Today's sports commerce not only expands the number of international mega-sports events but also increases their value in effecting social change and promoting world peace. As athletes and spectators come together in ever-larger numbers, governments must collaborate with non-governmental, private, and non-profit sectors to develop and implement the business of sports commerce benefiting host nations and local communities. This research identifies the relationship between sports commerce and peace as worthy of greater study. This article examines the role of international sporting (...) events in contributing to social change in host countries and how these competitions may be able to create greater understanding among athletes and related individuals and increase knowledge exchange on a larger scale. The research analyzes several mega-sports events, including the Olympics and the role of the Special Olympics (SO) -the largest amateur sports organization in the world -dedicated to bringing sports experiences to intellectually disabled athletes. This article highlights the transformative power of SO worldwide competitions and finds peace through commerce principles in SO innovative policies and programs. Over four decades, the SO, and particularly its World Games, have led to global initiatives for increasing self-confidence, self-esteem, social acceptance, health and general well-being among intellectually disabled persons. This research offers insights into the ways in which other mega-sporting events could adopt what is unique to SO. An Appendix outlines mega-sports events for future research on sports commerce and peace. (shrink)
This review of Medium, Messenger, Transmission outlines and introduces the media philosophy of Sybille Krämer. Her argument that communication initiates a relationship with the other as an ethical act is read alongside the work of Emmanuel Levinas, before exploring the impact of our contemporary obligation to be available for communication in working environments that seem not to encourage or instantiate this moral encounter.
Since April 1996, the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC), in collaboration with the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) in the Executive Office of the President, has been leading the development of a government-wide Federal policy for research misconduct. The author is a Senior Policy Analyst in the Office of Science and Technology Policy and a participant in this process. This paper places the NSTC/OSTP effort in historical context, outlines the process by which the policy will be finalized, (...) and discusses the principal issues raised during the policy development process. (shrink)
For many philosophical thinkers down through the centuries, the notion of a creation out of sheer nothing has been found to be quite unintelligible. Nevertheless the idea of creation preserves an important insight and needs to be freed from the difficulties of this traditional formulation. Alfred North Whitehead has offered an alternative theory of creation worth exploring: each individual actuality creates itself out of prior creative acts. God then serves to direct this creative process.
In this synthesis, we summarize studies that yielded evidence of jealousy in young infants. To shed light on this phenomenon, we present evidence that jealousy’s foundation rests on history of dyadic interactions with caregivers which engender infants’ expectations of exclusivity, and on maturation of sociocognitive capacities that enable infants to evaluate whether an exchange between their caregiver and another child represents a violation of that expectation. We conclude with a call for greater study of the antecedents and sequelae of both (...) normative and atypical presentations of jealousy. In addition, we recommend approaches that address jealousy across a range of relationships, both within and beyond those which include attachment figures. (shrink)
Russell Ford examines Gilles Deleuze's Empiricism and Subjectivity within its academic and philosophical context, arguing that the significance of this work only becomes apparent in connection to a larger problematic: the conceptual constitution of a purely immanent account of existence.
The rise of dimensional analysis in the latter part of the nineteenth century occurred largely in the context of electromagnetism. It soon appeared that the subject, albeit seemingly straightforward, was in fact wrought with difficulties. These revealed deep conceptual issues regarding the character of physical quantities. Usually, whether or not these problems actually constituted inconsistencies was itself a matter of debate. In one instance, however, regarding the electrostatic dimensions of the magnetic pole, all protagonists agreed that the matter required attention. (...) A controversy ensued in 1882. Its resolution partly relied on the realization that it arose from differences between the scientific cultures prevalent on the Continent versus in Great Britain. These cultural differences concerned the possible relevance of the medium in which interactions involving magnetic poles take place, as well as the understanding of permeability in Ampère’s model of magnetism. The controversy around the electrostatic dimensions of the magnetic pole entailed crucial issues that were soon to play just as central a part in a wider debate about the dimensions of electromagnetic quantities in different systems of units. Why the latter topic was never raised during the 1882 controversy provides insights into the early understanding of dimensional analysis. (shrink)
This book brings together the basic documents needed for reaching an informed judgment on the central ethical question in the Pinto case: did Ford Motor Company act ethically in designing the Pinto fuel system and in deciding not to upgrade the integrity of that system until 1978? The five parts of this book cover the case, cost-benefit analysis, whistle blowing, product liability, and government regulations.
Shocking, brilliant, and eccentric, the French author, translator, and artist Pierre Klossowski (1905-2001) exerted a profound effect on French intellectual culture throughout the twentieth century. The older brother of the painter Balthus, secretary to the novelist Andre Gide, friend to Geroges Bataille and Maurice Blanchot, and heralded as one of the most important voices in the French "return to Nietzsche" by Michel Foucault and Gilles Deleuze, Klossowski pursued his singular vision of mortal embodiment through a variety of scholarly manifestations. In (...) Such a Deathly Desire, Klossowski's original interpretation of Nietzsche's eternal return is developed around the enigmatic figure of the "demon," then deepened with provocative readings of Gide's correspondence; Barbey d'Aurevilly's novel A Married Proest; and the intertwining of language and death in the work of Bataille, Blanchot, and Brice Parain. The book concludes with the powerful essay "Nietzsche, Polytheism, and Parody," in which Klossowski articulates the consequences of the eternal return and the meaning of Nietzsche's genealogy of the fabulation of the world. Intersecting with and confounding a range of disciplines - including psychoanalysis, literary criticism, gender studies, and philosophy - Klossowski's critical writings on language, literature, and the aesthetics of embodiment remain powerful and original contributions to contemporary concerns in the theoretical humanities. (shrink)
Alongside the major narratives of ethics in the tradition of Western philosophy, a reader with an eye to the vague and the peripheral, to the turbulent and shifting, will uncover minor lines of thinking--and with them, new histories and thus new futures. Minor Ethics develops a new approach to reading texts from the history of philosophical ethics. It aims to enliven lines of thought that are latent and suppressed within the major ethical texts regularly studied and taught, and to include (...) texts and ideas that have been excluded from the canon of Western ethics. The editors and contributors have put Gilles Deleuze's concepts--such as affect, assemblage, and multiplicity--into conversation with a range of ethical texts from ancient thought to the present. Rather than aiming for a coherent whole to emerge from these threads, the essays maintain a vigilant alertness to difference, to vibrations and resonances that are activated in the coupling of texts. What emerges are new questions, new problems, and new trajectories for thinking, which have as a goal the liberation of ethical questioning. Minor Ethics takes up a range of canonical ethical questions and thinks through concrete ethical problems relating to drug addiction, environmental responsibility, xenophobia, trauma, refugees, political parties, and cultural difference. The responses to these concerns demonstrate the minoritarian promise of the opening up of ethical thinking. (shrink)
This paper contains an outlined portrait of Henry Ford, warts and all, a summary of his ‘humane capitalism’, the importance of which has been largely forgotten nowadays, and a suggestion of its relevance to today’s economic problems. Ford’s importance as a humanist becomes obvious when his view of capitalism is compared with that of his predecessor, Andrew Carnegie. Ford reacted implicitly against Carnegie’s draconian capitalism in which poverty was seen as an unavoidable necessity. In Carnegie’s view, wages (...) could be lowered at an employer’s whim. Ford overturned that view and made increasing wage levels the norm not the exception. He was in fact directly responsible for the development of the consumer society during the twentieth century. (shrink)
Archaeological excavations carried out at Pentridge Prison discovered the ruins and foundations of three panopticon exercise yards. This paper details the scope and observations of the excavation program and discusses the influence of Jeremy Bentham’s panopticon model on penal reform and prison design in Australia in the middle of the 19th Century.
Practitioners and leading scholars emphasize the need of integrating the notion of stakeholder more systematically into strategy theory. In corporate reality, this process has been on its way for quite some time because companies realized that a one-sided orientation to short-term shareholder value is a too narrow conception for strategic management, especially since firms’ strategically relevant resources today are not purely of financial nature but most importantly knowledge oriented. This paper will evaluate some insights into good practices of strategic stakeholder (...) management in the financial services industry and the telecommunications industry of Switzerland in order to stimulate the ongoing learning process in strategic stakeholder management. The results do support appropriateness of stakeholder management in situations of turbulence and as useful extension of conventional approaches in strategic management. (shrink)
The paper develops a framework to evaluate a network's stakeholders' perceptions concerning an issue which is highly relevant for all stakeholders. The framework helps us to understand how stakeholder networks impact perceptions and vice versa, which will result in a better understanding of the interrelatedness of a network. On the other hand, it helps corporations to become more effective increating wealth with and for their stakeholders.