What is the nature of norms and values for the constitution of human society and culture? In this groundbreaking work, T. K. Seung shows that this was the ultimate question for Plato throughout his life, and that he gave not one but two answers, thus twice inventing political philosophy as the science of all sciences. Providing a thematically unified interpretation of his dialogues on the grand scale, Seung retraces Plato's journey of invention. Plato Rediscovered extends the project Seung began in (...) Intuition and Construction and Kant's Platonic Revolution . A work that will radically alter our understanding of the philosopher. (shrink)
This book offers an important study of Aristotle's theory of the sense-organs. It aims to answer two questions central to Aristotle's psychology and biology: why does Aristotle think we have sense-organs, and why does he describe the sense-organs in the way he does? The author looks at all the Aristotelian evidence for the five senses and shows how pervasively Aristotle's accounts of the sense-organs are motivated by his interest in form and function. The book also engages with the celebrated problem (...) of whether perception for Aristotle requires material changes in the perceiver. It argues that, surprisingly to the modern philosopher, nothing in Aristotle's description of the sense-organs requires us to believe in such changes. (shrink)
How do senior business executives rank their preferences for various ethical principles? And how strongly do the executives believe in these principles? Also, how do these preference rankings relate to the way the executives see the future (wherein business decisions play out)? Research on these questions may provide us with an appreciation of the complexities of ethical behavior in management beyond the traditional issues concerning ethical decision-making in business. Based on a survey of 585 vice presidents of U.S. businesses it (...) was found that: (1) there is a distinct set of principles of ethical conduct that is considered favorable as opposed to another set considered unfavorable among a comprehensive list of 14 ethical principles; (2) the executives believed overwhelmingly that their own individual ethical preferences are better than those of other executives; (3) the strength of their preferences for ethical principles is associated with whether the executives are relatively near-future oriented or more distant-future oriented; and (4), there are very few significant differences in terms of gender, age, education level, private/public education, prestigious/other schools, business/non-business academic backgrounds, and length of job experience. Implications of these findings are discussed. (shrink)
The author reads Goethe's Faust as the first epic written under Spinoza's influence. He shows how its thematic development is governed by Spinoza's pantheistic naturalism. He further contends that Wagner and Nietzsche have tried to surpass their mentor Goethe's work by writing their own Spinozan epics of love and power in The Ring of the Nibelung and Thus Spoke Zarathustra. These Spinozan epics are designed to succeed the Christian epics in the Western literary tradition. Whereas the Christian epics dared to (...) groom human beings for their destiny in the supernatural world, the Spinozan epics try to reinstate humanity as the children of Mother Nature and overcome their alienation from the natural world, which had been dictated by the long reign of Christianity. However, it has been well noted that none of these new epics seems to hang together thematically as a coherent work. By his Spinozan reading, the author not only demonstrates the thematic unity of each of them singly, but further illustrates their thematic relation with each other. (shrink)
Aristotle’s philosophy of mind is often understood as anticipating present-day functionalist approaches to the mental. In Aristotle on the Sense-Organs Johansen argues at length that such interpretations of what Aristotle has to say about the senses are untenable. First, Aristotle does not allow that the matter of a sense-organ can be identified without reference to the form or function of the organ, so sense-organs are not compositionally plastic. Second, Aristotle’s conception of sense-perception is radically different from anything a philosopher today, (...) functionalist or not, would find credible: acts of sense-perception on Aristotle’s view do not require material changes in the sense-organs. Developed carefully throughout all six chapters, Johansen’s defense of this latter claim is the most significant part of the book, and it will be my focus here. (shrink)
THE PURE INTUITIONS OF SPACE AND TIME and the pure concepts of understanding are the two basic elements in Kant's critical philosophy. Whereas his account of pure intuitions is relatively straightforward, his theory of categories is quite complicated. When he presents space and time as two forms of intuition, he never sees the need to prove that there are no other forms of intuition than these two. But when he presents his table of categories, he tries to prove its completeness (...) in one of the most obscure chapters of the first Critique, known as the "Metaphysical Deduction." Kant complicates his picture of categories by claiming two different functions for them: the logical and the real. The obscurity surrounding the relation of these two functions is the chief obstacle for understanding the "Transcendental Deduction," perhaps the most controversial chapter of the Critique. He further aggravates the problem in the "Schematism," perhaps the most oracular chapter of the Critique, by producing a set of categories quite different from the original set given in the "Metaphysical Deduction.". (shrink)
Guanxi is perceived as a major determinant for successful business in China. This research paper investigates the importance of Guanxi from the Hong Kong Businessmen's viewpoint. It confirms previous findings in this area and adds on new dimensions. Therefore, practitioners and academics may further refine their knowledge in this subject.
For more than two centuries, Kant scholars have operated on the unquestioned premise that Kant's three Critiques offered a systematic exposition of his philosophy. But this unitary view, argues T. K. Seung, is gravely mistaken. Here Seung shows how each of the three works represents a major reformulation of the initial commitment to Platonism which Kant had made in his Inaugural Dissertation of 1770.
The author develops an historical thesis about Hume’s moral theory in the Treatise and advances his own estimate, which goes well beyond Hume’s, of the connection between sympathy and morality. In a masterly analysis of the Treatise doctrines of sympathy and the indirect passions, Mercer reveals insurmountable difficulties in Hume’s endeavor to give morality a basis in the passions. He characterizes the technical notion of sympathy operating in the Treatise as narrow, egocentric, and amoral; and singles out both a natural (...) proclivity to prejudice and a blindness to value as its inherent limitations. (shrink)
This book is an attempt to give a completely extensional account of belief without recourse to entities such as propositions and the like. This is done by developing a semantical metalanguage and instead of alluding to such intensional elements as meanings, the talk is rather of individuals, virtual classes, and relations. A Quinean kind of paraphrastic program is used, making explicit time references and belief conditions, as well as the above objects of belief. They are all keyed to the user (...) of a specific language through Martin's use of testing and acceptance as primitive notions, giving the entire project a behavioristic flavor. These particular primitives have been chosen in view of the supposition that they have clear experimental meanings and that they are crucial to the logical analysis of experimental method. The upshot of Martin's approach is an analysis of belief in terms of their relational characteristics. Hence, on his view, we cannot properly speak of knowledge and belief, but only of knowing and believing. In the course of developing his logic of belief, Martin manages to touch upon a wide range of topics. Quine's notion of ontic commitment is expanded to include "ontic involvement"--a second order commitment involving the objects of Martin's metalanguage. Arguments are offered against the contemporary view that there are a multiplicity of logics: "One God, one country, one logic" being the professed underlying maxim of his book. There is a longish discussion marking out a distinction between facts and events, modeled after his account of belief. A brief chapter reassesses and defends Frege's notion of Sinn in terms of Martin's logical machinery. Interspersed throughout are commentaries on a number of figures, such as Russell and Carnap, Hintikka and von Wright. Included also is a chapter on human action based on a distinction between action types and action events. There, Davidson's analysis of action sentences is criticized in terms of the 'Fido'-Fido principle. The extensive use of symbols seems cumbersome, but is perhaps necessary given the nature of Martin's enterprise.--K. T. (shrink)
Differences in age at marriage, fertility and contraceptive use are related to religious background, individual educational level and community level education. In general, the effects of community education are weak compared to individual level of education, but differences exist between Hindus and Roman Catholics.
The author deciphers Nietzsche's most enigmatic work as Zarathustra's epic campaign to save secular culture from degradation in the godless world. In this epic reading, the ostensibly atheistic work turns out to be a profound religious text. This revelation is breathtaking and edifying.