Results for 'Tal Linzen'

991 found
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  1.  32
    Uncertainty and Expectation in Sentence Processing: Evidence From Subcategorization Distributions.Tal Linzen & T. Florian Jaeger - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (6):1382-1411.
    There is now considerable evidence that human sentence processing is expectation based: As people read a sentence, they use their statistical experience with their language to generate predictions about upcoming syntactic structure. This study examines how sentence processing is affected by readers' uncertainty about those expectations. In a self-paced reading study, we use lexical subcategorization distributions to factorially manipulate both the strength of expectations and the uncertainty about them. We compare two types of uncertainty: uncertainty about the verb's complement, reflecting (...)
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  2.  13
    Single‐Stage Prediction Models Do Not Explain the Magnitude of Syntactic Disambiguation Difficulty.Marten van Schijndel & Tal Linzen - 2021 - Cognitive Science 45 (6):e12988.
    The disambiguation of a syntactically ambiguous sentence in favor of a less preferred parse can lead to slower reading at the disambiguation point. This phenomenon, referred to as a garden‐path effect, has motivated models in which readers initially maintain only a subset of the possible parses of the sentence, and subsequently require time‐consuming reanalysis to reconstruct a discarded parse. A more recent proposal argues that the garden‐path effect can be reduced to surprisal arising in a fully parallel parser: words consistent (...)
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  3. The Trouble with Algorithmic Decisions: An Analytic Road Map to Examine Efficiency and Fairness in Automated and Opaque Decision Making.Tal Zarsky - 2016 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 41 (1):118-132.
    We are currently witnessing a sharp rise in the use of algorithmic decision-making tools. In these instances, a new wave of policy concerns is set forth. This article strives to map out these issues, separating the wheat from the chaff. It aims to provide policy makers and scholars with a comprehensive framework for approaching these thorny issues in their various capacities. To achieve this objective, this article focuses its attention on a general analytical framework, which will be applied to a (...)
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  4.  58
    The generalizability crisis.Tal Yarkoni - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45:1-37.
    Most theories and hypotheses in psychology are verbal in nature, yet their evaluation overwhelmingly relies on inferential statistical procedures. The validity of the move from qualitative to quantitative analysis depends on the verbal and statistical expressions of a hypothesis being closely aligned – that is, that the two must refer to roughly the same set of hypothetical observations. Here, I argue that many applications of statistical inference in psychology fail to meet this basic condition. Focusing on the most widely used (...)
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  5. Old and New Problems in Philosophy of Measurement.Eran Tal - 2013 - Philosophy Compass 8 (12):1159-1173.
    The philosophy of measurement studies the conceptual, ontological, epistemic, and technological conditions that make measurement possible and reliable. A new wave of philosophical scholarship has emerged in the last decade that emphasizes the material and historical dimensions of measurement and the relationships between measurement and theoretical modeling. This essay surveys these developments and contrasts them with earlier work on the semantics of quantity terms and the representational character of measurement. The conclusions highlight four characteristics of the emerging research program in (...)
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  6. Is Evidence of Evidence Evidence?Eyal Tal & Juan Comesaña - 2017 - Noûs 51 (1):95-112.
    We examine whether the "evidence of evidence is evidence" principle is true. We distinguish several different versions of the principle and evaluate recent attacks on some of those versions. We argue that, whatever the merits of those attacks, they leave the more important rendition of the principle untouched. That version is, however, also subject to new kinds of counterexamples. We end by suggesting how to formulate a better version of the principle that takes into account those new counterexamples.
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  7. Making Time: A Study in the Epistemology of Measurement.Eran Tal - 2016 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 67 (1):297-335.
    This article develops a model-based account of the standardization of physical measurement, taking the contemporary standardization of time as its central case study. To standardize the measurement of a quantity, I argue, is to legislate the mode of application of a quantity concept to a collection of exemplary artefacts. Legislation involves an iterative exchange between top-down adjustments to theoretical and statistical models regulating the application of a concept, and bottom-up adjustments to material artefacts in light of remaining gaps. The model-based (...)
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  8. Why Would a Monarchist Vilify the Rich? Marx and Engels on Balzac.Tal Meir Giladi - 2024 - Naharaim.
    Engels explained his admiration for Balzac by pointing to an apparent discrepancy between Balzac’s literature and his politics. Despite his sympathies for the French nobility, Balzac’s realism “compelled” him to portray this class in unflattering terms. In this article, I challenge Engels’s reading, arguing that Marx’s scattered remarks on Balzac take us in a different direction. Specifically, I argue that in his remark on Balzac’s The Peasants Marx pinpointed the author’s preoccupation with the spread of bourgeois ideology into the nobility. (...)
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  9. How Accurate Is the Standard Second?Eran Tal - 2011 - Philosophy of Science 78 (5):1082-1096.
    Contrary to the claim that measurement standards are absolutely accurate by definition, I argue that unit definitions do not completely fix the referents of unit terms. Instead, idealized models play a crucial semantic role in coordinating the theoretical definition of a unit with its multiple concrete realizations. The accuracy of realizations is evaluated by comparing them to each other in light of their respective models. The epistemic credentials of this method are examined and illustrated through an analysis of the contemporary (...)
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  10. Making Time: A Study in the Epistemology of Measurement.E. Tal - 2014 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science (1):axu037.
    This article develops a model-based account of the standardization of physical measurement, taking the contemporary standardization of time as its central case-study. To standardize the measurement of a quantity, I argue, is to legislate the mode of application of a quantity-concept to a collection of exemplary artefacts. Legislation involves an iterative exchange between top-down adjustments to theoretical and statistical models regulating the application of a concept, and bottom-up adjustments to material artefacts in light of remaining gaps. The model-based account clarifies (...)
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  11.  8
    Kant on Reality, Cause, and Force: From the Early Modern Tradition to the Critical Philosophy.Tal Glezer - 2017 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Kant's category of reality is an often overlooked element of his Critique of Pure Reason. Tal Glezer shows that it nevertheless belongs at the core of Kant's mature critical philosophy: it captures an issue that motivated his critical turn, shaped his theory of causation, and established the role of his philosophy of science. Glezer's study traces the roots of Kant's category of reality to early modern debates over the intelligibility of substantial forms, fueled by the tension between the idea of (...)
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  12.  25
    The Artificial Third: Utilizing ChatGPT in Mental Health.Amir Tal, Zohar Elyoseph, Yuval Haber, Tal Angert, Tamar Gur, Tomer Simon & Oren Asman - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics 23 (10):74-77.
    Generative Artificial Intelligence (GenAI), such as ChatGPT, shows great promise and potential and is gradually being used in mental health care, but it also raises ethical concerns. These relate t...
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  13. Color may be the phenomenal dual aspect of two-state quantum systems in a mixed state.Tal Hendel - manuscript
    Panmicropsychism is the view that the fundamental physical ingredients of our universe are also its fundamental phenomenal ingredients. Since there is only a limited number of fundamental physical ingredients, panmicropsychism seems to imply that there exists only a small set (palette) of basic phenomenal qualities. How does this limited palette of basic phenomenal qualities give rise to our rich set of experiences? This is known as ‘the palette problem’. One class of solutions to this problem, large-palette solutions, simply denies that (...)
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  14.  7
    Cinematic Philosophy.Tal S. Shamir - 2016 - Cham: Imprint: Palgrave Macmillan.
    In this book, Tal S. Shamir sets out to identify cinema as a novel medium for philosophy and an important way of manifesting and developing philosophical thought. The volume presents a comprehensive analysis of the nature of philosophy's potential-or, more strongly put, its need-to be manifested cinematically. Drawing on the fields of cinema, philosophy, and media studies, Cinematic Philosophy adds film to the traditional list of ways through which philosophy can be created, concentrating on the unique potential of the cinematic (...)
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  15. From heritability to probability.Omri Tal - 2009 - Biology and Philosophy 24 (1):81-105.
    Can a heritability value tell us something about the weight of genetic versus environmental causes that have acted in the development of a particular individual? Two possible questions arise. Q1: what portion of the phenotype of X is due to its genes and what portion to its environment? Q2: what portion of X’s phenotypic deviation from the mean is a result of its genetic deviation and what portion a result of its environmental deviation? An answer to Q1 provides the full (...)
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  16. Taehak kungmin yulli.Tal-sun Yi - 1974 - Edited by Kang, Pu-pʻil & [From Old Catalog].
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  17. A self-consistent opponent-colors theory.Tal Hendel - manuscript
    Hering’s opponent-colors theory suggests that our color sensations are produced by three mechanisms: a red–green mechanism, a yellow–blue mechanism, and a white–black mechanism. The first two mechanisms give rise to our sensations of hued colors; the third mechanism gives rise to our sensations of hueless colors. Noticeably, whereas the pair of colors produced by each of the hued mechanisms do not mix to yield a phenomenal intermediate (i.e., there are no greenish reds, reddish greens, yellowish blues, or bluish yellows), the (...)
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  18. Measurement in Science.Eran Tal - 2015 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  19. Calibration: Modelling the measurement process.Eran Tal - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 65:33-45.
  20.  12
    Redundancy can benefit learning: Evidence from word order and case marking.Shira Tal & Inbal Arnon - 2022 - Cognition 224 (C):105055.
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  21. Is higher-order evidence evidence?Eyal Tal - 2020 - Philosophical Studies 178 (10):3157-3175.
    Suppose we learn that we have a poor track record in forming beliefs rationally, or that a brilliant colleague thinks that we believe P irrationally. Does such input require us to revise those beliefs whose rationality is in question? When we gain information suggesting that our beliefs are irrational, we are in one of two general cases. In the first case we made no error, and our beliefs are rational. In that case the input to the contrary is misleading. In (...)
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  22.  38
    Privacy and Manipulation in the Digital Age.Tal Z. Zarsky - 2019 - Theoretical Inquiries in Law 20 (1):157-188.
    The digital age brings with it novel forms of data flow. As a result, individuals are constantly being monitored while consuming products, services and content. These abilities have given rise to a variety of concerns, which are most often framed using “privacy” and “data protection”-related paradigms. An important, oft-noted yet undertheorized concern is that these dynamics might facilitate the manipulation of subjects; a process in which firms strive to motivate and influence individuals to take specific steps and make particular decisions (...)
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  23. Disagreement and easy bootstrapping.Eyal Tal - 2021 - Episteme 18 (1):46-65.
    ABSTRACTShould conciliating with disagreeing peers be considered sufficient for reaching rational beliefs? Thomas Kelly argues that when taken this way, Conciliationism lets those who enter into a disagreement with an irrational belief reach a rational belief all too easily. Three kinds of responses defending Conciliationism are found in the literature. One response has it that conciliation is required only of agents who have a rational belief as they enter into a disagreement. This response yields a requirement that no one should (...)
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  24. The Epistemology of Measurement: A Model-based Account.Eran Tal - 2012 - Dissertation, University of Toronto
    This work develops an epistemology of measurement, that is, an account of the conditions under which measurement and standardization methods produce knowledge as well as the nature, scope, and limits of this knowledge. I focus on three questions: (i) how is it possible to tell whether an instrument measures the quantity it is intended to? (ii) what do claims to measurement accuracy amount to, and how might such claims be justified? (iii) when is disagreement among instruments a sign of error, (...)
     
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  25.  53
    Cognitive neuroscience 2.0: building a cumulative science of human brain function.Tal Yarkoni, Russell A. Poldrack, David C. Van Essen & Tor D. Wager - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (11):489-496.
  26. Neuralink: The Ethical ‘Rithmatic of Reading and Writing to the Brain.Tal Dadia & Dov Greenbaum - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 10 (4):187-189.
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  27.  23
    Rethinking future uncertainty in the shadow of COVID 19: Education, change, complexity and adaptability.Tal Gilead & Gideon Dishon - 2022 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 54 (6):822-833.
    The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 threw the world into an unexpected turmoil; schools were closed, exams cancelled, and educational systems were forced to react to deep and unexpected changes. In educational policy, however, the idea that we should prepare for an unknown, uncontrollable and risky future has been widely accepted long before the outbreak. Building on insights from complexity theory and the study of dynamic systems, the article critically examines how the standard educational response to future unpredictability, (...)
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  28.  81
    Individuating quantities.Eran Tal - 2019 - Philosophical Studies 176 (4):853-878.
    When discrepancies are discovered between the outcomes of different measurement procedures, two sorts of explanation are open to scientists. Either some of the outcomes are inaccurate or the procedures are not measuring the same quantity. I argue that, due to the possibility of systematic error, the choice between and is underdetermined in principle by any possible evidence. Consequently, foundationalist criteria of quantity individuation are either empty or circular. I propose a coherentist, model-based account of measurement that avoids the underdetermination problem, (...)
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  29. Jerusalem Divided: The Hebrew University’s Philosophy Department Between Rotenstreich and Bar-Hillel.Tal Meir Giladi - 2023 - Philosophia 51 (4):1949-1976.
    The years following Israel’s founding were formative ones for the development of philosophy as an academic discipline in this country. During this period, the distinction between philosophy seen as contiguous with the humanities and social sciences, and philosophy seen as adjacent to the natural and exact sciences began to make its presence felt in the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. This distinction, which was manifest in the curriculum, was by no means unique to the Hebrew University, but reflected the broader bifurcation (...)
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  30.  26
    The effect of object–valence relations on automatic evaluation.Tal Moran & Yoav Bar-Anan - 2013 - Cognition and Emotion 27 (4):743-752.
  31.  23
    Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Can Induce Angiogenesis and Regeneration of Nerve Fibers in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients.Sigal Tal, Amir Hadanny, Efrat Sasson, Gil Suzin & Shai Efrati - 2017 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 11.
  32.  18
    How sequence learning unfolds: Insights from anticipatory eye movements.Amir Tal & Eli Vakil - 2020 - Cognition 201 (C):104291.
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  33.  4
    A shared novelty-seeking basis for creativity and curiosity: Response to the commentators.Tal Ivancovsky, Shira Baror & Moshe Bar - 2024 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 47:e119.
    In our target article, we proposed that curiosity and creativity are both manifestations of the same novelty-seeking process. We received 29 commentaries from diverse disciplines that add insights to our initial proposal. These commentaries ultimately expanded and supplemented our model. Here we draw attention to five central practical and theoretical issues that were raised by the commentators: (1) The complex construct of novelty and associated concepts; (2) the underlying subsystems and possible mechanisms; (3) the different pathways and subtypes of curiosity (...)
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  34. Preference, rational choice and arrow's theorem.Tal Scriven - 1981 - Journal of Philosophy 78 (12):778-785.
  35.  39
    Neurocognitive biases and the patterns of spontaneous correlations in the human cortex.Tal Harmelech & Rafael Malach - 2013 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 17 (12):606-615.
  36. From data to phenomena and back again: computer-simulated signatures.Eran Tal - 2011 - Synthese 182 (1):117-129.
    This paper draws attention to an increasingly common method of using computer simulations to establish evidential standards in physics. By simulating an actual detection procedure on a computer, physicists produce patterns of data (‘signatures’) that are expected to be observed if a sought-after phenomenon is present. Claims to detect the phenomenon are evaluated by comparing such simulated signatures with actual data. Here I provide a justification for this practice by showing how computer simulations establish the reliability of detection procedures. I (...)
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  37.  3
    Privacy preserving region optimal algorithms for symmetric and asymmetric DCOPs.Tal Grinshpoun, Tamir Tassa, Vadim Levit & Roie Zivan - 2019 - Artificial Intelligence 266 (C):27-50.
  38.  21
    A Joint Deep Recommendation Framework for Location-Based Social Networks.Omer Tal & Yang Liu - 2019 - Complexity 2019:1-11.
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  39.  16
    Educational Policymaking and the Methodology of Positive Economics: A Theoretical Critique.Tal Gilead - 2014 - Educational Theory 64 (4):349-368.
    By critically interrogating the methodological foundations of orthodox economic theory, Tal Gilead challenges the growing conviction in educational policymaking quarters that, being more scientific than other forms of educational investigation, inquiries grounded in orthodox economics should provide the basis for educational policymaking. He argues that the main methodological problem with accepting orthodox economic theory as a guide to educational policymaking is not, as commonly claimed, its alleged reliance on a materialistic and egoistic conception of human nature, but rather its embracement (...)
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  40. The Impact of Information Structure on the Emergence of Differential Object Marking: An Experimental Study.Shira Tal, Kenny Smith, Jennifer Culbertson, Eitan Grossman & Inbal Arnon - 2022 - Cognitive Science 46 (3):e13119.
    Cognitive Science, Volume 46, Issue 3, March 2022.
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  41.  52
    Self-Intimation, Infallibility, and Higher-Order Evidence.Eyal Tal - 2020 - Erkenntnis 85 (3):665-672.
    The Self-Intimation thesis has it that whatever justificatory status a proposition has, i.e., whether or not we are justified in believing it, we are justified in believing that it has that status. The Infallibility thesis has it that whatever justificatory status we are justified in believing that a proposition has, the proposition in fact has that status. Jointly, Self-Intimation and Infallibility imply that the justificatory status of a proposition closely aligns with the justification we have about that justificatory status. Self-Intimation (...)
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  42.  70
    Joint Rhythmic Movement Increases 4-Year-Old Children’s Prosocial Sharing and Fairness Toward Peers.Tal-Chen Rabinowitch & Andrew N. Meltzoff - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
  43.  53
    Rousseau, happiness, and the economic approach to education.Tal Gilead - 2012 - Educational Theory 62 (3):267-285.
    Since the 1960s, the influence of economic thought on education has been steadily increasing. Taking Jean-Jacques Rousseau's educational thought as a point of departure, Tal Gilead critically inquires into the philosophical foundations of what can be termed the economic approach to education. Gilead's focus in this essay is on happiness and the role that education should play in promoting it. The first two parts of the essay provide an introduction to Rousseau's conception of happiness, followed by an examination of the (...)
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  44. The Emergence of Marx’s Concept of Subsumption.Tal Meir Giladi - 2024 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 1.
    In Marx’s posthumously published manuscripts from 1857–1863, we find a systematic exposition of his concept of subsumption. Though much has been written about it, significant interpretative gaps persist. In this article, I begin filling these gaps by examining the emergence of Marx’s concept of subsumption. I will argue that in the Grundrisse Marx brings together distinct but complementary elements from Hegel’s theories of judgment and teleology to coin two new and well delineated concepts of subsumption that prefigure his later concepts (...)
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  45.  11
    Rational Adaptation in Lexical Prediction: The Influence of Prediction Strength.Tal Ness & Aya Meltzer-Asscher - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Recent studies indicate that the processing of an unexpected word is costly when the initial, disconfirmed prediction was strong. This penalty was suggested to stem from commitment to the strongly predicted word, requiring its inhibition when disconfirmed. Additional studies show that comprehenders rationally adapt their predictions in different situations. In the current study, we hypothesized that since the disconfirmation of strong predictions incurs costs, it would also trigger adaptation mechanisms influencing the processing of subsequent strong predictions. In two experiments, participants (...)
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  46. Guided school visits to natural history museums in Israel: Teachers' roles.Revital Tal, Yael Bamberger & Orly Morag - 2005 - Science Education 89 (6):920-935.
     
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  47.  74
    Two Myths of Representational Measurement.Eran Tal - 2021 - Perspectives on Science 29 (6):701-741.
    Axiomatic measurement theories are commonly interpreted as claiming that, in order to quantify an empirical domain, the qualitative structure of data about that domain must be mapped to a numerical structure. Such mapping is supposed to be established independently, i.e., without presupposing that the domain can be quantified. This interpretation is based on two myths: that it is possible to independently infer the qualitative structure of objects from empirical data, and that the adequacy of numerical representations can only be justified (...)
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  48.  13
    Principles of Samaritan Halachah.Abraham Tal, Iain Ruairidh Mac Mhanainn Bóid & Iain Ruairidh Mac Mhanainn Boid - 1992 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 112 (3):531.
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  49.  7
    Bamana Texts in Arabic Characters: Some Leaves from Mali.Tal Tamari - 2017 - In Mauro Nobili & Andrea Brigaglia (eds.), The Arts and Crafts of Literacy: Islamic Manuscript Cultures in Sub-Saharan Africa. De Gruyter. pp. 207-278.
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  50.  44
    Education and the Logic of Economic Progress.Tal Gilead - 2012 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 46 (1):113-131.
    Over the last few decades, the idea that education should function to promote economic progress has played a major role in shaping educational policy. So far, however, philosophers of education have shown relatively little interest in analysing this notion and its implications. The present article critically examines, from a philosophical perspective, the link between education and the currently prevailing understanding of economic progress, which is grounded in human capital theory. A number of familiar philosophical objections to the idea that economic (...)
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