Results for 'Syllogistic'

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  1. Stoic Syllogistic.Susanne Bobzien - 1996 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 14:133-92.
    ABSTRACT: For the Stoics, a syllogism is a formally valid argument; the primary function of their syllogistic is to establish such formal validity. Stoic syllogistic is a system of formal logic that relies on two types of argumental rules: (i) 5 rules (the accounts of the indemonstrables) which determine whether any given argument is an indemonstrable argument, i.e. an elementary syllogism the validity of which is not in need of further demonstration; (ii) one unary and three binary argumental (...)
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  2.  49
    Modal Syllogistics in the Middle Ages.Henrik Lagerlund - 2000 - Brill.
    This book presents the first study of the development of the theory of modal syllogistic in the Middle Ages.
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  3.  29
    Syllogistic Inference.P. N. Johnson-Laird & Bruno G. Bara - 1984 - Cognition 16 (1):1-61.
    This paper reviews current psychological theories of syllogistic inference and establishes that despite their various merits they all contain deficiencies as theories of performance. It presents the results of two experiments, one using syllogisms and the other using three-term series problems, designed to elucidate how the arrangement of terms within the premises affects performance. These data are used in the construction of a theory based on the hypothesis that reasoners construct mental models of the premises, formulate informative conclusions about (...)
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  4.  23
    Using Syllogistics to Teach Metalogic.Lorenz Demey - 2017 - Metaphilosophy 48 (4):575-590.
    This article describes a specific pedagogical context for an advanced logic course and presents a strategy that might facilitate students’ transition from the object-theoretical to the metatheoretical perspective on logic. The pedagogical context consists of philosophy students who in general have had little training in logic, except for a thorough introduction to syllogistics. The teaching strategy tries to exploit this knowledge of syllogistics, by emphasizing the analogies between ideas from metalogic and ideas from syllogistics, such as existential import, the distinction (...)
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  5.  40
    The Syllogism.Paul Thom - 1981 - Philosophia.
  6. Aristotle's Syllogistic From the Standpoint of Modern Formal Logic.JAN LUKASIEWICZ - 1951 - Garland.
  7.  50
    Hypothetical Syllogistic and Stoic Logic.Anthony Speca - 2001 - Brill.
    This book uncovers and examines the confusion in antiquity between Aristotle's hypothetical syllogistic and Stoic logic, and offers a fresh perspective on the ...
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  8. Conditionals, Modals, and Hypothetical Syllogism.Lee Walters - 2014 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 3 (1):90-97.
    Moti Mizrahi (2013) presents some novel counterexamples to Hypothetical Syllogism (HS) for indicative conditionals. I show that they are not compelling as they neglect the complicated ways in which conditionals and modals interact. I then briefly outline why HS should nevertheless be rejected.
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  9. Why Hypothetical Syllogism is Invalid for Indicative Conditionals.Moti Mizrahi - 2013 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 2 (1):40-43.
    In this article, I present a schema for generating counterexamples to the argument form known as Hypothetical Syllogism with indicative conditionals. If my schema for generating counterexamples to HS works as I think it does, then HS is invalid for indicative conditionals.
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  10.  17
    Syllogistic Logic with Cardinality Comparisons, on Infinite Sets.Lawrence S. Moss & Selçuk Topal - 2020 - Review of Symbolic Logic 13 (1):1-22.
    This article enlarges classical syllogistic logic with assertions having to do with comparisons between the sizes of sets. So it concerns a logical system whose sentences are of the following forms: All x are y and Some x are y, There are at least as many x as y, and There are more x than y. Here x and y range over subsets of a given infinite set. Moreover, x and y may appear complemented, with the natural meaning. We (...)
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  11. Against Hypothetical Syllogism.Lee Walters - 2014 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 43 (5):979-997.
    The debate over Hypothetical Syllogism is locked in stalemate. Although putative natural language counterexamples to Hypothetical Syllogism abound, many philosophers defend Hypothetical Syllogism, arguing that the alleged counterexamples involve an illicit shift in context. The proper lesson to draw from the putative counterexamples, they argue, is that natural language conditionals are context-sensitive conditionals which obey Hypothetical Syllogism. In order to make progress on the issue, I consider and improve upon Morreau’s proof of the invalidity of Hypothetical Syllogism. The improved proof (...)
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  12.  16
    Syllogistic Reasoning as a Ground for the Content of Judgment: A Line of Thought From Kant Through Hegel to Peirce.Preston Stovall - forthcoming - European Journal of Philosophy.
    European Journal of Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  13.  59
    Where Syllogistic Reasoning Happens: An Argument for the Extended Mind Hypothesis.Georg Theiner - 2007 - In McNamara D. S. & Trafton J. G. (eds.), Proceedings of the 29th Annual Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society.
    Does cognition sometimes literally extend into the extra-organismic environment (Clark, 2003), or is it always “merely” environmentally embedded (Rupert, 2004)? Underlying this current border dispute is the question about how to individuate cognitive processes on principled grounds. Based on recent evidence about the active role of representation selection and construction in learning how to reason (Stenning, 2002), I raise the question: what makes two distinct, modality-specific pen-and-paper manipulations of external representations – diagrams versus sentences – cognitive processes of the same (...)
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  14. Syllogism and Quantification.Timothy Smiley - 1962 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 27 (1):58-72.
  15.  50
    The Syllogistic with Unity.Ian Pratt-Hartmann - 2013 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 42 (2):391-407.
    We extend the language of the classical syllogisms with the sentence-forms “At most 1 p is a q” and “More than 1 p is a q”. We show that the resulting logic does not admit a finite set of syllogism-like rules whose associated derivation relation is sound and complete, even when reductio ad absurdum is allowed.
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  16.  23
    Believability and Syllogistic Reasoning.Jane Oakhill, P. N. Johnson-Laird & Alan Garnham - 1989 - Cognition 31 (2):117-140.
    In this paper we investigate the locus of believability effects in syllogistic reasoning. We identify three points in the reasoning process at which such effects could occur: the initial interpretation of premises, the examination of alternative representations of them (in all of which any valid conclusion must be true), and the “filtering” of putative conclusions. The effect of beliefs at the first of these loci is well established. In this paper we report three experiments that examine whether beliefs have (...)
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  17. Contemporary Syllogistics: Comparative and Quantitative Syllogisms.Niki Pfeifer - 2006 - In G. Kreuzbauer & G. J. W. Dorn (eds.), Argumentation in Theorie Und Praxis: Philosophie Und Didaktik des Argumentierens. Lit. pp. 57--71.
    Traditionally, syllogisms are arguments with two premises and one conclusion which are constructed by propositions of the form “All… are…” and “At least one… is…” and their respective negated versions. Unfortunately, the practical use of traditional syllogisms is quite restricted. On the one hand, the “All…” propositions are too strict, since a single counterexample suffices for falsification. On the other hand, the “At least one …” propositions are too weak, since a single example suffices for verification. The present contribution studies (...)
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  18.  33
    Aristotle's Syllogistic.Lynn E. Rose - 1968 - Springfield, Ill., Thomas.
  19.  37
    Syllogistic with Indefinite Terms.Enrique Alvarez & Manuel Correia - 2012 - History and Philosophy of Logic 33 (4):297-306.
    This paper presents a restructured set of axioms for categorical logic. In virtue of it, the syllogistic with indefinite terms is deduced and proved, within the categorical logic boundaries. As a result, the number of all the conclusive syllogisms is deduced through a simple and axiomatic methodology. Moreover, the distinction between immediate and mediate inferences disappears, which reinstitutes the unity of Aristotelian logic.
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  20.  19
    Syllogistic System for the Propagation of Parasites. The Case of Schistosomatidae.Andrew Schumann & Ludmila Akimova - 2015 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 40 (1):303-319.
    In the paper, a new syllogistic system is built up. This system simulates a massive-parallel behavior in the propagation of collectives of parasites. In particular, this system simulates the behavior of collectives of trematode larvae.
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  21. Syllogistics = Monotonicity + Symmetry + Existential Import.Jan van Eijck - unknown
    Syllogistics reduces to only two rules of inference: monotonicity and symmetry, plus a third if one wants to take existential import into account. We give an implementation that uses only the monotonicity and symmetry rules, with an addendum for the treatment of existential import. Soundness follows from the monotonicity properties and symmetry properties of the Aristotelean quantifiers, while completeness for syllogistic theory is proved by direct inspection of the valid syllogisms. Next, the valid syllogisms are decomposed in terms of (...)
     
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  22.  17
    Psychology and Syllogistic Reasoning.N. E. Wetherick - 1989 - Philosophical Psychology 2 (1):111 – 124.
    A theory of syllogistic reasoning is proposed, derived from the medieval doctrine of 'distribution of terms'. This doctrine may or may not furnish an adequate ground for the logic of the syllogism but does appear to illuminate the psychological processes involved. Syllogistic thinking is shown to have its origins in the approach and avoidance behaviour of pre-verbal organisms and, in verbal (human) organisms, to bridge the gap between the intuitive grasp shown by most of us of the validity (...)
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  23. Logics for the Relational Syllogistic.Ian Pratt-Hartmann & Lawrence S. Moss - 2009 - Review of Symbolic Logic 2 (4):647-683.
    The Aristotelian syllogistic cannot account for the validity of certain inferences involving relational facts. In this paper, we investigate the prospects for providing a relational syllogistic. We identify several fragments based on (a) whether negation is permitted on all nouns, including those in the subject of a sentence; and (b) whether the subject noun phrase may contain a relative clause. The logics we present are extensions of the classical syllogistic, and we pay special attention to the question (...)
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  24.  98
    The Syllogism in Posterior Analytics I.Robin Smith - 1982 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 64 (2):113-135.
  25.  32
    The Place of Syllogistic in Logical Theory.Michael Clark - 1980 - Nottingham University Press.
    Chapter 1 presents BS, a basic syllogistic system based on Aristotle's logic, in natural deduction form. Chapters 2 and 3 treat the metatheory of BS: consitency, soundness, independence, and completeness. Chapter 4 and 5 deal with syllogistic and, in turn, propositional and predicate logic, chapter 6 is on existential import, chapter 7 on subject and predicate and chapter 8 on classes. Chapter 9 adds negative variables to BS, and proves its soundness and completeness.
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  26.  42
    How Diagrams Can Support Syllogistic Reasoning: An Experimental Study.Yuri Sato & Koji Mineshima - 2015 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 24 (4):409-455.
    This paper explores the question of what makes diagrammatic representations effective for human logical reasoning, focusing on how Euler diagrams support syllogistic reasoning. It is widely held that diagrammatic representations aid intuitive understanding of logical reasoning. In the psychological literature, however, it is still controversial whether and how Euler diagrams can aid untrained people to successfully conduct logical reasoning such as set-theoretic and syllogistic reasoning. To challenge the negative view, we build on the findings of modern diagrammatic logic (...)
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  27. Aristotle’s Assertoric Syllogistic and Modern Relevance Logic.Philipp Julius6 Steinkrüger - 2015 - Synthese 192 (5):1413-1444.
    This paper sets out to evaluate the claim that Aristotle’s Assertoric Syllogistic is a relevance logic or shows significant similarities with it. I prepare the grounds for a meaningful comparison by extracting the notion of relevance employed in the most influential work on modern relevance logic, Anderson and Belnap’s Entailment. This notion is characterized by two conditions imposed on the concept of validity: first, that some meaning content is shared between the premises and the conclusion, and second, that the (...)
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  28.  45
    The Syllogism's Final Solution.I. Susan Russinoff - 1999 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 5 (4):451-469.
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  29. Aristotle's Syllogistic and Core Logic.Neil Tennant - 2014 - History and Philosophy of Logic 35 (2):120-147.
    I use the Corcoran–Smiley interpretation of Aristotle's syllogistic as my starting point for an examination of the syllogistic from the vantage point of modern proof theory. I aim to show that fresh logical insights are afforded by a proof-theoretically more systematic account of all four figures. First I regiment the syllogisms in the Gentzen–Prawitz system of natural deduction, using the universal and existential quantifiers of standard first-order logic, and the usual formalizations of Aristotle's sentence-forms. I explain how the (...)
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  30. What is a Syllogism?T. J. Smiley - 1973 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 2 (1):136 - 154.
  31.  38
    The Syllogistic Theory of Boethius.Manuel Correia - 2009 - Ancient Philosophy 29 (2):391-405.
  32.  14
    Canonical Syllogistic Moods in Traditional Aristotelian Logic.Enrique Alvarez-Fontecilla - 2016 - Logica Universalis 10 (4):517-531.
    A novel theoretical formulation of Categorical Logic based on two properties of categorical propositions and three simple axioms has been introduced recently. This formulation allowed for the suppression of the distinction between immediate and mediate inferences, and also provided a theoretical framework to study opposition relations, thus restoring the theoretical unity of traditional Aristotelian logic. By using this approach, it has been reported that a total of 3072 conclusive syllogistic moods can be found when including indefinite terms in classical (...)
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  33.  44
    Proclus and the Neoplatonic Syllogistic.John N. Martin - 2001 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 30 (3):187-240.
    An investigation of Proclus' logic of the syllogistic and of negations in the Elements of Theology, On the Parmenides, and Platonic Theology. It is shown that Proclus employs interpretations over a linear semantic structure with operators for scalar negations (hypemegationlalpha-intensivum and privative negation). A natural deduction system for scalar negations and the classical syllogistic (as reconstructed by Corcoran and Smiley) is shown to be sound and complete for the non-Boolean linear structures. It is explained how Proclus' syllogistic (...)
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  34.  34
    Deontic Syllogistics.Zdzisław Ziemba - 1971 - Studia Logica 28 (1):139 - 159.
  35.  39
    Matching Bias in Syllogistic Reasoning: Evidence for a Dual-Process Account From Response Times and Confidence Ratings.Edward J. N. Stupple, Linden J. Ball & Daniel Ellis - 2013 - Thinking and Reasoning 19 (1):54 - 77.
    (2013). Matching bias in syllogistic reasoning: Evidence for a dual-process account from response times and confidence ratings. Thinking & Reasoning: Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 54-77. doi: 10.1080/13546783.2012.735622.
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  36.  9
    On ‘Syllogistic Inference’.George Boolos - 1984 - Cognition 17 (2):181-182.
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  37.  11
    Dissociation of Mechanisms Underlying Syllogistic Reasoning.Vinod Goel, Christian Buchel, Chris Frith & Raymond J. Dolan - 2000 - NeuroImage 12 (5):504-514.
    A key question for cognitive theories of reasoning is whether logical reasoning is inherently a sentential linguistic process or a process requiring spatial manipulation and search. We addressed this question in an event-related fMRI study of syllogistic reasoning, using sentences with and without semantic content. Our findings indicate involvement of two dissociable networks in deductive reasoning. During content-based reasoning a left hemisphere temporal system was recruited. By contrast, a formally identical reasoning task, which lacked semantic content, activated a parietal (...)
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  38.  2
    On the Syllogism: And Other Logical Writings.Augustus De Morgan - 1966 - New Haven: Yale University Press.
  39.  17
    On the Syllogism and Other Logical Writings.Augustus De Morgan & Peter Lauchlan Heath - 1966 - Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  40. Is Aristotle's Syllogistic a Logic?Phil Corkum - forthcoming - History and Philosophy of Logic.
    Much of the last fifty years of scholarship on Aristotle’s syllogistic suggests a conceptual framework under which the syllogistic is a logic, a system of inferential reasoning, only if it is not a theory or formal ontology, a system concerned with general features of the world. In this paper, I will argue that this a misleading interpretative framework. The syllogistic is something sui generis: by our lights, it is neither clearly a logic, nor clearly a theory, but (...)
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  41.  13
    Aristotle's Syllogistic From the Standpoint of Modern Formal Logic.Joseph T. Clark & Jan Lukasiewicz - 1952 - Philosophical Review 61 (4):575.
  42.  29
    On Belief Bias in Syllogistic Reasoning.Karl Christoph Klauer, Jochen Musch & Birgit Naumer - 2000 - Psychological Review 107 (4):852-884.
  43.  28
    Strategies in Syllogistic Reasoning.Monica Bucciarelli & P. N. Johnson-Laird - 1999 - Cognitive Science 23 (3):247-303.
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  44.  51
    The Syllogism Revised.Hans Reichenbach - 1952 - Philosophy of Science 19 (1):1-16.
  45. On the Syllogism, No. Iv. And on the Logic of Relations.Augustus De Morgan - 1860 - Printed by C.J. Clay at the University Press.
  46. The Hypothetical Syllogism.Michael Morreau - 2009 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 38 (4):447-464.
    The hypothetical syllogism is invalid in standard interpretations of conditional sentences. Many arguments of this sort are quite compelling, though, and you can wonder what makes them so. I shall argue that it is our parsimony in regard to connections among events and states of affairs. All manner of things just might, for all we know, be bound up with one another in all sorts of ways. But ordinarily it is better, being simpler, to assume they are unconnected. In so (...)
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  47.  28
    Al-Fārābī and Aristotelian Syllogistics: Greek Theory and Islamic Practice.Joep Lameer - 1994 - E.J. Brill.
    This pioneer study of Aristotle's theory of deduction in early medieval Islam provides invaluable first-hand information on both the classical and the Islamic ...
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  48.  5
    Individual Differences in Syllogistic Reasoning: Deduction Rules or Mental Models?Kathleen M. Galotti, Jonathan Baron & John P. Sabini - 1986 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 115 (1):16-25.
  49.  37
    A System of Relational Syllogistic Incorporating Full Boolean Reasoning.Nikolay Ivanov & Dimiter Vakarelov - 2012 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 21 (4):433-459.
    We present a system of relational syllogistic, based on classical propositional logic, having primitives of the following form: $$\begin{array}{ll}\mathbf{Some}\, a \,{\rm are} \,R-{\rm related}\, {\rm to}\, \mathbf{some} \,b;\\ \mathbf{Some}\, a \,{\rm are}\,R-{\rm related}\, {\rm to}\, \mathbf{all}\, b;\\ \mathbf{All}\, a\, {\rm are}\,R-{\rm related}\, {\rm to}\, \mathbf{some}\, b;\\ \mathbf{All}\, a\, {\rm are}\,R-{\rm related}\, {\rm to}\, \mathbf{all} \,b.\end{array}$$ Such primitives formalize sentences from natural language like ‘ All students read some textbooks’. Here a, b denote arbitrary sets (of objects), and R denotes (...)
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  50.  15
    The Syllogism of Neuro-Economics.Camillo Padoa-Schioppa - 2008 - Economics and Philosophy 24 (3):449-457.
    If neuroscience is to contribute to economics, it will do so by the way of psychology. Neural data can and do lead to better psychological theories, and psychological insights can and do lead to better economic models. Hence, neuroscience can in principle contribute to economics. Whether it actually will do so is an empirical question and the jury is still out. Economics currently faces theoretical and empirical challenges analogous to those faced by physics at the turn of the twentieth century (...)
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