Results for 'Tarja Pietil��inen'

92 found
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  1.  18
    Organisational and Individual Support for Nurses’ Ethical Competence: A Cross-Sectional Survey.Tarja Poikkeus, Riitta Suhonen, Jouko Katajisto & Helena Leino-Kilpi - 2018 - Nursing Ethics 25 (3):376-392.
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  2. Questioning External and Internal Representation The Case of Scientific Models Tarja Knuuttila and Timo Honkela.Tarja Knuuttila - 2005 - In L. Magnani & R. Dossena (eds.), Computing, Philosophy and Cognition. pp. 4--209.
     
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  3.  1
    Holistic Idealization: An Artifactual Standpoint.Tarja Knuuttila & Natalia Carrillo - 2022 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 91:49-59.
    Idealization is commonly understood as distortion: representing things differently than how they actually are. In this paper, we outline an alternative artifactual approach that does not make misrepresentation central for the analysis of idealization. We examine the contrast between the Hodgkin-Huxley (1952a, b, c) and the Heimburg-Jackson (2005, 2006) models of the nerve impulse from the artifactual perspective, and argue that, since the two models draw upon different epistemic resources and research programs, it is often difficult to tell which features (...)
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  4. True Fiction: Philosophy and Psychology of Religious Belief.Ilkka Pyysia¨Inen - 2003 - Philosophical Psychology 16 (1):109-125.
    The phenomenon of religious belief has been much discussed in philosophy of religion. However, a priori argumentation alone cannot establish what religious belief is like as a psychological attitude. Recent advances in the cognitive science of religion have paved the way for a new, naturalized philosophy of religion. Taking into account the relevant results and hypotheses presented within these disciplines, it is possible to develop a more empirically informed philosophy of religious belief. Instead of asking whether believing is rational, it (...)
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  5.  4
    An Artifactual Perspective on Idealization: Constant Capacitance and the Hodgkin and Huxley Model.Natalia Carrillo & Tarja Knuuttila - 2021 - In Alejandro Cassini & Juan Redmond (eds.), Models and Idealizations in Science: Artifactual and Fictional Approaches. Springer Verlag. pp. 51-70.
    Natalia Carrillo and Tarja Knuuttila claim that there are two traditions of thinking about idealization offering almost opposite views on their functioning and epistemic status. While one tradition views idealizations as epistemic deficiencies, the other one highlights the epistemic benefits of idealization. Both of them treat idealizations as deliberate misrepresentations, however. They then argue for an artifactual account of idealization, comparing it to the traditional accounts of idealization, and exemplifying it through the Hodgkin and Huxley model of the nerve (...)
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  6. Modelling and Representing: An Artefactual Approach to Model-Based Representation.Tarja Knuuttila - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (2):262-271.
    The recent discussion on scientific representation has focused on models and their relationship to the real world. It has been assumed that models give us knowledge because they represent their supposed real target systems. However, here agreement among philosophers of science has tended to end as they have presented widely different views on how representation should be understood. I will argue that the traditional representational approach is too limiting as regards the epistemic value of modelling given the focus on the (...)
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  7. Russian Women in the Defence Industry and the Transformation of Their Identities.Tarja Cronberg - 1997 - European Journal of Women's Studies 4 (3):263-281.
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  8. In Quest of Certainty: Axel Fredrik Granfelt's Theological Epistemology.Tarja-Liisa Luukkanen - 1941 - Luther-Agricola-Gesellschaft.
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  9.  31
    Privacy and Equality in Diagnostic Genetic Testing.Tarja Nyrhinen, Marja Hietala, Pauli Puukka & Helena Leino-Kilpi - 2007 - Nursing Ethics 14 (3):295-308.
    This study aimed to determine the extent to which the principles of privacy and equality were observed during diagnostic genetic testing according to views held by patients or child patients' parents (n = 106) and by staff (n = 162) from three Finnish university hospitals. The data were collected through a structured questionnaire and analysed using the SAS 8.1 statistical software. In general, the two principles were observed relatively satisfactorily in clinical practice. According to patients/parents, equality in the post-analytic phase (...)
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  10. Models, Representation, and Mediation.Tarja Knuuttila - 2005 - Philosophy of Science 72 (5):1260-1271.
    Representation has been one of the main themes in the recent discussion of models. Several authors have argued for a pragmatic approach to representation that takes users and their interpretations into account. It appears to me, however, that this emphasis on representation places excessive limitations on our view of models and their epistemic value. Models should rather be thought of as epistemic artifacts through which we gain knowledge in diverse ways. Approaching models this way stresses their materiality and media-specificity. Focusing (...)
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  11.  22
    Tarja Laine (2015) Bodies in Pain: Emotion and the Cinema of Darren Aronofsky, Oxford: Berghahn. 196pp.Michelle Devereaux - 2015 - Film-Philosophy 19 (1).
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  12.  44
    Deidealization: No Easy Reversals.Tarja Knuuttila & Mary S. Morgan - 2019 - Philosophy of Science 86 (4):641-661.
    Deidealization as a topic in its own right has attracted remarkably little philosophical interest despite the extensive literature on idealization. One reason for this is the often implicit assumption that idealization and deidealization are, potentially at least, reversible processes. We question this assumption by analyzing the challenges of deidealization within a menu of four broad categories: deidealizing as recomposing, deidealizing as reformulating, deidealizing as concretizing, and deidealizing as situating. On closer inspection, models turn out much more inflexible than the reversal (...)
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  13. Modelling as Indirect Representation? The Lotka–Volterra Model Revisited.Tarja Knuuttila & Andrea Loettgers - 2017 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 68 (4):1007-1036.
    ABSTRACT Is there something specific about modelling that distinguishes it from many other theoretical endeavours? We consider Michael Weisberg’s thesis that modelling is a form of indirect representation through a close examination of the historical roots of the Lotka–Volterra model. While Weisberg discusses only Volterra’s work, we also study Lotka’s very different design of the Lotka–Volterra model. We will argue that while there are elements of indirect representation in both Volterra’s and Lotka’s modelling approaches, they are largely due to two (...)
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  14.  88
    Isolating Representations Versus Credible Constructions? Economic Modelling in Theory and Practice.Tarja Knuuttila - 2009 - Erkenntnis 70 (1):59-80.
    This paper examines two recent approaches to the nature and functioning of economic models: models as isolating representations and models as credible constructions. The isolationist view conceives of economic models as surrogate systems that isolate some of the causal mechanisms or tendencies of their respective target systems, while the constructionist approach treats them rather like pure constructions or fictional entities that nevertheless license different kinds of inferences. I will argue that whereas the isolationist view is still tied to the representationalist (...)
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  15.  1
    Co-Opting Feminist Voices for the War on Terror: Laura Bush Meets Nordic Feminism.Tarja Väyrynen & Berit von der Lippe - 2011 - European Journal of Women's Studies 18 (1):19-33.
    The article analyses Finland’s and Norway’s female politicians’ war rhetoric with reference to the war in Afghanistan and contrasts it with Laura Bush’s rhetoric and feminism. In the Nordic countries the strong liberal and equity tradition of feminism could open up spaces for thinking differently about war, and yet the co-optation of hegemonic war rhetoric occurs in several ways. The ideograph ‘women-and-children’ is often evoked and added to the hegemonic foreign policy rhetoric without questioning the actual rhetorical work it does. (...)
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  16. How Do Models Give Us Knowledge? The Case of Carnot’s Ideal Heat Engine.Tarja Knuuttila & Mieke Boon - 2011 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 1 (3):309-334.
    Our concern is in explaining how and why models give us useful knowledge. We argue that if we are to understand how models function in the actual scientific practice the representational approach to models proves either misleading or too minimal. We propose turning from the representational approach to the artefactual, which implies also a new unit of analysis: the activity of modelling. Modelling, we suggest, could be approached as a specific practice in which concrete artefacts, i.e., models, are constructed with (...)
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  17.  97
    Varieties of Noise: Analogical Reasoning in Synthetic Biology.Tarja Knuuttila & Andrea Loettgers - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 48:76-88.
    The picture of synthetic biology as a kind of engineering science has largely created the public understanding of this novel field, covering both its promises and risks. In this paper, we will argue that the actual situation is more nuanced and complex. Synthetic biology is a highly interdisciplinary field of research located at the interface of physics, chemistry, biology, and computational science. All of these fields provide concepts, metaphors, mathematical tools, and models, which are typically utilized by synthetic biologists by (...)
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  18.  80
    Imagination Extended and Embedded: Artifactual Versus Fictional Accounts of Models.Tarja Knuuttila - 2017 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 21):5077-5097.
    This paper presents an artifactual approach to models that also addresses their fictional features. It discusses first the imaginary accounts of models and fiction that set model descriptions apart from imagined-objects, concentrating on the latter :251–268, 2010; Frigg and Nguyen in The Monist 99:225–242, 2016; Godfrey-Smith in Biol Philos 21:725–740, 2006; Philos Stud 143:101–116, 2009). While the imaginary approaches accommodate surrogative reasoning as an important characteristic of scientific modeling, they simultaneously raise difficult questions concerning how the imagined entities are related (...)
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  19.  56
    Model Templates Within and Between Disciplines: From Magnets to Gases – and Socio-Economic Systems.Tarja Knuuttila & Andrea Loettgers - 2016 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 6 (3):377-400.
    One striking feature of the contemporary modelling practice is its interdisciplinary nature. The same equation forms, and mathematical and computational methods, are used across different disciplines, as well as within the same discipline. Are there, then, differences between intra- and interdisciplinary transfer, and can the comparison between the two provide more insight on the challenges of interdisciplinary theoretical work? We will study the development and various uses of the Ising model within physics, contrasting them to its applications to socio-economic systems. (...)
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  20.  38
    Basic Science Through Engineering? Synthetic Modeling and the Idea of Biology-Inspired Engineering.Tarja Knuuttila & Andrea Loettgers - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (2):158-169.
    Synthetic biology is often understood in terms of the pursuit for well-characterized biological parts to create synthetic wholes. Accordingly, it has typically been conceived of as an engineering dominated and application oriented field. We argue that the relationship of synthetic biology to engineering is far more nuanced than that and involves a sophisticated epistemic dimension, as shown by the recent practice of synthetic modeling. Synthetic models are engineered genetic networks that are implanted in a natural cell environment. Their construction is (...)
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  21.  14
    Exploring Forms of Triangulation to Facilitate Collaborative Research Practice: Reflections From a Multidisciplinary Research Group.Tarja Tiainen & Emma-Reetta Koivunen - 2006 - Journal of Research Practice 2 (2):Article M2.
    This article contains critical reflections of a multidisciplinary research group studying the human and technological dynamics around some newly offered electronic services in a specific rural area of Finland. For their research, the group adopted ethnography. On facing the challenges of doing ethnographic research in a multidisciplinary setting, the group evolved its own breed of research practice based on multiple forms of triangulation. This implied the use of multiple data sources, methods, theories, and researchers, in different combinations. One of the (...)
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  22.  36
    Epistemic Artifacts and the Modal Dimension of Modeling.Tarja Knuuttila - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 11 (3):1-18.
    The epistemic value of models has traditionally been approached from a representational perspective. This paper argues that the artifactual approach evades the problem of accounting for representation and better accommodates the modal dimension of modeling. From an artifactual perspective, models are viewed as erotetic vehicles constrained by their construction and available representational tools. The modal dimension of modeling is approached through two case studies. The first portrays mathematical modeling in economics, while the other discusses the modeling practice of synthetic biology, (...)
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  23.  27
    Magnetized Memories: Analogies and Templates in Model Transfer.Tarja Knuuttila & Andrea Loettgers - unknown
    One striking feature of the contemporary modeling practice is its interdisciplinarity: the same function forms and equations, and mathematical and computational methods are being transferred across disciplinary boundaries. Within philosophy of science this interdisciplinary dimension of modeling has been addressed by both analogy and template-based approaches that have proceeded separately from each other. We argue that a more fully-blown account of model transfer needs both perspectives. We examine analogical reasoning and template application through a detailed case study on the transfer (...)
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  24.  44
    Mathematization in Synthetic Biology: Analogies, Templates, and Fictions.Andrea Loettgers & Tarja Knuuttila - 2017 - In Martin Carrier & Johannes Lenhard (eds.), Mathematics as a Tool. Tracing New Roles of Mathematics in the Sciences. Springer Verlag.
    In his famous article “The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences” Eugen Wigner argues for a unique tie between mathematics and physics, invoking even religious language: “The miracle of the appropriateness of the language of mathematics for the formulation of the laws of physics is a wonderful gift which we neither understand nor deserve”. The possible existence of such a unique match between mathematics and physics has been extensively discussed by philosophers and historians of mathematics. Whatever the merits (...)
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  25. Variation and Flexibility Within Verb Idioms in Finnish'.Tarja Riitta Heinonen - 2007 - In Marja Nenonen & Sinikka Niemi (eds.), Collocations and Idioms 1: Papers From the First Nordic Conference on Syntactic Freezes, Joensuu, May 19-20, 2006. Joensuun Yliopisto. pp. 146.
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  26.  3
    Will the melancholic be saved? Jacob Böhme’s doctrine of »know thyself« and its reception in Finland.Tarja-Liisa Luukkanen - 2005 - In Udo Sträter (ed.), Interdisziplinäre Pietismusforschungen: Beiträge Zum Ersten Internationalen Kongress Für Pietismusforschung 2001. De Gruyter. pp. 121-126.
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  27.  20
    Synthetic Fictions: Turning Imagined Biological Systems Into Concrete Ones.Tarja Knuuttila & Rami Koskinen - 2020 - Synthese 198 (9):8233-8250.
    The recent discussion of fictional models has focused on imagination, implicitly considering fictions as something nonconcrete. We present two cases from synthetic biology that can be viewed as concrete fictions. Both minimal cells and alternative genetic systems are modal in nature: they, as well as their abstract cousins, can be used to study unactualized possibilia. We approach these synthetic constructs through Vaihinger’s notion of a semi-fiction and Goodman’s notion of semifactuality. Our study highlights the relative existence of such concrete fictions. (...)
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  28.  21
    Basic Science Through Engineering?: Synthetic Modeling and the Idea of Biology-Inspired Engineering.Tarja Knuuttila & Andrea Loettgers - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (2):158-169.
    Synthetic biology is often understood in terms of the pursuit for well-characterized biological parts to create synthetic wholes. Accordingly, it has typically been conceived of as an engineering dominated and application oriented field. We argue that the relationship of synthetic biology to engineering is far more nuanced than that and involves a sophisticated epistemic dimension, as shown by the recent practice of synthetic modeling. Synthetic models are engineered genetic networks that are implanted in a natural cell environment. Their construction is (...)
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  29.  60
    Contrasting Cases: The Lotka-Volterra Model Times Three.Tarja Knuuttila & Andrea Loettgers - 2016 - Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 319:151-178.
    How do philosophers of science make use of historical case studies? Are their accounts of historical cases purpose-built and lacking in evidential strength as a result of putting forth and discussing philosophical positions? We will study these questions through the examination of three different philosophical case studies. All of them focus on modeling and on Vito Volterra, contrasting his work to that of other theoreticians. We argue that the worries concerning the evidential role of historical case studies in philosophy are (...)
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  30.  28
    Philosophical Perspectives on Synthetic Biology.Gabriele Gramelsberger, Tarja Knuuttila & Axel Gelfert - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (2):119-121.
  31.  33
    Magnets, Spins, and Neurons: The Dissemination of Model Templates Across Disciplines.Tarja Knuuttila & Andrea Loettgers - 2014 - The Monist 97 (3):280-300.
    One of the most conspicuous features of contemporary modeling practices is the dissemination of mathematical and computational methods across disciplinary boundaries. We study this process through two applications of the Ising model: the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model of spin glasses and the Hopfield model of associative memory. The Hopfield model successfully transferred some basic ideas and mathematical methods originally developed within the study of magnetic systems to the field of neuroscience. As an analytical resource we use Paul Humphreys's discussion of computational and (...)
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  32.  85
    What Are Definitions of Life Good For? Transdisciplinary and Other Definitions in Astrobiology.Tarja Knuuttila & Andrea Loettgers - 2017 - Biology and Philosophy 32 (6):1185-1203.
    The attempt to define life has gained new momentum in the wake of novel fields such as synthetic biology, astrobiology, and artificial life. In a series of articles, Cleland, Chyba, and Machery claim that definitions of life seek to provide necessary and sufficient conditions for applying the concept of life—something that such definitions cannot, and should not do. We argue that this criticism is largely unwarranted. Cleland, Chyba, and Machery approach definitions of life as classifying devices, thereby neglecting their other (...)
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  33.  62
    A Holistic Corporate Responsibility Model: Integrating Values, Discourses and Actions.Tarja Ketola - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 80 (3):419-435.
    The corporate responsibility (CR) discussion has so far been rather fragmented as academics tackle it from their own areas of expertise, which guarantees in-depth analyses, but leaves room for broader syntheses. This research is a synthetic, interdisciplinary exercise: it integrates philosophical, psychological and managerial perspectives of corporate responsibility into a more holistic CR-model for the benefit of academics, companies and their interest groups. CR usually comprises three areas: environmental, social and economic responsibilities. In all these areas there should be a (...)
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  34.  72
    Causal Isolation Robustness Analysis: The Combinatorial Strategy of Circadian Clock Research.Tarja Knuuttila & Andrea Loettgers - 2011 - Biology and Philosophy 26 (5):773-791.
    This paper distinguishes between causal isolation robustness analysis and independent determination robustness analysis and suggests that the triangulation of the results of different epistemic means or activities serves different functions in them. Circadian clock research is presented as a case of causal isolation robustness analysis: in this field researchers made use of the notion of robustness to isolate the assumed mechanism behind the circadian rhythm. However, in contrast to the earlier philosophical case studies on causal isolation robustness analysis (Weisberg and (...)
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  35.  29
    Nurses’ Attitudes Towards Euthanasia in Conflict with Professional Ethical Guidelines.Anja Terkamo-Moisio, Tarja Kvist, Mari Kangasniemi, Teuvo Laitila, Olli-Pekka Ryynänen & Anna-Maija Pietilä - 2017 - Nursing Ethics 24 (1):70-86.
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  36.  87
    A Parser as an Epistemic Artifact: A Material View on Models.Tarja Knuuttila & Atro Voutilainen - 2003 - Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1484-1495.
    The purpose of this paper is to suggest that models in scientific practice can be conceived of as epistemic artifacts. Approaching models this way accommodates many such things that working scientists themselves call models but that the semantic conception of models does not duly recognize as such. That models are epistemic artifacts implies, firstly, that they cannot be understood apart from purposeful human activity; secondly, that they are somehow materialized inhabitants of the intersubjective field of that activity; and thirdly, that (...)
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  37. The Productive Tension : Mechanisms Vs. Templates in Modeling the Phenomena.Tarja Knuuttila & Andrea Loettgers - 2011 - In Paul Humphreys & Cyrille Imbert (eds.), Models, Simulations, and Representations. Routledge.
  38.  48
    Synthetic Modeling and Mechanistic Account: Material Recombination and Beyond.Tarja Knuuttila & Andrea Loettgers - 2013 - Philosophy of Science 80 (5):874-885.
    Recently, Bechtel and Abrahamsen have argued that mathematical models study the dynamics of mechanisms by recomposing the components and their operations into an appropriately organized system. We will study this claim through the practice of combinational modeling in circadian clock research. In combinational modeling, experiments on model organisms and mathematical/computational models are combined with a new type of model—a synthetic model. We argue that the strategy of recomposition is more complicated than what Bechtel and Abrahamsen indicate. Moreover, synthetic modeling as (...)
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  39.  4
    Vital Exhaustion, Temperament, and the Circumplex Model of Affect During Laboratory-Induced Stress.Tarja Heponiemi, Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen, Sampsa Puttonen & Niklas Ravaja - 2005 - Cognition and Emotion 19 (6):879-897.
  40. An Objectual Approach to Scientific Understanding: The Case of Models.Tarja Knuuttila & Martina Merz - 2009 - In Henk De Regt, Sabina Leonelli & Kai Eigner (eds.), Scientific Understanding: Philosophical Perspectives. University of Pittsburgh Press. pp. 146--168.
     
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  41.  31
    Modelling Gene Regulation: (De)Compositional and Template-Based Strategies.Tarja Knuuttila & Vivette García Deister - 2019 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 77:101-111.
  42.  28
    Breast Cancer Patients' Perceived Participation in Health Care: How Do Patients Themselves and Nurses Assess This Participation?Tarja Suominen, Helena Leino-Kilpi & Pekka Laippala - 1994 - Nursing Ethics 1 (2):96-109.
    The purpose of this study was to compare breast cancer patients' perceived partici pation in their own care with nurses' perceptions of such participation. Both groups reported that patients are able and willing to take part in their own care more actively than allowed under the present health care system. Nurses also reported that they do provide patients with opportunities for participation.
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  43.  57
    Imprisoned in Disgust: Roman Polanski's Repulsion.Tarja Laine - 2011 - Film-Philosophy 15 (2):36-50.
    Noël Carroll has suggested that scary films scare because our emotions are structured by the disgusting and dangerous properties of the films’ monsters. By contrast, this essay argues that some scary films scare through more direct means than can be explained by entertaining in thought, say, the impure properties of Count Dracula. It is the film itself that disgusts and frightens, by ‘taking over’ the spectator so that their consciousness of the film is ‘contaminated’ by the ‘spirit’ of horror. In (...)
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  44.  61
    The Diving Bell and the Butterfly as an Emotional Event.Tarja Laine - 2010 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 34 (1):295-305.
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  45.  7
    Empathy, Sympathy and the Philosophy of Horror in The Shining.Tarja Laine - 2001 - Film and Philosophy 4:72-88.
  46.  25
    Entangled Life: The Double Life of Veronique.Tarja Laine - 2011 - Film and Philosophy 15:127-138.
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  47.  43
    Female Managers' Ethical Decision-Making: A Multidimensional Approach. [REVIEW]Johanna Kujala & Tarja Pietiläinen - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 53 (1-2):153-163.
    The increasing number and influence of women in society brings up several issues related to values and ethics. Looking at business ethics from the gender perspective made us ponder if it would be fruitful to analyse the feminine and masculine dimensions of decision-making style. The article follows the research tradition using the multidimensional ethics scale, and it aims at developing the scale to better include female decision-making. We came to the conclusion that, as the multidimensional ethics scale used in measuring (...)
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  48.  6
    Traumatic Horror Beyond the Edge: It Follows and Get Out.Tarja Laine - 2019 - Film-Philosophy 23 (3):282-302.
    Within cinematic horror, trauma as a concept has often been used as an allegorical strategy to work through collective anxieties. This article on It Follows and Get Out strikes another note. It argues that, by their aesthetic qualities, both films are rendered traumatic in their affective orientation, both toward the cinematic world and toward the spectator. It analyses the two films through trauma as an affective-aesthetic strategy that puts emphasis on the edge of the frame as well as on the (...)
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  49. Intermingling Academic and Business Activities: A New Direction for Science and Universities?Tarja Knuuttila & Juha Tuunainen - 2009 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 34 (6):684-704.
    The growing role of universities in the knowledge economy as well as technology transfer has increasingly been conceptualized in terms of the hybridization of public academic work and private business activity. In this article, we examine the difficulties and prospects of this kind of intermingling by studying the long-term trajectories of two research groups operating in the fields of plant biotechnology and language technology. In both cases, the attempts to simultaneously pursue academic and commercial activities led to complicated boundary maintenance, (...)
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  50.  37
    Modeling and Experimenting: The Combinatorial Strategy in Synthetic Biology.Tarja Knuuttila & Andrea Loettgers - unknown
    In which respects do modeling and experimenting resemble or differ from each other? We explore this question through studying in detail the combinatorial strategy in synthetic biology whereby scientists triangulate experimentation on model organisms, mathematical modeling, and synthetic modeling. We argue that this combinatorial strategy is due to the characteristic constraints of the three epistemic activities. Moreover, our case study shows that in some cases materiality clearly matters, in fact it provides the very rationale of synthetic modeling. We will show (...)
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