Results for 'Susan A. Elmore'

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  1.  38
    Ensuring the Quality, Fairness, and Integrity of Journal Peer Review: A Possible Role of Editors.David B. Resnik & Susan A. Elmore - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (1):169-188.
    A growing body of literature has identified potential problems that can compromise the quality, fairness, and integrity of journal peer review, including inadequate review, inconsistent reviewer reports, reviewer biases, and ethical transgressions by reviewers. We examine the evidence concerning these problems and discuss proposed reforms, including double-blind and open review. Regardless of the outcome of additional research or attempts at reforming the system, it is clear that editors are the linchpin of peer review, since they make decisions that have a (...)
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  2.  21
    Categories and Induction in Young Children.Susan A. Gelman & Ellen M. Markman - 1986 - Cognition 23 (3):183-209.
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  3.  30
    Insides and Essences: Early Understandings of the Non- Obvious.Susan A. Gelman & Henry M. Wellman - 1991 - Cognition 38 (3):213-244.
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  4.  36
    How Biological is Essentialism.Susan A. Gelman & Lawrence A. Hirschfeld - 1999 - In D. Medin & S. Atran (eds.), Folkbiology. MIT Press. pp. 403--446.
  5.  36
    A Cross-Linguistic Comparison of Generic Noun Phrases in English and Mandarin.Susan A. Gelman & Twila Tardif - 1998 - Cognition 66 (3):215-248.
    Generic noun phrases (e.g. 'bats live in caves') provide a window onto human concepts. They refer to categories as 'kinds rather than as sets of individuals. Although kind concepts are often assumed to be universal, generic expression varies considerably across languages. For example, marking of generics is less obligatory and overt in Mandarin than in English. How do universal conceptual biases interact with language-specific differences in how generics are conveyed? In three studies, we examined adults' generics in English and Mandarin (...)
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  6.  66
    Artifacts and Essentialism.Susan A. Gelman - 2013 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (3):449-463.
    Psychological essentialism is an intuitive folk belief positing that certain categories have a non-obvious inner “essence” that gives rise to observable features. Although this belief most commonly characterizes natural kind categories, I argue that psychological essentialism can also be extended in important ways to artifact concepts. Specifically, concepts of individual artifacts include the non-obvious feature of object history, which is evident when making judgments regarding authenticity and ownership. Classic examples include famous works of art (e.g., the Mona Lisa is authentic (...)
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  7.  12
    Remorse and Criminal Justice.Susan A. Bandes - 2016 - Emotion Review 8 (1):14-19.
    A defendant’s failure to show remorse is one of the most powerful factors in criminal sentencing, including capital sentencing. Yet there is currently no evidence that remorse can be accurately evaluated in a courtroom. Conversely there is evidence that race and other impermissible factors create hurdles to evaluating remorse. There is thus an urgent need for studies about whether and how remorse can be accurately evaluated. Moreover, there is little evidence that remorse is correlated with future law-abiding behavior or other (...)
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  8.  14
    Journey to the Centers of the Mind.Susan A. Greenfield - 1995 - W.H. Freeman and Co.
  9. Enkinaesthetic Polyphony: The Underpinning for First-Order Languaging.Susan A. J. Stuart & Paul J. Thibault - unknown
    We contest two claims: that language, understood as the processing of abstract symbolic forms, is an instrument of cognition and rational thought, and that conventional notions of turn-taking, exchange structure, and move analysis, are satisfactory as a basis for theorizing communication between living, feeling agents. We offer an enkinaesthetic theory describing the reciprocal affective neuro-muscular dynamical flows and tensions of co- agential dialogical sense-making relations. This “enkinaesthetic dialogue” is characterised by a preconceptual experientially recursive temporal dynamics forming the deep extended (...)
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  10.  11
    Shape and Representational Status in Children's Early Naming.Susan A. Gelman & Karen S. Ebeling - 1998 - Cognition 66 (2):B35-B47.
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  11.  36
    Enkinaesthesia: The Essential Sensuous Background for Co-Agency.Susan A. J. Stuart - 2012 - In Zravko Radman (ed.), The Background: Knowing Without Thinking. Palgrave-Macmillan.
    The primary aim of this essay is to present a case for a heavily revised notion of heterophenomenology. l will refer to the revised notion as ‘enkinaesthesia’ because of its dependence on the experiential entanglement of our own and the other’s felt action as the sensory background within which all other experience is possible. Enkinaesthesia2 emphasizes two things: (i) the neuromuscular dynamics of the agent, including the givenness and ownership of its experience, and (ii) the entwined, blended and situated co-affective (...)
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  12. I—Susan James: Creating Rational Understanding: Spinoza as a Social Epistemologist.Susan James - 2011 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 85 (1):181-199.
    Does Spinoza present philosophy as the preserve of an elite, while condemning the uneducated to a false though palliative form of ‘true religion’? Some commentators have thought so, but this contribution aims to show that they are mistaken. The form of religious life that Spinoza recommends creates the political and epistemological conditions for a gradual transition to philosophical understanding, so that true religion and philosophy are in practice inseparable.
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  13.  20
    Feeling Our Way: Enkinaesthetic Enquiry and Immanent Intercorporeality.Susan A. J. Stuart - unknown
    Every action, touch, utterance, and look, every listening, taste, smell, and feel is a living question; but it is no ordinary propositional one-by-one question, rather it is a plenisentient sensing and probing non-propositional enquiry about how our world is, in its present continuous sense, and in relation to how we anticipate its becoming. I will take this assumption as my first premise and, by using the notion of enkinaesthesia, I will explore the ways in which an agent’s affectively-saturated co-engagement with (...)
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  14. Enkinaesthesia: The Fundamental Challenge for Machine Consciousness.Susan A. J. Stuart - unknown
    In this short paper I will introduce an idea which, I will argue, presents a fundamental additional challenge to the machine consciousness community. The idea takes the questions surrounding phenomenology, qualia and phenomenality one step further into the realm of intersubjectivity but with a twist, and the twist is this: that an agent’s intersubjective experience is deeply felt and necessarily co-affective; it is enkinaesthetic, and only through enkinaesthetic awareness can we establish the affective enfolding which enables first the perturbation, and (...)
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  15.  26
    A Troubled Dance: Doing the Work of Research Ethics Review. [REVIEW]Susan A. Tilley - 2008 - Journal of Academic Ethics 6 (2):91-104.
    The fast growing interest in the work of university ethics review boards is evident in the proliferation of research and literature in the area. This article focuses on a Research Ethics Board (REB) in the Canadian context. In-depth, open-ended interviews with REB members and findings from a qualitative study designed to examine the ethics review of school-based research are used to illustrate points raised in the paper. The author’s experiences as academic researcher, advisor to student researchers and a 3-year term (...)
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  16.  43
    Machine Consciousness: Cognitive and Kinaesthetic Imagination.Susan A. J. Stuart - 2007 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (7):141-153.
    Machine consciousness exists already in organic systems and it is only a matter of time -- and some agreement -- before it will be realised in reverse-engineered organic systems and forward- engineered inorganic systems. The agreement must be over the preconditions that must first be met if the enterprise is to be successful, and it is these preconditions, for instance, being a socially-embedded, structurally-coupled and dynamic, goal-directed entity that organises its perceptual input and enacts its world through the application of (...)
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  17.  19
    A ‘Curse of Knowledge’ in the Absence of Knowledge? People Misattribute Fluency When Judging How Common Knowledge is Among Their Peers.Susan A. J. Birch, Patricia E. Brosseau-Liard, Taeh Haddock & Siba E. Ghrear - 2017 - Cognition 166:447-458.
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  18.  41
    Tracking the Actions and Possessions of Agents.Susan A. Gelman, Nicholaus S. Noles & Sarah Stilwell - 2014 - Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (4):599-614.
    We propose that there is a powerful human disposition to track the actions and possessions of agents. In two experiments, 3-year-olds and adults viewed sets of objects, learned a new fact about one of the objects in each set , and were queried about either the taught fact or an unrelated dimension immediately after a spatiotemporal transformation, and after a delay. Adults uniformly tracked object identity under all conditions, whereas children tracked identity more when taught ownership versus labeling information, and (...)
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  19.  82
    The Mindsized Mashup Mind Isn't Supersized After All.Susan A. J. Stuart - 2010 - Analysis 70 (1):174-183.
    (No abstract is available for this citation).
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  20. From Agency to Apperception: Through Kinaesthesia to Cognition and Creation.Susan A. J. Stuart - 2008 - Ethics and Information Technology 10 (4):255-264.
    My aim in this paper is to go some way towards showing that the maintenance of hard and fast dichotomies, like those between mind and body, and the real and the virtual, is untenable, and that technological advance cannot occur with being cognisant of its reciprocal ethical implications. In their place I will present a softer enactivist ontology through which I examine the nature of our engagement with technology in general and with virtual realities in particular. This softer ontology is (...)
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  21.  14
    Young Children’s Preference for Unique Owned Objects.Susan A. Gelman & Natalie S. Davidson - 2016 - Cognition 155:146-154.
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  22. Memory, Distortion, and History in the Museum.Susan A. Crane - 1997 - History and Theory 36 (4):44–63.
    Museums are conventionally viewed as institutions dedicated to the conservation of valued objects and the education of the public. Recently, controversies have arisen regarding the representation of history in museums. National museums in America and Germany considered here, such as the Smithsonian's Air and Space Museum, the Holocaust Memorial Museum, and the German Historical Museum, have become sites of contention where national histories and personal memories are often at odds. Contemporary art installations in museums which take historical consciousness as their (...)
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  23.  79
    Conscious Machines: Memory, Melody and Muscular Imagination. [REVIEW]Susan A. J. Stuart - 2010 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 9 (1):37-51.
    A great deal of effort has been, and continues to be, devoted to developing consciousness artificially (A small selection of the many authors writing in this area includes: Cotterill (J Conscious Stud 2:290–311, 1995 , 1998 ), Haikonen ( 2003 ), Aleksander and Dunmall (J Conscious Stud 10:7–18, 2003 ), Sloman ( 2004 , 2005 ), Aleksander ( 2005 ), Holland and Knight ( 2006 ), and Chella and Manzotti ( 2007 )), and yet a similar amount of effort has (...)
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  24.  2
    Gender and Race in a Pro-Feminist, Progressive, Mixed-Gender, Mixed-Race Organization.Susan A. Ostrander - 1999 - Gender and Society 13 (5):628-642.
    Feminist researchers have urged more study of how feminist practice is actually accomplished in mixed-gender organizations. Social movement scholars have called for more attention to dynamics of gender and race in social movement organizations, especially to the challenges of maintaining internal solidarity. Based on field observations in a pro-feminist, progressive, mixed-gender, mixed-race social movement organization, this article examines organizational decision-making processes and interpersonal and group dynamics. Gendered and racialized patterns of subordination are both very much in evidence and—at the same (...)
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  25.  17
    History and Essence in Human Cognition.Susan A. Gelman, Meredith A. Meyer & Nicholaus S. Noles - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (2):142 - 143.
    Bullot & Reber (B&R) provide compelling evidence that sensitivity to context, history, and design stance are crucial to theories of art appreciation. We ask how these ideas relate to broader aspects of human cognition. Further open questions concern how psychological essentialism contributes to art appreciation and how essentialism regarding created artifacts (such as art) differs from essentialism in other domains.
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  26.  23
    A Neuroscientific Approach to Consciousness.Susan A. Greenfield & T. F. T. Collins - 2006 - In Steven Laureys (ed.), Boundaries of Consciousness. Elsevier.
  27.  64
    Early Word-Learning Entails Reference, Not Merely Associations.Sandra R. Waxman & Susan A. Gelman - 2009 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13 (6):258-263.
  28.  27
    Response to Sloutsky: Taking Development Seriously: Theories Cannot Emerge From Associations Alone.Susan A. Gelman & Sandra R. Waxman - 2009 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13 (8):332-333.
  29.  13
    Nurses’ Moral Experiences of Assisted Death: A Meta-Synthesis of Qualitative Research.James Elmore, David Kenneth Wright & Maude Paradis - 2018 - Nursing Ethics 25 (8):955-972.
    Background: Legislative changes are resulting in assisted death as an option for people at the end of life. Although nurses’ experiences and perspectives are underrepresented within broader ethical discourses about assisted death, there is a small but significant body of literature examining nurses’ experiences of caring for people who request this option. Aim: To synthesize what has been learned about nurses’ experiences of caring for patients who request assisted death and to highlight what is morally at stake for nurses who (...)
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  30.  10
    Bewitchment, Biology, or Both: The Co-Existence of Natural and Supernatural Explanatory Frameworks Across Development.Cristine H. Legare & Susan A. Gelman - 2008 - Cognitive Science 32 (4):607-642.
  31.  19
    Implicit Virtue.Susan A. Stark - 2014 - Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 34 (2):146-158.
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  32.  39
    So It Is, So It Shall Be: Group Regularities License Children's Prescriptive Judgments.Steven O. Roberts, Susan A. Gelman & Arnold K. Ho - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S3).
    When do descriptive regularities become prescriptive norms? We examined children's and adults' use of group regularities to make prescriptive judgments, employing novel groups that engaged in morally neutral behaviors. Participants were introduced to conforming or non-conforming individuals. Children negatively evaluated non-conformity, with negative evaluations declining with age. These effects were replicable across competitive and cooperative intergroup contexts and stemmed from reasoning about group regularities rather than reasoning about individual regularities. These data provide new insights into children's group concepts and have (...)
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  33.  12
    Evaluation of the Fibromyalgia Diagnostic Screen in Clinical Practice.Susan A. Martin, Cheryl D. Coon, Lori D. McLeod, Arthi Chandran & Lesley M. Arnold - 2014 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 20 (2):158-165.
  34.  13
    Distinct Labels Attenuate 15-Month-Olds’ Attention to Shape in an Inductive Inference Task.Susan A. Graham, Jean Keates, Ena Vukatana & Melanie Khu - 2012 - Frontiers in Psychology 3.
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  35.  32
    Differences in Preschoolers’ and Adults’ Use of Generics About Novel Animals and Artifacts: A Window Onto a Conceptual Divide.Amanda C. Brandone & Susan A. Gelman - 2009 - Cognition 110 (1):1-22.
    Children and adults commonly produce more generic noun phrases (e.g., birds fly) about animals than artifacts. This may reflect differences in participants’ generic knowledge about specific animals/artifacts (e.g., dogs/chairs), or it may reflect a more general distinction. To test this, the current experiments asked adults and preschoolers to generate properties about novel animals and artifacts (Experiment 1: real animals/artifacts; Experiments 2 and 3: matched pairs of maximally similar, novel animals/artifacts). Data demonstrate that even without prior knowledge about these items, the (...)
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  36.  25
    Two Insights About Naming in the Preschool Child.Susan A. Gelman - 2005 - In Peter Carruthers (ed.), The Innate Mind: Structure and Contents. New York: Oxford University Press New York. pp. 198--215.
    This chapter examines associationist models of cognitive development, focusing on the development of naming in young children — the process by which young children learn of construct the meanings of words and concepts. It presents two early-emerging insights that children possess about the nature of naming. These insights are: essentialism: certain words map onto nonobvious, underlying causal features, and genericity: certain expressions map onto generic kinds as opposed to particular instances. The chapter discusses empirical studies with preschool children to support (...)
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  37.  23
    Causal Status Effect in Children's Categorization.Woo-Kyoung Ahn, Susan A. Gelman, Jennifer A. Amsterlaw, Jill Hohenstein & Charles W. Kalish - 2000 - Cognition 76 (2):B35-B43.
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  38.  25
    Children's Developing Intuitions About the Truth Conditions and Implications of Novel Generics Versus Quantified Statements.Amanda C. Brandone, Susan A. Gelman & Jenna Hedglen - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (4):711-738.
    Generic statements express generalizations about categories and present a unique semantic profile that is distinct from quantified statements. This paper reports two studies examining the development of children's intuitions about the semantics of generics and how they differ from statements quantified by all, most, and some. Results reveal that, like adults, preschoolers recognize that generics have flexible truth conditions and are capable of representing a wide range of prevalence levels; and interpret novel generics as having near-universal prevalence implications. Results further (...)
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  39.  6
    Toward a Pedagogy for Faculty and Student Co-Responsibility in Curating College Museum Exhibitions.Susan Rodgers - 2015 - Arts and Humanities in Higher Education 14 (2):150-165.
    When undergraduates work with college faculty on complex research projects, the students are often asked to take on the role of “secondary-level” gatherers of data. This can be legitimate: the students have no graduate training and the faculty mentor is more experienced in research design and analysis. This study, however, offers an alternative model for student/faculty joint research: a model for pedagogy on the arts in anthropology that fosters stronger degrees of student agency and “ownership” of a museum project. At (...)
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  40.  9
    Preschoolers’ Use of Spatiotemporal History, Appearance, and Proper Name in Determining Individual Identity.Grant Gutheil, Susan A. Gelman, Eileen Klein, Katherine Michos & Kara Kelaita - 2008 - Cognition 107 (1):366-380.
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  41.  52
    Dirty Money: The Role of Moral History in Economic Judgments.Arber Tasimi & Susan A. Gelman - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S3).
    Although traditional economic models posit that money is fungible, psychological research abounds with examples that deviate from this assumption. Across eight experiments, we provide evidence that people construe physical currency as carrying traces of its moral history. In Experiments 1 and 2, people report being less likely to want money with negative moral history. Experiments 3–5 provide evidence against an alternative account that people's judgments merely reflect beliefs about the consequences of accepting stolen money rather than moral sensitivity. Experiment 6 (...)
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  42.  81
    The Self as an Embedded Agent.Chris Dobbyn & Susan A. J. Stuart - 2003 - Minds and Machines 13 (2):187-201.
    In this paper we consider the concept of a self-aware agent. In cognitive science agents are seen as embodied and interactively situated in worlds. We analyse the meanings attached to these terms in cognitive science and robotics, proposing a set of conditions for situatedness and embodiment, and examine the claim that internal representational schemas are largely unnecessary for intelligent behaviour in animats. We maintain that current situated and embodied animats cannot be ascribed even minimal self-awareness, and offer a six point (...)
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  43.  29
    Expressing Generic Concepts with and Without a Language Model.Susan Goldin-Meadow, Susan A. Gelman & Carolyn Mylander - 2005 - Cognition 96 (2):109-126.
  44.  29
    Beyond the Essential Contestation: Construction and Deconstruction of Regional Identity.Susan A. van, 'T. Klooster, Marjolein B. A. van Asselt & Sjaak P. Koenis - 2002 - Ethics, Place and Environment 5 (2):109 – 121.
    In this paper we aim to shed light on the dynamics of regional identity construction and deconstruction. We will argue that four forms of identity can be identified that are linked through various processes of change. To that end, we will theoretically conceptualise 'identity' by discussing historical and current scholarly debates on identity in a variety of scientific disciplines. Then, we will argue that the mutual contradiction of the current theories is a paradox if seen from the angle of regional (...)
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  45.  17
    Aḥmad Ibn Ḥanbal's FiqhAhmad Ibn Hanbal's Fiqh.Susan A. Spectorsky - 1982 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 102 (3):461.
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  46. Luck and Equality: Susan Hurley.Susan Hurley - 2001 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 75 (1):51–72.
    [ Susan Hurley] I argue that the aim to neutralize the influence of luck on distribution cannot provide a basis for egalitarianism: it can neither specify nor justify an egalitarian distribution. Luck and responsibility can play a role in determining what justice requires to be redistributed, but from this we cannot derive how to distribute: we cannot derive a pattern of distribution from the 'currency' of distributive justice. I argue that the contrary view faces a dilemma, according to whether (...)
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  47.  13
    Evolutionary Futurism in Stapledon’s Star Maker.Susan A. Anderson - 1975 - Process Studies 5 (2):123-128.
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  48.  2
    Women, Beauty, and Justice.Susan A. Ross - 2005 - Journal of the Society of Christian Ethics 25 (1):79-98.
    IN THIS ESSAY I CONSIDER POSSIBLE CONTRIBUTIONS OF FEMINIST THEOLogy to theological aesthetics and ethics by comparing the work of Hans Urs von Balthasar, the predominant figure in theological aesthetics, with that of Elizabeth Johnson and Sallie McFague. Balthasar's emphasis on contemplation and obedience in response to the unexpected revelation of God's glory contrasts with the practicality, mutuality, and creativity of feminist theological ethics. On the other hand, feminist theology's emphasis on appropriate language and images for God suggests an implicit (...)
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  49.  5
    Catalogue of Arabic Manuscripts (Yahuda Section) in the Garrett Collection, Princeton University Library.Susan A. Spectorsky & Rudolf Mach - 1982 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 102 (4):670.
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  50.  89
    Aplasic Phantoms and the Mirror Neuron System: An Enactive, Developmental Perspective.Rachel Wood & Susan A. J. Stuart - 2009 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 8 (4):487-504.
    Phantom limb experiences demonstrate an unexpected degree of fragility inherent in our self-perceptions. This is perhaps most extreme when congenitally absent limbs are experienced as phantoms. Aplasic phantoms highlight fundamental questions about the physiological bases of self-experience and the ontogeny of a physical, embodied sense of the self. Some of the most intriguing of these questions concern the role of mirror neurons in supporting the development of self–other mappings and hence the emergence of phantom experiences of congenitally absent limbs. In (...)
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