning due to the logic of the medium. They challenge us to examine fundamental metaphors as an aspect of design reasoning, particularly in relation to the construction of spatial relationships and meanings. They also involve the exploration of diagrams as a way of moving from the space of linguistic description to architectural space where topology and visual image are tightly interfaced. In this paper, Terragni's unrealized design for a monument to (...) Dante, which projects The Divine Comedy into an architectural schema is examined as a case study. The Divine Comedy is treated as an expanded body of work that includes, in addition to the original text, a multitude of paintings, as well as Terragni's project. The paper draws a distinction between transformations of meaning that arise of necessity due to the internal logic of symbolic forms and transformations which manifest specific design intentions. The Divine Comedy with its compositional, numerological, and descriptive attributes forms the program for the architectural project. Nevertheless, as in any project, the program does not, in itself, generate architecture. This paper shows that in the Danteum project three major operations are involved in design synthesis. The first inflects the familiar metaphor of the column as a body. The second uses recursive 'extreme to mean ratio' proportions to establish nesting, repetition and scaling, and through these a sense of unity. The third uses a pattern of overlapping squares so as to create a dialogue between strongly differentiated interiors and transitional zones. These operations in conjunction with the compositional and narrative aspects of the poem interpreted as program make the translation from linguistic space to architectural space possible. Thus, in this case, design formulation is not based on a single metaphor, but rather on a system of metaphors working together to bring physical elements, spatial relationships and design operations within a coherent framework of design reasoning. (shrink)
. The problem of reconstructing digital images from degraded measurements is regarded as a problem of importance in various fields of engineering and imaging science. The main goal of denoising is to restore a noisy image to produce a visually high quality image. In this paper, we propose a novel transform domain technique that uses multispinning for image denoising. The proposed method uses multiple cyclic shifted versions of an image, where each of them would capture more detail information during decomposition. (...) Discrete wavelet transform and contourlet transform in association with multispinning is used. The results are compared with traditional transform and spatial domain techniques. The visual and quantitative evaluation suggests that the proposed method yields better results. (shrink)
Histopathological lung cancer segmentation using region of interest is one of the emerging research area in the field of health monitoring system. In this paper, the histopathological images were collected from the database Stanford Tissue Microarray Database. After image collection, pre-processing was performed using a normalization technique, which enhances the quality of the histopathological image by eliminating unwanted noise. After pre-processing, segmentation was carried out using the modified kernel-based fuzzy c-means clustering approach along with the edge bridge and fill technique. (...) It was a flexible high-level machine learning technique to localize the object in a complex template. The experimental result shows that the proposed approach segments the normal and abnormal cancer regions by means of precision, recall, specificity, accuracy, and Jaccard coefficient. The proposed methodology improved the classification accuracy in lung cancer segmentation up to 2.5–5% compared to the existing methods deep convolutional neural network and diffusion-weighted approach. (shrink)
This paper attempts to give a critical appraisal of Professor Suresh Chandra’s views on Historiography of Civilization with reference to Dravidian Civilization. “Historiography of Indian Civilization: Harappans, Dravidians, Aryans and Gandhi’s freedom struggle” (published in JICPR June 1996) and “Demythologizing History: Dravidians in Relation to Harappans and the Aryans” (presented in the seminar on Dravidian Philosophy organized by Dravidian University, Kuppam) are the two significant works which are devoted to Historiography of civilization by Prof. Suresh Chandra. This paper (...) mainly confines to the first article since the second one, as the author himself stated, is an offshoot of the first. (shrink)
Philosophers have established that certain ethically important val- ues are modally robust in the sense that they systematically deliver correlative benefits across a range of counterfactual scenarios. In this paper, we contend that recourse – the systematic process of reversing unfavorable decisions by algorithms and bureaucracies across a range of counterfactual scenarios – is such a modally ro- bust good. In particular, we argue that two essential components of a good life – temporally extended agency and trust – are under- (...) written by recourse. We critique existing approaches to the conceptualization, op- erationalization and implementation of recourse. Based on these criticisms, we suggest a revised approach to recourse and give ex- amples of how it might be implemented – especially for those who are least well off. (shrink)
Standalone corporate social responsibility reports vary considerably in the content of information released due to their voluntary nature. In this study, we develop a disclosure score based on the tone, readability, length, and the numerical and horizon content of CSR report narratives, and examine the relationship between the CSR disclosure scores and analyst forecasts. We find that CSR reporters with high disclosure scores are associated with more accurate forecasts, whereas low score CSR reporters are not associated with more accurate forecasts (...) than firms who do not issue CSR reports. The findings are robust to controlling for firm characteristics including CSR activity ratings and financial narratives. The findings are driven by experienced CSR reporters rather than first-time CSR reporters. Together, our findings suggest that the content of CSR reports helps to improve analyst forecast accuracy, and this relationship is more pronounced for CSR reports with more substantial content. (shrink)
The paper attempts to evaluate whether corporate social responsibility can contribute towards achievement of inclusive growth in India. Using content analysis of annual reports belonging to 42 non-financial companies across 8 years, the study identifies company disclosures under areas that fall within the purview of both inclusive growth, as conceptualised by the Indian government and themes of CSR subject indices mentioned in corporate social disclosure literature. The study is unique in its attempt to address the relation between CSR and inclusiveness (...) through a longitudinal analysis of 322 annual reports, in a timeframe when governmental intervention regarding CSR was negligible and the disclosures were primarily voluntary. The findings revealed that company CSR efforts are in congruence with some requirements for inclusive growth, like CSR activities in areas such as health, education, infrastructure, environment and energy and can contribute to the welfare of special interest groups such as women, children and backward sections. Apart from contributing to CSR literature in India, the paper will be of interest to corporations, government and other stakeholders of the CSR process. (shrink)
Shows that executive integrity is not merely a moral trait but a dynamic process of making empathetic, responsible, and sound decisions. Describes key features of executive integrity including effective social interaction, open dialogue, and responsive leadershipand explains how integrity can be developed and practiced in today's organizations.
In many cultural settings worldwide, within families, men tend to be responsible for important choices relating to the allocation of household resources and care-seeking behaviour that directly impact on the health of women and newborns. This study examines the extent of male participation in antenatal care, delivery, postnatal care, household chores and providing food to wives among tribal communities in India. In addition, health care providers’ views on male participation in maternal health were examined. Primary data were collected from 385 (...) men aged 15–49 from rural Gadchiroli District in Maharashtra, India. Interviews of 385 men whose wives had delivered a child within the previous 2 years were conducted between November 2014 and March 2015. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were done. The results showed that the tribal men’s participation in maternal health care was minimal. Around 22% of the men reported accompanying their wives to ANC, 25% were present at the time of delivery of their children and 25% accompanied their wives to PNC. Participation in household work, and support for wives in other ways, were slightly better. The main reason given by men for not participating in maternal health care was that they didn’t think it was necessary, believing that all maternal health issues were women’s concern. Health care providers among these tribal communities in India should encourage men to participate in issues related to maternal health care. (shrink)
There is currently great anxiety among literary critics and theorists about literary criticism’s loss of identity, both as an identifiable, coherent discipline with a recognizable set of problems and as a body of authoritative and well-founded convictions about literature and its history. Part of the reason for this anxiety is that everything that was until recently considered relatively unproblematical has now been rendered problematical. The hermeneutic of suspicion emerges as an interpretative strategy, pitting itself against the hermeneutic of belief; radical (...) indeterminacy of meanings challenges the certainty of traditional epistemology which authorized the objectivity of meaning, text, and context; and the whole of the Western metaphysical tradition is “inscribed” in any piece of writing which undermines the traditional notions of canon-formation, evaluation, and responsible criticism. Traditional literary theory assumes literary works to be structures of determinate meaning accessible by objective critical procedures. It is this assumption, and along with it a number of critical practices, which are challenged by the contemporary interest in the indeterminacy of meaning. In deconstruction, the thesis of indeterminacy takes its most radical and thoroughgoing form, so that all modernist critical stances from new Criticism to phenomenological, psychoanalytical, structuralist, marxist, and reader-response criticisms are put into question. This renders the scene of contemporary criticism and its theory highly volatile, since every theoretical claim or critical practice has become vulnerable to the deconstructive critique, even if this critique itself requires some form of certainty to question any critical theory or practice. (shrink)
With the advent of modern technology, the way society handles and performs monetary transactions has changed tremendously. The world is moving swiftly towards the digital arena. The use of Automated Teller Machine cards has led to a “cash-less society” and has fostered digital payments and purchases. In addition to this, the trust and reliance of the society upon these small pieces of plastic, having numbers engraved upon them, has increased immensely over the last two decades. In the past few years, (...) the number of ATM fraud cases has increased exponentially. With the money of the people shifting towards the digital platform, ATM skimming has become a problem that has eventually led to a global outcry. The present review discusses the serious repercussions of ATM card cloning and the associated privacy, ethical and legal concerns. The preventive measures which need to be taken and adopted by the government authorities to mitigate the problem have also been discussed. (shrink)