The organization of the text in Husserl’s Ideas II is notoriously difficult to follow. In its focus and in its method of procedure, it shifts back and forth from one attitude to another, from the practical to the theoretical and back again, the transcendental to the mundane, the naturalistic to the personalistic, and the scientific to the everyday. Furthermore, it exhibits a recurring tendency to double back and fill in something that the reader thought had already been established, and then (...) in other places seems to make assumptions that cannot be justified at the level of analysis on which the chapter purports to operate. The text is occasionally repetitive, often sketchy, and sometimes, it seems, simply contradictory. In this paper, I would like to examine two examples of such problems, one at the beginning of the Second Section, and one at the beginning of the Third and explain why the place they have in the text is appropriate after all and why the appearance of contradiction, at least in these cases, is an illusion. In each case, the issue concerns the status of mental events—one in the naturalistic and the other in the personalistic attitude—so that a few reflections upon these passages may also contribute to a better understanding of Husserl’ s view of the mental in general. (shrink)
The following essay is organized around eighteen descriptive and interrelated theses concerning the relationship between freedom, responsibility, and self-awareness that I believe are both correct and consistent with specific doctrines and the overall positions advanced in Husserl’s published writings. After introducing and explaining those claims, I will also list three further corollaries that are based on the positions described in the first eighteen theses, but go beyond them to advocate a mode of life that Husserl considers most consistent with our (...) status as rational agents. These positions are well-known to most readers of Husserl, but they have often been understood more as expressions of a merely personal conviction, as historical residues of the classical Western philosophical project Husserl is trying to revive, or as examples of the typical rhetorical pathos of his age than as viable systematic positions based upon serious and careful philosophical analyses. The systematic philosophical justification for this project will become better understandable when these theses are placed in direct connection with the eighteen main theses listed below. (shrink)
In the Critique of Practical Reason, Kant claims it is obvious that the concept and the representation of the existence of the highest good, as something that is possible through our practical reason, can be not only the object, but also the determining ground or motivation for a pure will. This essay surveys the systematic advantages and disadvantages of the most plausible interpretations of the concept of the highest good in this sense, with special emphasis upon the highest good as (...) a demand for social justice in this world. In der Kritik der praktischen Vernunft behauptet Kant, es verstehe sich von selbst, daß der Begriff und die Vorstellung der durch unsere praktische Vernunft möglichen Existenz des höchsten Guts nicht nur das Objekt, sondern auch den Bestimmungsgrund des reinen Willens darstellen kann. In diesem Aufsatz werden die systematischen Vor- und Nachteile der plausibelsten Auslegungen des Begriffs des höchsten Guts in diesem Sinne erwogen, mit besonderer Betonung der Interpretation des höchsten Guts als einer Forderung nach sozialer Gerechtigkeit in dieser Welt. (shrink)
Volume 3 covers the period between the 1890s and 1930s, a period that witnessed revolutions in the arts and society which set the agenda for the rest of the century. In philosophy, the period saw the birth of analytic philosophy, the development of new programmes and new modes of inquiry, the emergence of phenomenology as a new rigorous science, the birth of Freudian psychoanalysis, and the maturing of the discipline of sociology. This period saw the most influential work of a (...) remarkable series of thinkers who reviewed, evaluated and transformed 19th-century thought. A generation of thinkers - among them, Henri Bergson, Émile Durkheim, Sigmund Freud, Martin Heidegger, Edmund Husserl, Karl Jaspers, Max Scheler, and Ludwig Wittgenstein - completed the disenchantment of the world and sought a new re-enchantment. (shrink)
The title of Burt Hopkins' book may not be such as to capture the reader, for the two names put side by side have each lost some of their former lustre. Husserl is long outmoded to many (though not perhaps to the readers of Husserl Studies!), and for others Heidegger's status as transcendent sage fits poorly with his actions as col- laborator with one of the political demons of the twentieth century - and that from all-too-human motives. The title, however, (...) names a theoretical issue in the joining of the two names, and that determines how the book must be read. (shrink)
This collection of more than two dozen essays by philosophy scholars of international repute traces the profound impact exerted by Husserl’s Meisterwerk, known in its shortened title as Ideen, whose first book was released in 1913. Published to coincide with the centenary of its original appearance, and fifty years after the second book went to print in 1952, the contributors offer a comprehensive array of perspectives on the ways in which Husserl’s concept of phenomenology influenced leading figures and movements of (...) the last century, including, among others, Ortega y Gassett, Edith Stein, Martin Heidegger, Aron Gurwitsch, Ludwig Landgrebe, Dorion Cairns, Simone de Beauvoir, Jean-Paul Sartre, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Jacques Derrida and Giles Deleuze. -/- In addition to its documentation and analysis of the historical reception of these works, this volume also illustrates the ongoing relevance of the Ideen, offering scholarly discussion of the issues raised by his ideas as well as by the figures who took part in critical phenomenological dialogue with them. Among the topics discussed are autism, empathy, the nature of the emotions, the method and practice of phenomenology, the foundations of ethics, naturalism, intentionality, and human rights, to name but a few. Taken together, these specially commissioned original essays offer an unrivaled overview of the reception of Husserl‘s Ideen, and the expanding phenomenological enterprise it initiated. They show that the critical discussion of issues by phenomenologists continues to be relevant for the 21st century. (shrink)
project of the Ideen II had two parts: (A) analyses of the constitution of the material, the animal, and the mental world, and (B) epistemological ( wissenschaftstheoretische) considerations. (A) Was published following the Landgrebe typescript of ...
This list introduces the leading researchers and scholars in North America who became widely recognized for significant contributions to Edmund Husserl scholarship in the 20th century. As a historical list, it also does not include several outstanding younger scholars who have emerged in the twenty-first century.
On November 21, 1994, Werner Marx passed away peacefully in the place he loved so well, his apartment in the Schloß in Bollschweil. Professor Marx was born in 1910 in Mulheim, Germany. He studied law and philosophy in Berlin, Freiburg, and Bonn before completing his state examination and doctorate in law in 1933. In the same year, he was removed from civil service and from an apprentice judgeship by the Nazis. After this, he emigrated first to Palestine and then in (...) 1938 to New York, where he took up academic studies again. After receiving an M.A. in economics, he completed the Ph.D. in philosophy, working with Kurt Reizler and Karl Löwith at the German University in Exile, later to become the New School for Social Research, and writing a dissertation on Aristotle’s ontology. During this period, he renewed his interest in Hegel and German Idealism, and also in Heidegger’s critique of the tradition and attempts to make “another beginning” in philosophy. Marx began teaching at the New School in 1949. After the appearance of his classic study, Heidegger and the Tradition, he was named successor to the Husserl-Heidegger chair in philosophy and director of Philosophical Seminar I in Freiburg, which he held from 1964 until his retirement in 1979. He also served as Director of the Husserl-Archives in Freiburg until his death. (shrink)
This essay begins by retracing the relationship between the early Heidegger and Edmund Husserl during the period when Heidegger’s thought was still closely aligned with Husserl’s phenomenological project. It then shows how a fundamental difference emerged over the question of what the ultimate grounds for action. When Heidegger says that Husserl has failed to address the real question about the meaning of Being, he is referring to the meaning of Dasein. Whereas Husserl maintains that willing and action must remain grounded (...) in the intention/fulfillment structure of reason, Heidegger comes to the view that Dasein must resolutely accept its calling as the groundless ground of significance that is ulti-mate source of meaning in the world.El presente ensayo empieza retrocediendo hacia la relación del Heidegger temprano con Edmund Husserl, en el periodo en el que el pensamiento heideggeriano estaba todavía alineado con el proyecto fenomenológico de Husserl. A continuación, se muestra cómo a raíz de la pregunta por el sustrato último de toda acción emerge una diferencia fundamental. Cuando Heidegger dice que Husserl no ha conseguido hacer la verdadera pregunta acerca del sentido del ser, se refiere al sentido del Dasein. Mientras Husserl mantiene que la voluntad y la acción tienen que perma-necer fundamentadas en la estructura de intención/cumplimiento propia de la razón, Heidegger llega a la postura de que Dasein tiene que aceptar con determinación la llamada del fundamento abismático del significado, la últi-ma fuente del significado en el mundo. (shrink)
Cette étude essaye d’établir qu’il y a deux notions très différentes de « fondation » à l’œuvre dans les Recherches logiques de Husserl. Dans la IIIème Recherche, où le terme est formellement introduit, lorsqu’il se demande quels sont les contenus qui peuvent exister d’une manière autonome (indépendants) et lesquels peuvent exister uniquement en tant que moments d’autre chose (dépendants), Husserl suit ce que j’appelle un « modèle ontologique ». Selon ce modèle, le concret possède une priorité sur à l’abstrait qui (...) est fondé en lui. Dans la VIème Recherche, en revanche, Husserl s’oriente principalement sur un « modèle gnoséologique » qui voit le complexe comme fondé sur ce qui est relativement simple, étant donné que les expériences d’ordre supérieur (telles les perceptions de types d’objets plus complexes) sont « fondées sur » des expériences plus simples, bien qu’elles ne puissent pas y être réduites. L’exemple principal ici est celui des intuitions catégoriales : fondées sur les intuitions sensibles, elles n’y sont pas réductibles. Mais cette distinction entre deux sens différents du terme de « fondation » peut également nous aider à mieux comprendre de nombreuses thèses husserliennes plutôt controversées. Par exemple, elle peut nous permettre de mieux comprendre dans quelle mesure faire l’expérience d’un être humain comme un tout se fonde sur l’expérience d’un corps physique, et cela même si l’étant que nous rencontrons inclut à la fois des aspects corporels et des aspects spirituels – les deux étant vus, d’une manière essentielle, comme des moments de cette unique personne qui fait l’objet de notre expérience. (shrink)
In the summer of 1997 one could scarcely enter a bookstore in Beijing without encountering Wang Xiaobo's pensive and defiant look on the cover of dozens of books displayed at the entrance. Wang had suddenly died in the spring of that year at the age of forty-five. Born in Beijing in 1952 to a family of intellectuals, he remained attached to China's capital despite periods of separation, such as during the Cultural Revolution, when he was sent to Yunnan to "learn (...) from the peasants" and taught in a "people-run-school" in Shandong, and also during the 1980s, when he studied in the United States . Wang always returned to Beijing, in the late 1970s to study economy and business at the People's University and in the late 1980s to teach there. After retiring in 1993, he devoted his time to writing: poetry, novels, essays, non-fiction, and a movie script. (shrink)
e following essay is organized around eighteen theses concerning the relationship between freedom, responsibility and self- awareness that I believe are both correct and consistent with specic doctrines and the overall positions advanced in Husserl’s published writings. e eighteen theses are not meant to represent a deductive argument. Most of them are not unique to Husserl or phenomenological philosophy, but I’m not aware of any other thinker who has hat brought all of them together as does Husserl.
Der Begriff der Person bei Kant ist mit drei anderen Begriffen engstens verbunden: Freiheit, Verantwortlichkeit oder Zurechnungsfähigkeit, und Charakter. Die Beziehungen zwischen diesen drei Aspekten der Personalität werden in diesem Beitrag näher erläutert, wobei besonderes Gewicht auf den Begriff des Charakters gelegt wird. Es erweist sich, daß der Begriff Charakter verschiedene Bedeutungen hat: nämlich Charakter als die gewöhnliche Verhaltensweise eines Handelnden - wonach auch die Unstetigkeit oder "Charakterlosigkeit" des launischen oder flüchtigen Menschen sein Charakter genannt werden kann; dann Charakter als (...) die Fertigkeit, nach festen Maximen - unabhängig von ihrem moralischen Wert - zu handeln; und schließlich Charakter als der sittliche Wert derjenigen Person, die nach moralischen Maximen handelt. Personen sind demnach diejenigen Wesen, die als moralisch Zurechnungsfähige ihren eigenen Charakter bestimmen können und dafür verantwortlich sind. (shrink)
The search for an ethics rooted in human experience is the crux of this deeply compassionate work, here translated from the 1983 German edition. Distinguished philosopher Werner Marx provides a close reading, critique, and _Weiterdenken_, or "further thinking," of Martin Heidegger's later work on death, language, and poetry, which has often been dismissed as both obscure and obscurantist. In it Marx seeks, and perhaps finds, both a measure for distinguishing between good and evil and a motive for preferring the former. (...) The poet Hölderlin posed the question, "Is there a measure on earth?" His own answer was emphatic, "There is none," for he was convinced that the measure for man was to be found only in the domain of the heavenly beings. Such metaphysical assumptions, as well as the attempt to found ethical conduct in the nature of man as a rational being, have been rejected by many contemporary thinkers, particularly Heidegger. Yet these thinkers have not been able to provide a satisfactory alternative to metaphysical foundations of the standards for responsible human conduct. Marx, therefore, goes beyond Heidegger in demonstrating how several of his most basic notions could be relevant to a secular morality in our age. It is death, Marx claims, that unsettles man and transforms his conduct toward his fellow man. the common experience of mortality nourishes ethical life—and leads to the measures of compassion, love, and recognition of one's fellow human beings. "It is only on the basis of these 'traditional virtues,'" Marx writes, "that we can find a motive for averting the impending dangers which have often enough been described so vividly and convincingly.". (shrink)
"Kant, Kantianism and Idealism" presents an overview of German Idealism, the major movement in philosophy from the late 18th to the middle of the 19th Century. The period was dominated by Kant, Fichte, Schelling and Hegel, whose work influenced not just philosophy, but also art, theology and politics. The volume covers not only these major figures but also their main followers and interpreters. These include Kant's younger contemporary Herder, his early critics such as Jacobi, Reinhold, and Maimon, and his readers (...) Schiller and Schlegel - who shaped much of the subsequent reception of Kant in art, literature and aesthetics - as well as Schopenhauer, whose unique appropriation and criticism of theories of cognition later had a decisive influence on Nietzsche. The "Young Hegelians" - such as Bruno Bauer, Ludwig Feuerbach, and David Friedrich Strauss, whose writings would influence Engels and Marx - are also discussed. The influence of Kant and German Idealism also extended into France, shaping the thought of such figures as Saint-Simon, Fourier, and Proudhon, whose work would prove decisive for subsequent philosophical, political, and economic thinking in Europe in the second half of the 19th century. (shrink)