13 found
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  1.  78
    A Theory of Causal Learning in Children: Causal Maps and Bayes Nets.Alison Gopnik, Clark Glymour, Laura Schulz, Tamar Kushnir & David Danks - 2004 - Psychological Review 111 (1):3-32.
    We propose that children employ specialized cognitive systems that allow them to recover an accurate “causal map” of the world: an abstract, coherent, learned representation of the causal relations among events. This kind of knowledge can be perspicuously understood in terms of the formalism of directed graphical causal models, or “Bayes nets”. Children’s causal learning and inference may involve computations similar to those for learning causal Bayes nets and for predicting with them. Experimental results suggest that 2- to 4-year-old children (...)
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  2.  43
    Developing Intuitions About Free Will Between Ages Four and Six.Tamar Kushnir, Alison Gopnik, Nadia Chernyak, Elizabeth Seiver & Henry M. Wellman - 2015 - Cognition 138:79-101.
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  3.  6
    Knowledge Matters: How Children Evaluate the Reliability of Testimony as a Process of Rational Inference.David M. Sobel & Tamar Kushnir - 2013 - Psychological Review 120 (4):779-797.
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  4.  47
    A Comparison of American and Nepalese Children's Concepts of Freedom of Choice and Social Constraint.Nadia Chernyak, Tamar Kushnir, Katherine M. Sullivan & Qi Wang - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (7):1343-1355.
    Recent work has shown that preschool-aged children and adults understand freedom of choice regardless of culture, but that adults across cultures differ in perceiving social obligations as constraints on action. To investigate the development of these cultural differences and universalities, we interviewed school-aged children (4–11) in Nepal and the United States regarding beliefs about people's freedom of choice and constraint to follow preferences, perform impossible acts, and break social obligations. Children across cultures and ages universally endorsed the choice to follow (...)
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  5. Learning From Doing: Intervention and Causal Inference.Laura Schulz, Tamar Kushnir & Alison Gopnik - 2007 - In Alison Gopnik & Laura Schulz (eds.), Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation. Oxford University Press. pp. 67--85.
  6.  16
    When Choices Are Not Personal: The Effect of Statistical and Social Cues on Children's Inferences About the Scope of Preferences.Gil Diesendruck, Shira Salzer, Tamar Kushnir & Fei Xu - 2015 - Journal of Cognition and Development 16 (2):370-380.
    Individual choices are commonly taken to manifest personal preferences. The present study investigated whether social and statistical cues influence young children's inferences about the generalizability of preferences. Preschoolers were exposed to either 1 or 2 demonstrators’ selections of objects. The selected objects constituted 18%, 50%, or 100% of all available objects. We found that children took a single demonstrator's choices as indicative only of his or her personal preference. However, when 2 demonstrators made the same selection, then children inferred that (...)
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  7.  5
    The Role of Preschoolers’ Social Understanding in Evaluating the Informativeness of Causal Interventions.Tamar Kushnir, Henry M. Wellman & Susan A. Gelman - 2008 - Cognition 107 (3):1084-1092.
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  8.  7
    The Self as a Moral Agent: Preschoolers Behave Morally but Believe in the Freedom to Do Otherwise.Nadia Chernyak & Tamar Kushnir - 2014 - Journal of Cognition and Development 15 (3):453-464.
    Recent work suggests a strong connection between intuitions regarding our own free will and our moral behavior. We investigate the origins of this link by asking whether preschool-aged children construe their own moral actions as freely chosen. We gave children the option to make three moral/social choices (avoiding harm to another, following a rule, and following peer behavior) and then asked them to retrospect as to whether they were free to have done otherwise. When given the choice to act (either (...)
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  9.  30
    Inferring Hidden Causal Structure.Tamar Kushnir, Alison Gopnik, Chris Lucas & Laura Schulz - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (1):148-160.
    We used a new method to assess how people can infer unobserved causal structure from patterns of observed events. Participants were taught to draw causal graphs, and then shown a pattern of associations and interventions on a novel causal system. Given minimal training and no feedback, participants in Experiment 1 used causal graph notation to spontaneously draw structures containing one observed cause, one unobserved common cause, and two unobserved independent causes, depending on the pattern of associations and interventions they saw. (...)
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  10.  8
    Development Links Psychological Causes to Evolutionary Explanations.Mark Fedyk & Tamar Kushnir - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (2):142-143.
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  11.  18
    The Developmental and Cultural Psychology of Free Will.Tamar Kushnir - 2018 - Philosophy Compass 13 (11):e12529.
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  12.  19
    Understanding the Adult Moralist Requires First Understanding the Child Scientist.Tamar Kushnir & Nadia Chernyak - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (4):343-344.
    Children learn from people and about people simultaneously; that is, children consider evidentiary qualities of human actions which cross traditional domain boundaries. We propose that Knobe's moral asymmetries are a natural consequence of this learning process: the way gather evidence for causation, intention, and morality through early social experiences.
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  13.  16
    Young Children's Help‐Seeking as Active Information Gathering.Christopher Vredenburgh & Tamar Kushnir - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (3):697-722.
    Young children's social learning is a topic of great interest. Here, we examined preschoolers’ help-seeking as a social information gathering activity that may optimize and support children's opportunities for learning. In a toy assembly task, we assessed each child's competency at assembling toys and the difficulty of each step of the task. We hypothesized that children's help-seeking would be a function of both initial competency and task difficulty. The results confirmed this prediction; all children were more likely to seek assistance (...)
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