Results for 'TTP'

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  1.  22
    SpinozasAtheism’, the Ethics and the TTP.Yitzhak Melamed - forthcoming - In Spinoza: Reason, Religion, Politics: The Relation Between the Ethics and the Tractatus Theologico-Politicus.
    The impermanence of human affairs is a major theme in Spinozas discussions of political histories, and from our present-day perspective it is both intriguing and ironic (...) to see how this very theme has played out in the evolving fate of Spinozas association with atheism. While Spinozas contemporaries charged him with atheism in order to impugn his philosophy (and sometimes his character), in our times many lay readers and some scholars portray Spinoza as an atheist in order to commemorate his role as a founder of modern secularism. In this paper, I will argue that Spinoza deserves neither vilification nor praise for being an atheist, for the simple reason that he was not one (unless one employs the termatheismin a very peculiar sense). I have chosen the current topic as my contribution to a volume focused on the TTP, the Ethics, and their interrelations because it is precisely these two books which brought about the common reactionary accusation of atheism by Spinozas contemporaries. Addressing Spinozas 1663 book, DescartesPrinciples of Philosophy, Bayle writes: “Spinoza appears as orthodox in that book about the nature of God.” As we shall shortly see, Descartes too was accused of atheism by some of his contemporaries (though not so by Bayle). The latter designates his target quite explicitly: “[Spinozas] Tractatus Theologico Politicus, printed in Amsterdam, in the year 1670, is a pernicious and execrable book which contains all the seeds of the Atheism he plainly discovered in his Opera Posthuma.” François Lamy, in his 1696 Le nouvel athéisme renversé, also focused on the Ethics and the TTP in his attack on Spinozas atheism. Bayles reference to the Opera Posthuma is ostensibly targeting the Ethics at least primarily, if not uniquely. Even the most suspicious and distrustful mind would have to labor hard in order to find atheism in the Hebrew Grammar, or even in the Tractatus Politicus where Spinoza argues that it is not within the power, and hence right, of the commonwealth to induce people to adopt utterly absurd beliefs, such asthat the whole is greater than its part or that God does not exist.” The TTP and the Ethics are the works where Spinoza launches his merciless attack on anthropocentric thinking and anthropomorphic religion. Spinozas panentheism (“quicquid est, in Deo est”) constitutes the metaphysical foundation of the Ethics, and it is repeatedly and clearly alluded to in the TTP. Since it is these two elements – (1) Spinozas open assertions of panentheism and (2) his critique of andromorphic conceptions of Godwhich are the historical grounds for the atheism charge, it seems natural that the merit of this charge should be decided primarily by examination of these two foundational works. I will proceed in the following manner. In the first part of the paper, we will make our first acquaintance with the imputation of atheism by Spinozas contemporaries and Spinozas response to the charge (or lack thereof). In the second part, I discuss three broad strategies, or hermeneutic avenues, that have been pursued to impute atheism to Spinoza. The first of the three was dominant in Spinozas time, while the latter two were employed more recently. These strategies are not mutually exclusive and we can find occasionally various combinations of different shades of these three strategies. In this part, I will also raise some preliminary questions about the cogency of the hermeneutics employed by each strategy. In the third and fourth parts of the paper, I will discuss a small selection of key texts from the Ethics and the TTP, respectively, and argue that the atheist readings fail to make sense of these key passages (unless one adopts an extreme hermeneutics of suspicion which could allegedly find any view harbored in any text). Let me stress that this selection of passages is far from comprehensive, and that dozens of other passages can be adduced to establish the very same point. I hope by the end of the fourth part to convince the reader of the deep problems besetting the atheist readings. In the fifth and last part, I show that both panentheism and the critique of anthropomorphic religion and anthropomorphic conceptions of providence were quite common within rabbinic discourse. Thus, I will argue that if we are not in the business of announcing that both Maimonides and the Kabbalists were atheists, we should avoid the same imputation to Spinoza. Underlying my argument in this final part is the claim that at least some perceptions of Spinoza as an atheist are instances of what could be termed conceptual colonialism, i.e. the enforcement of the categories of a hegemonic culture (in this case, Western Christianity ) on minority cultures (in the current case, rabbinic Judaism). To be clear, this attitude need not be motivated by ill intentions or racism. It is always tempting and easy to explain the unfamiliar through the familiar, but conceptual stagnation and insistence on imposing the categories of the familiar on other cultures may quickly lead to deep distortion and blindness, despite ones best intentions. Unless one is exceedingly careful to avoid thecompletely naturaltemptation to impose ones own categories on a foreign culture (and to look for the coin only under the street light), one is likely to end up with distorted conceptions of the relevant alien culture, despite ones best intentions. (shrink)
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  2.  10
    The Philosophical Foundation of Religious Toleration in Spinoza (TTP), Bayle (Commentaire Philosophique) and Locke (Epistola de Tolerantia).Miklós Vassányi - 2009 - Bijdragen 70 (4):408-422.
    This paper first adumbrates the theory of religious intolerance in early modern Europe. Then it turns to three leading philosophers of the age, Spinoza, Bayle and Locke, (...)
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  3. Homo Audax. Leibniz, Oldenburg and the TTP.Edwin Curley - 1990 - Studia Leibnitiana 27:277-312.
     
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  4. Una citazione da San Paolo (epistola ai Romani 1.13) Nel tractatus theologico-politicus di Spinoza (ttp 11.5).Walter Lapini - 2010 - Giornale di Metafisica 32 (1):159-164.
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  5. (E. Tractatus Theologico-Politicus (TTP) 7. CnHHO3a B. BOPOCJIOBCKO-nojTHTHHCCKHH rpaKTar, Co; Iep> Kamnfi HecKOjibKO paccyacfleHHH, noKasbisaiomHx, HTO (J) Hjioco (J) CTBOBaHHa M05KCT 6biTb flonymeHa HC TOjibKO Ges GjiaronecTHK) H cnoKOHCTBHio rocyaapcTBa, HO HTO Ona TOjibKO Co[REVIEW]Bopobckoro Pefl, Omuepa Oaecca & Thfi Eh Occchkc - 1996 - Studia Spinozana: An International and Interdisciplinary Series 12:235.
  6. “’Christus Secundum Spiritum’: Spinoza, Jesus, and the Infinite Intellect”.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2012 - In Neta Stahl (ed.), The Jewish Jesus. Routledge.
  7. The Metaphysics of Spinoza's Theological Political Treatise.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2010 - In Yitzhak Melamed (ed.), Spinoza's Theological Political Treatise: A Critical Guide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  8. A Spinozist Aesthetics of Affect and Its Political Implications.Christopher Davidson - 2017 - In Gábor Boros, Judit Szalai & Oliver Istvan Toth (eds.), The Concept of Affectivity in Early Modern Philosophy. Budapest, Hungary: Eötvös Loránd University Press. pp. 185-206.
    Spinoza rarely refers to art. However, there are extensive resources for a Spinozist aesthetics in his discussion of health in the Ethics and of social affects in (...)
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  9.  95
    The Metaphysics of Natural Right in Spinoza.John R. T. Grey - forthcoming - Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy 10.
    In the Tractatus Theologico-Politicus (TTP), Spinoza argues that an individuals natural right extends as far as their power. Subsequently, in the Tractatus Politicus (TP), he offers (...) a revised argument for the same conclusion. Here I offer an account of the reasons for the revision. In both arguments, an individuals natural right derives from Gods natural right. However, the TTP argument hinges on the claim that each individual is part of the whole of nature (totius naturae), and for this reason inherits part of the natural right of that whole. Using several analogous cases from the Ethics, I show that this form of argument from division is not compatible with Spinozas considered metaphysical views. The revised argument, by contrast, avoids the pitfalls of his earlier efforts. It also better reveals the deep roots by which the monistic metaphysics of the Ethics feeds into Spinozas conception of natural right. (shrink)
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  10.  30
    Spinoza and Judaism in the French Context: The Case of Milner's Le Sage Trompeur.Jack Stetter - 2020 - Modern Judaism - A Journal of Jewish Ideas and Experience 40 (2):227-255.
    Jean-Claude Milners Le sage trompeur (2013), a controversial recent piece of French Spinoza literature, remains regrettably understudied in the English-speaking world. Adopting Leo Straussesoteric (...)
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  11. Spinoza's Deification of Existence.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2013 - Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy 6:75-104.
    The aim of this paper is to clarify Spinozas views on some of the most fundamental issues of his metaphysics: the nature of Gods attributes, the (...) nature of existence and eternity, and the relation between essence and existence in God. While there is an extensive literature on each of these topics, it seems that the following question was hardly raised so far: What is, for Spinoza, the relation between Gods existence and the divine attributes? Given Spinozas claims that there are intimate connections between Gods essence and his existence – “Gods essence and his existence are one and the same”(E1p20) – and between Gods essence and the attributes – “By attribute I understand what the intellect perceives of substance, as constituting its essence” (E1d4), we would naturally expect that by transitivity, there is a significant relation between Gods existence and the attributes. Yet, as far as I know, there is little, if any, attempt in the existing literature to explicate such a relation, and it is one of my aims of this study to both raise the question and answer it. Eventually, I will argue that for Spinoza God is nothing but existence, and that the divine attributes are just fundamental kinds of existence, or, what is the same, as I will later argue, the intellects most fundamental and adequate conceptions of existence. In the first part of the paper I provide some background for Spinozas brief discussion in the TTP of Gods name and essence by studying the claims of Maimonides in the Guide of the Perplexed that Gods true essence is necessary existence, and that this essence is denoted by the ineffable Hebrew name of God, the Tetragrammaton (YHVH). In the second part of the paper I point out similar claims Spinoza presents in the TTP, and show how they respond to and echo Maimonidesdiscussion in the Guide. In the third part, I examine Spinozas apparently conflicting claims in the Ethics about the relationship between Gods essence and existence. In some places Spinoza claims that Gods essence and existence are strictly identical (E1p10: “Gods essence his existence are one and the same”), but in other passages he makes the apparently much more modest claim that Gods essence involves existence (E1d1, E1p7d and E1p11d), which may lead one to believe that there is more to Gods essence than mere existence. I show that Spinozas understanding of the relation denoted by the Latininvolvitis consistent with the strict identification of essence and existence in God, and that Spinoza identifies Gods essence with self-necessitated existence, or eternity. Indeed, Spinozas understanding of eternity [aeternitas] as self-necessitated existence (E1d8) is one of the very few Spinozistic concepts that has no trace in Descartes. In this part I will also solve the long-standing problem of the sense in which the infinite modes can be calledeternal.’ In the fourth part I turn to the relation between the divine attributes and Gods existence and argue that, for Spinoza, the attributes are self-sufficient and adequate conceptions of existence. Finally, I will attempt to explain what brought Spinoza to deify existence. -/- Part I: “In that Day shall God be One, and his Name One”- Maimonides on Gods Name and Essence. -/- 1.1 Before we delve into the texts, let me suggest a few distinctions between various views on the issue of the relation between essence and existence in God. The view I suspect both Maimonides and Spinoza subscribe to can be termed the divine essence-existence Identity Thesis. -/- Identity Thesis (IT): Gods essence is existence and nothing but existence. We should distinguish the Identity Thesis from the much more common view according to which Gods essence contains existence, or (which I take to be roughly the same) that existence is one of the properties or perfections which constitute Gods essence. The latter view allows for the possibility (though it does not demand) that there is more to Gods essence than bare existence (e.g., Gods essence may include omniscience, omnipotence, etc.). I will term this view the divine essence-existence Containment Thesis. (shrink)
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  12. Spinoza and the Philosophy of Science: Mathematics, Motion, and Being.Eric Schliesser - manuscript
    This chapter argues that the standard conception of Spinoza as a fellow-travelling mechanical philosopher and proto-scientific naturalist is misleading. It argues, first, that Spinozas account (...)
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  13. Times, Worlds, and Locations.Kristie Miller - 2013 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 2 (3):221-227.
    Infrom times to worlds and back again: a transcendentist theory of persistence’ (henceforth TTP) Alessandro Giordani outlines five competitor views regarding the manner in which objects (...)
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  14.  8
    Dynamic perceptual completion and the dynamic snapshot view to help solve thetwo timesproblem.Ronald P. Gruber, Ryan P. Smith & Richard A. Block - 2020 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 19 (4):773-790.
    Perceptual completion fills the gap for discrete perception to become continuous. Similarly, dynamic perceptual completion provides an experience of dynamic continuity. Our recent discovery of thehappening (...)
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  15.  27
    Spinoza and the Election of the Hebrews.Yitzhak Melamed - forthcoming - In Michael A. Rosenthal (ed.), Spinoza & Modern Jewish Philosophy. Palgrave.
    Spinozas interpretation of the election of the Hebrews in the third chapter of the Theological Political Treatise enraged quite a few Jewish readers of the nineteenth (...)and twentieth centuries. The rise of nationalism, and the demand of loyalty to ones own genos brought about a certain style of patriotic writing aimed at Spinozasbetrayal.” In a series of lectures on the eve of the Great War, Hermann Cohen portrayed Spinoza as a person ofdemonic spirtand asthe great enemy who emerged from our midst.” In a stream of words more akin to shouting than to analytic discourse, Cohen protested against what he took to be the universal complacency regarding Spinozas treachery: “When Spinoza, with merciless severity, makes his own nation the object of contemptat the time that Rembrandt lived on the same street and immortalized the ideal type of the Jew - no voice rises in protest against this humanly incomprehensible betrayal.” Cohen was right in identifying in Spinoza an absence of ethnic patriotism. I, for one, find this absence a virtue rather than a vice, and in this chapter I will argue, inter alia, that in rejecting ethnic normativity Spinoza was consistent with a dominant strand of rabbinic thought. What precisely was so offensive in Spinozas words in chapter three of the TTP? A common reading of this chapter suggests that Spinoza presents the election of the Hebrews as merely political and not spiritual in nature, thus downgrading the importance of the election. This reading is not absolutely groundless, but it is highly imprecise, for as we shall shortly see, for Spinoza, Gods (genuine) election of the Hebrews indicates the political weakness of their state, rather than its strength. Apart from pointing out this important corrective, I will also attempt in this essay to evaluate Spinozas critique of the election of the Hebrews, the result of which might lead us to some highly unexpected conclusions. In the first section of this chapter I present an outline of Spinozas interpretation of the connection between the Hebrewsbelief in being chosen, and the xenophobic nature of their ancient state. In the second section, I discuss Spinozas interpretation of the election of the Hebrews in chapter three of the TTP, and show that on Spinozas sardonic reading it was nothing but luck which allowed the Hebrew state to survive for a rather long time in spite of its poor political constitution. The third and final part provides a defense of Spinozas critique of the notion of chosenness. I will argue, first, that chosenness has never been granted the status of theological doctrine or principle of faith within rabbinic Judaism. I will then point out the significant religious problems with the notion of chosenness, suggesting however two exceptions in which belief in chosenness might still be defensible. I will conclude this section with a discussion of rabbinic views on the conversion of minors, arguing that according to the mainstream rabbinic view, being a Jew is a merit only on the condition that a person is pious, a view which is not far from Spinozas own claims in the third chapter of the TTP. (shrink)
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  16. Spinozas Respublica Divina:” in Otfried Höffe (Ed.), Baruch de Spinozas Tractatus Theologico-Politicus (Berlin: Akademie Verlag (Klassiker Aulegen), Forthcoming).Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2013 - In Otfried Höffe (ed.), Baruch de Spinozas Tractatus theologico-politicus. Akademie Verlag (Klassiker Aulegen). pp. 177-192.
    Chapters 17 and 18 of the TTP constitute a textual unit in which Spinoza submits the case of the ancient Hebrew state to close examination. This is (...)
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  17.  59
    Violenta Imperia Nemo Continuit Diu: Spinoza and the Revolutionary Laws of Human Nature.Hasana Sharp - 2013 - Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 34 (1):133-148.
    In what follows, I will substantiate the argument that there are at least two senses in which Spinozas principles support revolutionary change. I will begin with (...)a quick survey of his concerns with the problem of insurrection. I will proceed to show that if political programs can be called revolutionary, insofar as freedom is their motivation and justification, and insofar as freedom implies an expansion of the scope of the general interest to the whole political body, Spinoza ought to be called a revolutionary. Finally, I will contend that even if he does not praise mass insurrection, he finds its guarantee in the laws of human nature itself, which cannot tolerate tyranny. And, thus, it is in a revolutionary vein that Spinoza cites Seneca repeatedly: violenta imperianemo continuit diu (TTP 5 8, 16 9). (shrink)
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  18. Radical Protestantism in Spinoza's Thought.Graeme Hunter - 2004 - Ashgate.
    Context -- A Jew in Amsterdam -- Conflicts and communities -- Christian philosophy? -- A Bible gallery -- Religion and politics in the TTP -- Miracles, meaning, and moderation -- Christian pluralism (...) -- Ethics reconsidered -- Providence, obedience, and love -- Spinoza and Christianity. (shrink)
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  19.  63
    Spinoza on the Political Value of Freedom of Religion.Edward Halper - 2004 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 21 (2):167-182.
    The last chapter of Spinoza's Theological-Political Treatise (TTP) is a brief for freedom of religion. In our enthusiasm for Spinoza's conclusion it is easy to (...)
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  20.  10
    "Satis amplam libertatem": una interpretación sobre el Tratado Político de Spinoza.Cristian Andrés Tejeda Gómez & Mario Patricio Sobarzo Morales - 2019 - Anales Del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía 36 (2):355-382.
    Dentro de la obra madura de Spinoza, la _Ética_ y el _Tratado Teológico-Político _ se han analizado ampliamente. Sin embargo, el _Tratado Político_ ha sido menormente (...)estudiado por ser una obra inconclusa y con problemas estructurales. Nosotros afirmamos que la teoría política más acabada de Spinoza se encuentra en el TP. En esta obra se sacan todas las consecuencias de guiarse por una noción estrictamente inmanente de la política. En ese sentido, el TP sigue de manera más coherente el programa trazado por la doctrina fundamental de Spinoza expuesta en la _Ética_, y no el TTP. Esto nos lleva a la consideración de la política como tendencia en dos direcciones opuestas: ampliación de poder y concentración de poder. (shrink)
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  21.  24
    Rights as an Expression of Republican Freedom. Spinoza on Right and Power.Susan James - 2015 - In .
    In the TTP Spinoza addresses in its full complexity the question of whether a republican theorist, committed to the view that the primary goal of political life (...)
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  22.  33
    The Common Structure of Religion, Philosophy and Politics in Spinoza's Tractatus Theologico-Politicus.Eli Diamond - 2000 - Philosophy 10:57-110.
    In his Tractatus Theologico-Politicus, Spinoza seeks to separate religion from philosophy and from politics. Yet the true metaphysical understanding of God remains relevant to a proper (...)grasp of the state for Spinoza. Through identifying a common logical structure underlying Spinozas conception of God and the two subjects of the TTP - the relation of faith and reason, and the origin of the state and its relation to individual citizensthe paper attempts to demonstrate that Spinozas argument for the autonomy of secular reason and the secular state in the TTP is inseparable from his metaphysical theology. (shrink)
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  23.  29
    The Politics of Spinozas Vanishing Dichotomies.Amélie Oksenberg Rorty - 2010 - Political Theory 38 (1):131 - 141.
    Spinoza's project of showing how the mind can be freed from its passive affects and the State from its divisive factions (E IV.Appendix and V.Preface) (...)
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  24.  19
    Spinozas Respublica Divina: The Rise and Fall, Virtues and Vices of the Hebrew Republic.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2014 - In Otfried Höffe (ed.), Spinoza: Theologisch-Politischer Traktat. De Gruyter. pp. 195-210.
    Chapters 17 and 18 of the TTP constitute a textual unit in which Spinoza submits the case of the ancient Hebrew state to close examination. This is (...)
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  25. Spinoza: Democracy and Revelation.Tomaž Mastnak - 2008 - Filozofski Vestnik 29 (2).
    The question of whether Spinoza's political philosophy is radical is explored in the paper by focusing on the question of how successfully Spinoza solved the troubling (...)relation between religion and public authority in his work Tractatus theologico-politicus (TTP). This is a burning political issue today and was a pressing political concern in Spinoza's time as well as for Spinoza himself. After the examination of this problematic in TTP it is clear that Spinoza does not provide a coherent and compelling argument against revealed religion having a role in the founding of the state and in statecraft. A minimalist conclusion would be that Spinoza allows for a role of revealed religion in democracy. A more daring conclusion would point at the affinity between republican democracy and theocracy. In either case, with the TTP's help, we cannot avoid either theological politics or political theology. (shrink)
     
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  26.  28
    Of Children, Fools and Madmen: Spinozas Scientific Method and the Constraint of Fact.Debra Nails - 1985 - Southwest Philosophy Review 2:30-42.
    "Of Children, Fools, and Madmen: Spinoza's Scientific Method and the Constraints of Fact" Spinoza has been largely ignored in the history of the scientific method (...)
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  27. Shlomo Pines on Maimonides, Spinoza, and Kant.Warren Zev Harvey - 2012 - Journal of Jewish Thought and Philosophy 20 (2):173-182.
    In hisSpinozas TTP , Maimonides, and Kant” (1968), Pines compared Spinozas dogmas of universal faith ( TTP , 14) with Kants postulates of practical reason ( Critique (...) of Practical Reason , part 1). According to him, Spinozas dogmas, like Maimonides’ “necessary beliefs” ( Guide 3:28), are postulates necessary for political welfare, and do not fall under the jurisdiction of theoretical reason. They define the faith of the common person, not that of the philosopher. Kant, in his remarks about Spinoza as anupright skeptic,” mistakenly thought his dogmas were true beliefs, not necessary ones; and his notion of postulates of practical reason seems to have been in part influenced by his mistaken view of Spinozas dogmas. The transformation of Maimonides’ “necessary beliefsinto Kantspostulates of practical reason,” as narrated by Pines, recalls the similar transformation ofAverroismintoChristian Averroismin the thirteenth century. In essays written from the late 1970s until his death in 1990, Pines returned to the theme of Maimonides and Kant, and argued convincingly that Maimonidesepistemology wascriticalin the Kantian sense. However, his related argument that Maimonidesreligious sensibility was similar to Kants is less convincing. Unlike Kant, Maimonides did not think that critical epistemology made room for faith, but held that it caused one to tremble in awe. Like Spinoza, he identified true faith with intellectual knowledge, not something beyond it. His distinctiveness as a philosopher is that he was a God-intoxicated Knower like Spinoza, but a critical epistemologist like Kant. (shrink)
     
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  28.  26
    The Miracle of Moses.C. M. Lorkowski - 2009 - Heythrop Journal 50 (2):181-188.
    In this paper, I draw out a tension between miracles, prophecy, and Spinozas assertions about Moses in the Theological-Political Treatise (TTP). The three seem to constitute (...) an inconsistent triad. Spinozas account of miracles requires a naturalistic interpretation of all events. This categorical claim must therefore apply to prophecy; specifically, Moseshearing Gods voice in a manner which does not seem to invoke the imagination or natural phenomena. Thus, Spinoza seemingly cannot maintain both Mosesexalted status and his account of miracles. I consider some possible solutions, but find that they are either untrue to Spinozas position, or would undercut his categorical argument against miracles. I therefore conclude that Spinoza leaves an unresolved tension in the TTP. (shrink)
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  29.  16
    Meyer As Precursor to Spinoza on the Interpretation of Scripture.Lee C. Rice - 2001 - Philosophy and Theology 13 (1):159-180.
    Following a brief historical account of the relationship between the PSSI and the TTP (as well as their respective authors), I provide a summary of Meyers (...)arguments (in the first two parts of the PSSI) for his claim that philosophy provides the unique norm of interpretation for Scripture. My third section is devoted to an analysis of the analytic relations between the PSSI and the TTP. A brief closing section offers several speculations on the clarifications which Meyers work may bring to Spinozas own development of a different account of scriptural exegesis in the TTP. (shrink)
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  30.  8
    Spinoza on Ceremonial Observances and the Moral Function of Religion.Willem Lemmens - 2010 - Bijdragen 71 (1):51-64.
    This article forms a critical reflection on the views of Spinoza, developed in the Tractatus Theologico-Politicus, on the role of theceremonial lawin the moral (...)life of ancient Hebrew culture. According to Spinoza, a merely external obedience to the ceremonial law should not be confused with the sense of obligation towards the moral Divine Law ofjustice and charity’: only in this last one can true piety be found. The idea is defended that Spinozas critical attitude towards the Jewish ceremonial law should be understood against the larger background of his hermeneutics of superstition throughout the TTP. In the TTP superstition is unmasked as a form of undue adherence to a particular religious tradition and to merely outer ceremonies and practices. Superstition should be distinguished, however, from true religion, which, according to Spinoza, leads towards piety and virtue. How the idea of true religion, identified in the Ethics as the practical disposition and form of life of the truly wise philosopher, could be accounted for within the context of the TTP is investigated. The central thesis of this article is that despite his critical attitude towards the Jewish ceremonial law Spinoza should acknowledgeaccording to his own religious anthropologythat a genuine religion for ordinary human beings presupposes the adherence in one form or another to a religious tradition. Without a religious tradition, it appears, no concrete moral life, so no piety, is possible. This implies, however, that in Spinozas view there remains a gap between the true religion of the philosopher and true religion as it can be found in the life of ordinary humans. (shrink)
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  31.  6
    Spinoza et le problème du sacré au XVIIe siècle.Antoine Fleyfel - 2008 - Recherches de Science Religieuse 96 (2):241-254.
    Dans le chapitre 12 de son TTP, Spinoza définit le sacré de la sorte : « Mérite le nom de sacré et de divin ce qui est destiné (...)à l'exercice de la piété et de la religion et ce caractère sacré demeurera attaché à une chose aussi longtemps seulement que les hommes s'en serviront religieusement ». De par cette définition première qui fait relever le sacré de la religion, Spinoza est en train d'exclure le sacré du domaine de la vérité qui est propre à la philosophie. Quant à sa lecture désacralisante de la Bible, bien qu'elle s'appuie sur sa philosophie pour nier au surnaturel son existence, c'est par le biais de sa « méthode historico-critique », qu'elle va permettre à Spinoza d'atteindre son but. La question du sacré est donc loin d'être pour Spinoza une question de simple piété ou de soumission au divin. Elle est au contraire une source de problèmes. Cet article voudrait montrer comment Spinoza comprend ce problème, et d'examiner la solution qu'il y propose à travers son programme de désacralisation radicale de l'Écriture.In the 12th chapter of his Tractatus theologico-politicus, Spinoza defines the sacred in this way: “A thing is called sacred and Divine when it is designed for promoting piety, and continues sacred so long as it is religiously used: if the users cease to be pious, the thing ceases to be sacred”. By this first definition that situates the sacred in the realm of religion, Spinoza is excluding the sacred from the domain of the truth proper to philosophy. As for his desacralizing reading of the Bible, though it denies, on the basis of his philosophy, any existence to the supernatural, it is thanks to thehistorico-critical methodthat this reading will enable Spinoza to attain his goal. For Spinoza, the question of the sacred is therefore far from being a question of simple piety or submission to the divine. On the contrary, it is a source of problems. This article will attempt to show how Spinoza deals with this situation and to examine the solution he proposes through his program of radical desacralisation of the Scriptures. (shrink)
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  32.  4
    Spinoza, de la Física a la Historia.MaríA. Luisa de la Cámara (ed.) - 2008 - Univ de Castilla La Mancha.
    Aunque admito sin reservas -nos dice Spinoza en su TTP- que todas las cosas son determinadas por leyes universales de la naturaleza a existir y a obrar (...)
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  33. The Common Structure of Religion, Philosophy and Politics in Spinoza's Tractatus Theologico-Politicus.Eli Diamond - 2008 - Animus 12:39-57.
    In his Tractatus Theologico-Politicus, Spinoza seeks to separate religion from philosophy and from politics. Yet the true metaphysical understanding of God remains relevant to a proper (...)grasp of the state for Spinoza. Through identifying a common logical structure underlying Spinozas conception of God and the two subjects of the TTP - the relation of faith and reason, and the origin of the state and its relation to individual citizensthe paper attempts to demonstrate that Spinozas argument for the autonomy of secular reason and the secular state in the TTP is inseparable from his metaphysical theology. (shrink)
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