39 found
Order:
See also
Tarja Knuuttila
University of Vienna
  1. Modelling and Representing: An Artefactual Approach to Model-Based Representation.Tarja Knuuttila - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (2):262-271.
    The recent discussion on scientific representation has focused on models and their relationship to the real world. It has been assumed that models give us knowledge because they represent their supposed real target systems. However, here agreement among philosophers of science has tended to end as they have presented widely different views on how representation should be understood. I will argue that the traditional representational approach is too limiting as regards the epistemic value of modelling given the focus on the (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   85 citations  
  2. Models, Representation, and Mediation.Tarja Knuuttila - 2005 - Philosophy of Science 72 (5):1260-1271.
    Representation has been one of the main themes in the recent discussion of models. Several authors have argued for a pragmatic approach to representation that takes users and their interpretations into account. It appears to me, however, that this emphasis on representation places excessive limitations on our view of models and their epistemic value. Models should rather be thought of as epistemic artifacts through which we gain knowledge in diverse ways. Approaching models this way stresses their materiality and media-specificity. Focusing (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   67 citations  
  3.  86
    Isolating Representations Versus Credible Constructions? Economic Modelling in Theory and Practice.Tarja Knuuttila - 2009 - Erkenntnis 70 (1):59-80.
    This paper examines two recent approaches to the nature and functioning of economic models: models as isolating representations and models as credible constructions. The isolationist view conceives of economic models as surrogate systems that isolate some of the causal mechanisms or tendencies of their respective target systems, while the constructionist approach treats them rather like pure constructions or fictional entities that nevertheless license different kinds of inferences. I will argue that whereas the isolationist view is still tied to the representationalist (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   32 citations  
  4.  84
    Modelling as Indirect Representation? The Lotka–Volterra Model Revisited.Tarja Knuuttila & Andrea Loettgers - 2017 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 68 (4):1007-1036.
    ABSTRACT Is there something specific about modelling that distinguishes it from many other theoretical endeavours? We consider Michael Weisberg’s thesis that modelling is a form of indirect representation through a close examination of the historical roots of the Lotka–Volterra model. While Weisberg discusses only Volterra’s work, we also study Lotka’s very different design of the Lotka–Volterra model. We will argue that while there are elements of indirect representation in both Volterra’s and Lotka’s modelling approaches, they are largely due to two (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  5. How Do Models Give Us Knowledge? The Case of Carnot’s Ideal Heat Engine.Tarja Knuuttila & Mieke Boon - 2011 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 1 (3):309-334.
    Our concern is in explaining how and why models give us useful knowledge. We argue that if we are to understand how models function in the actual scientific practice the representational approach to models proves either misleading or too minimal. We propose turning from the representational approach to the artefactual, which implies also a new unit of analysis: the activity of modelling. Modelling, we suggest, could be approached as a specific practice in which concrete artefacts, i.e., models, are constructed with (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   22 citations  
  6.  81
    Varieties of Noise: Analogical Reasoning in Synthetic Biology.Tarja Knuuttila & Andrea Loettgers - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 48:76-88.
    The picture of synthetic biology as a kind of engineering science has largely created the public understanding of this novel field, covering both its promises and risks. In this paper, we will argue that the actual situation is more nuanced and complex. Synthetic biology is a highly interdisciplinary field of research located at the interface of physics, chemistry, biology, and computational science. All of these fields provide concepts, metaphors, mathematical tools, and models, which are typically utilized by synthetic biologists by (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   15 citations  
  7.  38
    Basic Science Through Engineering? Synthetic Modeling and the Idea of Biology-Inspired Engineering.Tarja Knuuttila & Andrea Loettgers - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (2):158-169.
    Synthetic biology is often understood in terms of the pursuit for well-characterized biological parts to create synthetic wholes. Accordingly, it has typically been conceived of as an engineering dominated and application oriented field. We argue that the relationship of synthetic biology to engineering is far more nuanced than that and involves a sophisticated epistemic dimension, as shown by the recent practice of synthetic modeling. Synthetic models are engineered genetic networks that are implanted in a natural cell environment. Their construction is (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   20 citations  
  8.  20
    Basic Science Through Engineering?: Synthetic Modeling and the Idea of Biology-Inspired Engineering.Tarja Knuuttila & Andrea Loettgers - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (2):158-169.
    Synthetic biology is often understood in terms of the pursuit for well-characterized biological parts to create synthetic wholes. Accordingly, it has typically been conceived of as an engineering dominated and application oriented field. We argue that the relationship of synthetic biology to engineering is far more nuanced than that and involves a sophisticated epistemic dimension, as shown by the recent practice of synthetic modeling. Synthetic models are engineered genetic networks that are implanted in a natural cell environment. Their construction is (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations  
  9.  38
    Model Templates Within and Between Disciplines: From Magnets to Gases – and Socio-Economic Systems.Tarja Knuuttila & Andrea Loettgers - 2016 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 6 (3):377-400.
    One striking feature of the contemporary modelling practice is its interdisciplinary nature. The same equation forms, and mathematical and computational methods, are used across different disciplines, as well as within the same discipline. Are there, then, differences between intra- and interdisciplinary transfer, and can the comparison between the two provide more insight on the challenges of interdisciplinary theoretical work? We will study the development and various uses of the Ising model within physics, contrasting them to its applications to socio-economic systems. (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  10.  69
    Causal Isolation Robustness Analysis: The Combinatorial Strategy of Circadian Clock Research.Tarja Knuuttila & Andrea Loettgers - 2011 - Biology and Philosophy 26 (5):773-791.
    This paper distinguishes between causal isolation robustness analysis and independent determination robustness analysis and suggests that the triangulation of the results of different epistemic means or activities serves different functions in them. Circadian clock research is presented as a case of causal isolation robustness analysis: in this field researchers made use of the notion of robustness to isolate the assumed mechanism behind the circadian rhythm. However, in contrast to the earlier philosophical case studies on causal isolation robustness analysis (Weisberg and (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations  
  11.  36
    Imagination Extended and Embedded: Artifactual Versus Fictional Accounts of Models.Tarja Knuuttila - forthcoming - Synthese:1-21.
    This paper presents an artifactual approach to models that also addresses their fictional features. It discusses first the imaginary accounts of models and fiction that set model descriptions apart from imagined-objects, concentrating on the latter :251–268, 2010; Frigg and Nguyen in The Monist 99:225–242, 2016; Godfrey-Smith in Biol Philos 21:725–740, 2006; Philos Stud 143:101–116, 2009). While the imaginary approaches accommodate surrogative reasoning as an important characteristic of scientific modeling, they simultaneously raise difficult questions concerning how the imagined entities are related (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  12.  19
    Deidealization: No Easy Reversals.Tarja Knuuttila & Mary S. Morgan - 2019 - Philosophy of Science 86 (4):641-661.
    Deidealization as a topic in its own right has attracted remarkably little philosophical interest despite the extensive literature on idealization. One reason for this is the often implicit assumption that idealization and deidealization are, potentially at least, reversible processes. We question this assumption by analyzing the challenges of deidealization within a menu of four broad categories: deidealizing as recomposing, deidealizing as reformulating, deidealizing as concretizing, and deidealizing as situating. On closer inspection, models turn out much more inflexible than the reversal (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  13.  4
    The Productive Tension : Mechanisms Vs. Templates in Modeling the Phenomena.Tarja Knuuttila & Andrea Loettgers - 2011 - In Paul Humphreys & Cyrille Imbert (eds.), Models, Simulations, and Representations. Routledge.
  14.  31
    Modelling Gene Regulation: (De)Compositional and Template-Based Strategies.Tarja Knuuttila & Vivette García Deister - 2019 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 77:101-111.
  15. An Objectual Approach to Scientific Understanding: The Case of Models.Tarja Knuuttila & Martina Merz - 2009 - In Henk De Regt, Sabina Leonelli & Kai Eigner (eds.), Scientific Understanding: Philosophical Perspectives. University of Pittsburgh Press. pp. 146--168.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  16.  33
    Synthetic Modeling and Mechanistic Account: Material Recombination and Beyond.Tarja Knuuttila & Andrea Loettgers - 2013 - Philosophy of Science 80 (5):874-885.
    Recently, Bechtel and Abrahamsen have argued that mathematical models study the dynamics of mechanisms by recomposing the components and their operations into an appropriately organized system. We will study this claim through the practice of combinational modeling in circadian clock research. In combinational modeling, experiments on model organisms and mathematical/computational models are combined with a new type of model—a synthetic model. We argue that the strategy of recomposition is more complicated than what Bechtel and Abrahamsen indicate. Moreover, synthetic modeling as (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  17.  53
    What Are Definitions of Life Good For? Transdisciplinary and Other Definitions in Astrobiology.Tarja Knuuttila & Andrea Loettgers - 2017 - Biology and Philosophy 32 (6):1185-1203.
    The attempt to define life has gained new momentum in the wake of novel fields such as synthetic biology, astrobiology, and artificial life. In a series of articles, Cleland, Chyba, and Machery claim that definitions of life seek to provide necessary and sufficient conditions for applying the concept of life—something that such definitions cannot, and should not do. We argue that this criticism is largely unwarranted. Cleland, Chyba, and Machery approach definitions of life as classifying devices, thereby neglecting their other (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  18.  86
    A Parser as an Epistemic Artifact: A Material View on Models.Tarja Knuuttila & Atro Voutilainen - 2003 - Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1484-1495.
    The purpose of this paper is to suggest that models in scientific practice can be conceived of as epistemic artifacts. Approaching models this way accommodates many such things that working scientists themselves call models but that the semantic conception of models does not duly recognize as such. That models are epistemic artifacts implies, firstly, that they cannot be understood apart from purposeful human activity; secondly, that they are somehow materialized inhabitants of the intersubjective field of that activity; and thirdly, that (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   15 citations  
  19.  8
    Synthetic fictions: turning imagined biological systems into concrete ones.Tarja Knuuttila & Rami Koskinen - forthcoming - Synthese:1-18.
    The recent discussion of fictional models has focused on imagination, implicitly considering fictions as something nonconcrete. We present two cases from synthetic biology that can be viewed as concrete fictions. Both minimal cells and alternative genetic systems are modal in nature: they, as well as their abstract cousins, can be used to study unactualized possibilia. We approach these synthetic constructs through Vaihinger’s notion of a semi-fiction and Goodman’s notion of semifactuality. Our study highlights the relative existence of such concrete fictions. (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  20.  36
    Modeling and Experimenting: The Combinatorial Strategy in Synthetic Biology.Tarja Knuuttila & Andrea Loettgers - unknown
    In which respects do modeling and experimenting resemble or differ from each other? We explore this question through studying in detail the combinatorial strategy in synthetic biology whereby scientists triangulate experimentation on model organisms, mathematical modeling, and synthetic modeling. We argue that this combinatorial strategy is due to the characteristic constraints of the three epistemic activities. Moreover, our case study shows that in some cases materiality clearly matters, in fact it provides the very rationale of synthetic modeling. We will show (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  21.  26
    Philosophical Perspectives on Synthetic Biology.Gabriele Gramelsberger, Tarja Knuuttila & Axel Gelfert - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (2):119-121.
  22.  44
    Contradictions of Commercialization: Revealing the Norms of Science?Tarja Knuuttila - 2012 - Philosophy of Science 79 (5):833-844.
  23.  3
    Mathematization in Synthetic Biology: Analogies, Templates, and Fictions.Andrea Loettgers & Tarja Knuuttila - 2017 - In Martin Carrier & Johannes Lenhard (eds.), Mathematics as a Tool. Tracing New Roles of Mathematics in the Sciences. Springer Verlag.
    In his famous article “The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences” Eugen Wigner argues for a unique tie between mathematics and physics, invoking even religious language: “The miracle of the appropriateness of the language of mathematics for the formulation of the laws of physics is a wonderful gift which we neither understand nor deserve”. The possible existence of such a unique match between mathematics and physics has been extensively discussed by philosophers and historians of mathematics. Whatever the merits (...)
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  24.  22
    Some Consequences of the Pragmatist Approach to Representation.Tarja Knuuttila - 2010 - In M. Dorato M. Suàrez (ed.), Epsa Epistemology and Methodology of Science. Springer. pp. 139--148.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  25.  30
    An Artifactual Perspective on Idealization: Constant Capacitance and the Hodgkin and Huxley Model.Natalia Carrillo & Tarja Knuuttila - 2021 - In Alejandro Cassini & Juan Redmond (eds.), Models and Idealizations in Science: Fictional and Artefactual Approaches. Cham: Springer.
    There are two traditions of thinking about idealization offering almost opposite views on their functioning and epistemic status. While one tradition views idealizations as epistemic deficiencies, the other one highlights the epistemic benefits of idealization. Both of these, however, identify idealization with misrepresentation. In this article, we instead approach idealization from the artifactual perspective, comparing it to the distortion-to-reality accounts of idealization, and exemplifying it through the case of the Hodgkin and Huxley model of nerve impulse. From the artifactual perspective, (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  26.  5
    Epistemic Artifacts and the Modal Dimension of Modeling.Tarja Knuuttila - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 11 (3):1-18.
    The epistemic value of models has traditionally been approached from a representational perspective. This paper argues that the artifactual approach evades the problem of accounting for representation and better accommodates the modal dimension of modeling. From an artifactual perspective, models are viewed as erotetic vehicles constrained by their construction and available representational tools. The modal dimension of modeling is approached through two case studies. The first portrays mathematical modeling in economics, while the other discusses the modeling practice of synthetic biology, (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  27. Intermingling Academic and Business Activities: A New Direction for Science and Universities?Tarja Knuuttila & Juha Tuunainen - 2009 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 34 (6):684-704.
    The growing role of universities in the knowledge economy as well as technology transfer has increasingly been conceptualized in terms of the hybridization of public academic work and private business activity. In this article, we examine the difficulties and prospects of this kind of intermingling by studying the long-term trajectories of two research groups operating in the fields of plant biotechnology and language technology. In both cases, the attempts to simultaneously pursue academic and commercial activities led to complicated boundary maintenance, (...)
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  28.  38
    Is Representation Really in Crisis?Tarja Knuuttila - 2003 - Semiotica 2003 (143).
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  29. Language Technological Models as Epistemic Artefacts: The Case of Constraint Grammar Parser.Tarja Knuuttila - 2007 - In Gordana Dodig Crnkovic & Susan Stuart (eds.), Computation, Information, Cognition: The Nexus and the Liminal. Cambridge Scholars Press. pp. 280--289.
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  30. Models, Fictions and Artifacts.Tarja Knuuttila - unknown
    This paper discusses modeling from the artifactual perspective. The artifactual approach conceives models as erotetic devices. They are purpose-built systems of dependencies that are constrained in view of answering a pending scientific question, motivated by theoretical or empirical considerations. In treating models as artifacts, the artifactual approach is able to address the various languages of sciences that are overlooked by the traditional accounts that concentrate on the relationship of representation in an abstract and general manner. In contrast, the artifactual approach (...)
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  31. Magnetized Memories: Analogies and Templates in Model Transfer.Tarja Knuuttila & Andrea Loettgers - unknown
    One striking feature of the contemporary modeling practice is its interdisciplinarity: the same function forms and equations, and mathematical and computational methods are being transferred across disciplinary boundaries. Within philosophy of science this interdisciplinary dimension of modeling has been addressed by both analogy and template-based approaches that have proceeded separately from each other. We argue that a more fully-blown account of model transfer needs both perspectives. We examine analogical reasoning and template application through a detailed case study on the transfer (...)
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  32. Questioning External and Internal Representation The Case of Scientific Models Tarja Knuuttila and Timo Honkela.Tarja Knuuttila - 2005 - In L. Magnani & R. Dossena (eds.), Computing, Philosophy and Cognition. pp. 4--209.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  33.  21
    Review of Roger E. Backhouse, Bradley W. Bateman (Eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Keynes[REVIEW]Tarja Knuuttila - 2007 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2007 (4).
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  34. Representaatio: Tiedon Kivijalasta Tieteiden Työkaluksi.Tarja Knuuttila & Aki Petteri Lehtinen (eds.) - 2010 - Gaudeamus Helsinki University Press.
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  35.  19
    Synthetic Biology as an Engineering Science? Analogical Reasoning, Synthetic Modeling, and Integration.Tarja Knuuttila & Andrea Loettgers - 2013 - In Hanne Andersen, Dennis Dieks, Wenceslao González, Thomas Uebel & Gregory Wheeler (eds.), New Challenges to Philosophy of Science. Springer Verlag. pp. 163--177.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  36.  17
    Science in a New Mode: Good Old (Theoretical) Science Versus Brave New (Commodified) Knowledge Production?Tarja Knuuttila - 2013 - Science & Education 22 (10):2443-2461.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  37.  20
    Synthetic Modeling and the Functional Role of Noise.Tarja Knuuttila & Andrea Loettgers - unknown
    In synthetic biology the use of engineering metaphors to describe biological organisms and their behavior has become a common practice. The concept of noise provides one of the most compelling examples of such transfer. But this notion is also confusing: While in engineering noise is a destructive force perturbing artificial systems, in synthetic biology it has acquired an additional functional meaning. It has been found out that noise is an important factor in driving biological processes such as gene regulation, development, (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  38. Scientific Models in Philosophy of Science.Tarja Knuuttila - 2010 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 24 (4):437-440.
    Scientists have used models for hundreds of years as a means of describing phenomena and as a basis for further analogy. In Scientific Models in Philosophy of Science, Daniela Bailer-Jones assembles an original and comprehensive philosophical analysis of how models have been used and interpreted in both historical and contemporary contexts. Bailer-Jones delineates the many forms models can take (ranging from equations to animals; from physical objects to theoretical constructs), and how they are put to use. She examines early mechanical (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  39. Elämä ja mahdollinen elämä - Filosofisia näkökulmia.Rami Koskinen & Tarja Knuuttila - 2017 - In Kari Enqvist, Ilari Hetemäki & Teija Tiilikainen (eds.), Kaikki vapaudesta. Helsinki, Suomi: pp. 247-259.
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark