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Susan A. J. Stuart [16]Susan Stuart [10]Susan Aj Stuart [1]
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Susan Stuart
University of Glasgow
  1. Enkinaesthesia: The Fundamental Challenge for Machine Consciousness.Susan A. J. Stuart - unknown
    In this short paper I will introduce an idea which, I will argue, presents a fundamental additional challenge to the machine consciousness community. The idea takes the questions surrounding phenomenology, qualia and phenomenality one step further into the realm of intersubjectivity but with a twist, and the twist is this: that an agent’s intersubjective experience is deeply felt and necessarily co-affective; it is enkinaesthetic, and only through enkinaesthetic awareness can we establish the affective enfolding which enables first the perturbation, and (...)
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  2. Assessing Artificial Consciousness.Igor Aleksander, Susan Stuart, Tom Ziemke, Ron Chrisley & Uziel Awret - 2008 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 15 (7):95-110.
    While the recent special issue of JCS on machine consciousness (Volume 14, Issue 7) was in preparation, a collection of papers on the same topic, entitled Artificial Consciousness and edited by Antonio Chella and Riccardo Manzotti, was published. 1 The editors of the JCS special issue, Ron Chrisley, Robert Clowes and Steve Torrance, thought it would be a timely and productive move to have authors of papers in their collection review the papers in the Chella and Manzotti book, and include (...)
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  3. From Agency to Apperception: Through Kinaesthesia to Cognition and Creation.Susan A. J. Stuart - 2008 - Ethics and Information Technology 10 (4):255-264.
    My aim in this paper is to go some way towards showing that the maintenance of hard and fast dichotomies, like those between mind and body, and the real and the virtual, is untenable, and that technological advance cannot occur with being cognisant of its reciprocal ethical implications. In their place I will present a softer enactivist ontology through which I examine the nature of our engagement with technology in general and with virtual realities in particular. This softer ontology is (...)
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  4. Enkinaesthetic Polyphony: The Underpinning for First-Order Languaging.Susan A. J. Stuart & Paul J. Thibault - unknown
    We contest two claims: that language, understood as the processing of abstract symbolic forms, is an instrument of cognition and rational thought, and that conventional notions of turn-taking, exchange structure, and move analysis, are satisfactory as a basis for theorizing communication between living, feeling agents. We offer an enkinaesthetic theory describing the reciprocal affective neuro-muscular dynamical flows and tensions of co- agential dialogical sense-making relations. This “enkinaesthetic dialogue” is characterised by a preconceptual experientially recursive temporal dynamics forming the deep extended (...)
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  5.  78
    The Self as an Embedded Agent.Chris Dobbyn & Susan A. J. Stuart - 2003 - Minds and Machines 13 (2):187-201.
    In this paper we consider the concept of a self-aware agent. In cognitive science agents are seen as embodied and interactively situated in worlds. We analyse the meanings attached to these terms in cognitive science and robotics, proposing a set of conditions for situatedness and embodiment, and examine the claim that internal representational schemas are largely unnecessary for intelligent behaviour in animats. We maintain that current situated and embodied animats cannot be ascribed even minimal self-awareness, and offer a six point (...)
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  6. The Articulation of Enkinaesthetic Entanglement.Susan Stuart - 2015 - In M. Jung, M. Bauks & A. Ackermann (eds.), Dem Körper eingeschrieben: Verkörperung zwischen Leiberleben und kulturellem Sinn. Springer. pp. 19-35.
    In this article I present an argument for the necessary co-articulation of meaning within our felt enkinaesthetic engagement with our world. The argument will be developed through a series of stages, the first of which will be an elaboration of the notion of articulation of and through the body. This will be followed by an examination of enkinaesthetic experiential entanglement and the role it plays in rendering our world meaningful and our actions values-realising. At this stage I will begin to (...)
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  7.  89
    Aplasic Phantoms and the Mirror Neuron System: An Enactive, Developmental Perspective.Rachel Wood & Susan A. J. Stuart - 2009 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 8 (4):487-504.
    Phantom limb experiences demonstrate an unexpected degree of fragility inherent in our self-perceptions. This is perhaps most extreme when congenitally absent limbs are experienced as phantoms. Aplasic phantoms highlight fundamental questions about the physiological bases of self-experience and the ontogeny of a physical, embodied sense of the self. Some of the most intriguing of these questions concern the role of mirror neurons in supporting the development of self–other mappings and hence the emergence of phantom experiences of congenitally absent limbs. In (...)
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  8.  36
    Enkinaesthesia: The Essential Sensuous Background for Co-Agency.Susan A. J. Stuart - 2012 - In Zravko Radman (ed.), The Background: Knowing Without Thinking. Palgrave-Macmillan.
    The primary aim of this essay is to present a case for a heavily revised notion of heterophenomenology. l will refer to the revised notion as ‘enkinaesthesia’ because of its dependence on the experiential entanglement of our own and the other’s felt action as the sensory background within which all other experience is possible. Enkinaesthesia2 emphasizes two things: (i) the neuromuscular dynamics of the agent, including the givenness and ownership of its experience, and (ii) the entwined, blended and situated co-affective (...)
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  9. David Skrbina (Ed.): Mind That Abides: Panpsychism in the New Millennium. [REVIEW]Susan Stuart - 2012 - Minds and Machines 22 (3):271-275.
    David Skrbina opens this timely and intriguing text with a suitably puzzling line from the Diamond Sutra: ‘‘Mind that abides nowhere must come forth.’’, and he urges us to ‘‘de-emphasise the quest for the specifically human embodiment of mind’’ and follow Empedocles, progressing ‘‘with good will and unclouded attention’’ into the text which he has drawn together as editor. If we do, we are assured that it will ‘‘yield great things’’ (p. xi). This, I am pleased to say, is not (...)
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  10.  42
    Machine Consciousness: Cognitive and Kinaesthetic Imagination.Susan A. J. Stuart - 2007 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (7):141-153.
    Machine consciousness exists already in organic systems and it is only a matter of time -- and some agreement -- before it will be realised in reverse-engineered organic systems and forward- engineered inorganic systems. The agreement must be over the preconditions that must first be met if the enterprise is to be successful, and it is these preconditions, for instance, being a socially-embedded, structurally-coupled and dynamic, goal-directed entity that organises its perceptual input and enacts its world through the application of (...)
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  11.  74
    The Mindsized Mashup Mind Isn't Supersized After All.Susan A. J. Stuart - 2010 - Analysis 70 (1):174-183.
    (No abstract is available for this citation).
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  12. The Role of Deception in Complex Social Interaction.Susan A. J. Stuart - 1998 - Cogito 12 (1):25-32.
    Social participation requires certain abilities: communication with other members of society; social understanding which enables planning ahead and dealing with novel circumstances; and a theory of mind which makes it possible to anticipate the mental state of another. In childhood play we learn how to pretend, how to put ourselves in the minds of others, how to imagine what others are thinking and how to attribute false beliefs to them. Without this ability we would be unable to deceive and detect (...)
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  13.  19
    Feeling Our Way: Enkinaesthetic Enquiry and Immanent Intercorporeality.Susan A. J. Stuart - unknown
    Every action, touch, utterance, and look, every listening, taste, smell, and feel is a living question; but it is no ordinary propositional one-by-one question, rather it is a plenisentient sensing and probing non-propositional enquiry about how our world is, in its present continuous sense, and in relation to how we anticipate its becoming. I will take this assumption as my first premise and, by using the notion of enkinaesthesia, I will explore the ways in which an agent’s affectively-saturated co-engagement with (...)
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  14.  74
    Conscious Machines: Memory, Melody and Muscular Imagination. [REVIEW]Susan A. J. Stuart - 2010 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 9 (1):37-51.
    A great deal of effort has been, and continues to be, devoted to developing consciousness artificially (A small selection of the many authors writing in this area includes: Cotterill (J Conscious Stud 2:290–311, 1995 , 1998 ), Haikonen ( 2003 ), Aleksander and Dunmall (J Conscious Stud 10:7–18, 2003 ), Sloman ( 2004 , 2005 ), Aleksander ( 2005 ), Holland and Knight ( 2006 ), and Chella and Manzotti ( 2007 )), and yet a similar amount of effort has (...)
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  15.  57
    A Radical Notion of EmbeddednessA Logically Necessary Precondition for Agency and Self‐Awareness.Susan Stuart - 2002 - Metaphilosophy 33 (1-2):98-109.
    The aim of this paper is to establish the logically necessary preconditions for the existence of self-awareness in an artificial or a natural agent. We examine the terms, agent, situated, embodied, embedded, and representation, as employed ubiquitously in cognitive science, attempting to clarify their meaning and the limits of their use. We discuss the minimal conditions for an agent’s environment constituting a ‘world’ and reject most, though not all, types of virtual world. We argue that to qualify as genuinely situated (...)
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  16. A Metaphysical Approach to the Mind.Susan Stuart - 2003 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 2 (3):223-37.
    It is argued that, based on Kant's descriptive metaphysics, one can prescribe the necessary metaphysical underpinnings for the possibility of conscious experience in an artificial system. This project is developed by giving an account of the a priori concepts of the understanding in such a system. A specification and implementation of the nomological conditions for a conscious system allows one to know a priori that any system possessing this structure will be conscious; thus enabling us to avoid possible false-indicators of (...)
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  17. Privileging Exploratory Hands: Prehension, Apprehension, Comprehension.Susan A. J. Stuart - 2012 - In Zdravko Radman (ed.), The Hand. MIT Press.
    Through our hands we construct our world and through our construction of our world we construct ourselves. We reach with our hands and touch with our hands, and with this reaching and touching we come to understand how things feel and are. It is not an utterable knowledge, yet it is knowing the world in a dynamically-engaged affective, effective way. Through affective feedback our reaching and touching becomes a prehensive grasping which leads, through the enkinaesthetic givenness of the agent with (...)
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  18.  73
    Michael Tye, Consciousness and Persons; Unity and Identity: MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2003, Xv+203, $35, ISBN 0-262-20147-X.Susan A. J. Stuart - 2007 - Minds and Machines 17 (3):365-367.
    The crux of this book is expressed in one short sentence from the Preface: 'Unity is a fundamental part of our experience, something that is crucial to its phenomenology' [p.xii], and the crux of this sentence is that the unity of consciousness is not a matter of phenomenal relations existing between distinct experiences – the received view [p.17], but the existence of relations between the contents of experiences – the one experience view [p.25ff]. In its simplest form Tye's claim is (...)
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  19.  12
    Enkinaesthesia: Proto-Moral Value in Action-Enquiry and Interaction.Susan Stuart - 2018 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 17 (2):411-431.
    It is now generally accepted that human beings are naturally, possibly even essentially, intersubjective. This chapter offers a robust defence of an enhanced and extended intersubjectivity, criticising the paucity of individuating notions of agency and emphasising the community and reciprocity of our affective co-existence with other living organisms and things. I refer to this modified intersubjectivity, which most closely expresses the implicit intricacy of our pre-reflective neuro-muscular experiential entanglement, as ‘enkinaesthesia’. The community and reciprocity of this entanglement is characterised as (...)
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  20.  39
    Alvin I. Goldman, Simulating Minds: The Philosophy, Psychology and Neuroscience of Mindreading. [REVIEW]Susan Stuart - 2009 - Minds and Machines 19 (2):279-282.
    Alvin I. Goldman, Simulating Minds: The Philosophy, Psychology and Neuroscience of Mindreading Content Type Journal Article Pages 279-282 DOI 10.1007/s11023-009-9142-x Authors Susan Stuart, University of Glasgow Humanities Advanced Technology and Information Institute 11 University Gardens Glasgow G12 8QQ Scotland, UK Journal Minds and Machines Online ISSN 1572-8641 Print ISSN 0924-6495 Journal Volume Volume 19 Journal Issue Volume 19, Number 2.
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  21.  12
    Teaching Philosophy in Cyberspace.Susan Stuart - 1999 - Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 18 (4):55-63.
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  22.  11
    A Metaphysical Approach to the Mind.Susan Stuart - 2003 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 2 (3):223-237.
    It is argued that, based on Kant's descriptive metaphysics, one can prescribe the necessary metaphysical underpinnings for the possibility of conscious experience in an artificial system. This project is developed by giving an account of the a priori concepts of the understanding in such a system. A specification and implementation of the nomological conditions for a conscious system allows one to know a priori that any system possessing this structure will be conscious; thus enabling us to avoid possible false-indicators of (...)
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  23.  14
    The Enkinaesthetic Betwixt.Susan A. J. Stuart - 2014 - Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):109-111.
    Open peer commentary on the article “The Uroboros of Consciousness: Between the Naturalisation of Phenomenology and the Phenomenologisation of Nature” by Sebastjan Vörös. Upshot: Vörös proposes that we phenomenologise nature and, whilst I agree with the spirit and direction of his proposal, the 4EA framework, on which he bases his project, is too conservative and is, therefore, unsatisfactory. I present an alternative framework, an enkinaesthetic field, and suggest further ways in which we might explore a non-dichotomised “betwixt” and begin to (...)
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  24.  10
    The Roots of Morality-a Review.Susan Aj Stuart - 2010 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 17 (1-2):244-249.
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  25.  77
    Computation, Information, Cognition: The Nexus and the Liminal.F.Gordana Dodig Crnkovic & Susan Stuart (eds.) - 2007 - Cambridge Scholars Press.
    Written by world-leading experts, this book draws together a number of important strands in contemporary approaches to the philosophical and scientific questions that emerge when dealing with the issues of computing, information, cognition and the conceptual issues that arise at their intersections. It discovers and develops the connections at the borders and in the interstices of disciplines and debates. This volume presents a range of essays that deal with the currently vigorous concerns of the philosophy of information, ontology creation and (...)
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  26. An Electronically Enhanced Philosophical Learning Environment.Susan A. J. Stuart & Margaret Brown - 2004 - Discourse: Learning and Teaching in Philosophical and Religious Studies 3 (2):142-153.
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  27. Ethical Dilemmas in Practice.M. Lesley Wiseman-Orr, Susan A. J. Stuart & D. E. F. McKeegan - 2009 - Discourse: Learning and Teaching in Philosophical and Religious Studies 8 (2):187-196.
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