Results for 'Tatiana Lau'

454 found
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  1.  12
    Discovering Social Groups Via Latent Structure Learning.Tatiana Lau, Hillard T. Pouncy, Samuel J. Gershman & Mina Cikara - 2018 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 147 (12):1881-1891.
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  2.  17
    Decoding “Us” and “Them”: Neural Representations of Generalized Group Concepts.Mina Cikara, Jay J. Van Bavel, Zachary A. Ingbretsen & Tatiana Lau - 2017 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 146 (5):621-631.
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  3. The Neural Correlates of Consciousness.Jorge Morales & Hakwan Lau - forthcoming - In Uriah Kriegel (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the Philosophy of Consciousness. Oxford University Press.
    In this chapter, we discuss a selection of current views of the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC). We focus on the different predictions they make, in particular with respect to the role of prefrontal cortex (PFC) during visual experiences, which is an area of critical interest and some source of contention. Our discussion of these views focuses on the level of functional anatomy, rather than at the neuronal circuitry level. We take this approach because we currently understand more about experimental (...)
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  4. Confucius: The Analects.D. C. Lau (ed.) - 2000 - Columbia University Press.
    A record of the words and teachings of Confucius, _The Analects_ is considered the most reliable expression of Confucian thought. However, the original meaning of Confucius's teachings have been filtered and interpreted by the commentaries of Confucianists of later ages, particularly the Neo-Confucianists of the Song dynasty, not altogether without distortion.In this monumental translation by Professor D. C. Lau, an attempt has been made to interpret the sayings as they stand. The corpus of the sayings is taken as an organic (...)
     
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  5. Empirical Support for Higher-Order Theories of Conscious Awareness.Hakwan Lau & David Rosenthal - 2011 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 (8):365-373.
  6. Understanding the Higher-Order Approach to Consciousness.Richard Brown, Hakwan Lau & Joseph E. LeDoux - 2019 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 23 (9):754-768.
    Critics have often misunderstood the higher-order theory (HOT) of consciousness. Here we clarify its position on several issues, and distinguish it from other views such as the global The higher-order theory (HOT) of consciousness has often been misunderstood by critics. Here we clarify its position on several issues, and distinguish it from other views such as the global workspace theory (GWT) and early sensory models (e.g. first-order local recurrency theories). For example, HOT has been criticized for over-intellectualizing consciousness. We show (...)
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  7.  78
    Relative Blindsight in Normal Observers and the Neural Correlate of Visual Consciousness.Hakwan C. Lau & Richard E. Passingham - 2006 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103 (49):18763-18768.
  8.  25
    How to Measure Metacognition.Stephen M. Fleming & Hakwan C. Lau - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  9.  53
    A Signal Detection Theoretic Approach for Estimating Metacognitive Sensitivity From Confidence Ratings.Brian Maniscalco & Hakwan Lau - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):422-430.
    How should we measure metacognitive sensitivity, i.e. the efficacy with which observers’ confidence ratings discriminate between their own correct and incorrect stimulus classifications? We argue that currently available methods are inadequate because they are influenced by factors such as response bias and type 1 sensitivity . Extending the signal detection theory approach of Galvin, Podd, Drga, and Whitmore , we propose a method of measuring type 2 sensitivity that is free from these confounds. We call our measure meta-d′, which reflects (...)
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  10.  56
    Mencius.D. C. Lau - 2005 - Penguin Classics.
    Mencius, who lived in the 4th century B.C., is second only to Confucius in importance in the Confucian tradition. The _Mencius_ consists of sayings of Mencius and conversations he had with his contemporaries. When read side by side with the _Analects_, the _Mencius_ throws a great deal of light on the teachings of ConfuciusMencius developed many of the ideas of Confucius and at the same time discussed problems not touched upon by Confucius. He drew out the implications of Confucius' moral (...)
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  11.  48
    A Step Forward: Ethics Education Matters!Cubie L. L. Lau - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 92 (4):565-584.
    Ethics education matters! Contrary to some common beliefs that ethical behavior is inborn, this study suggests that education does matter. This paper examines ethics education and its relationship with students’ ethical awareness and moral reasoning. Attitudes Towards Business Ethics Questionnaire and 10 vignettes were deployed as the major measurement instruments. It is hypothesized that students with ethics education will have both a greater ethical awareness and ability to make more ethical decisions. Hypotheses were tested in two undergraduate business courses at (...)
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  12. The Emperor's New Phenomenology? The Empirical Case for Conscious Experience Without First-Order Representations.Hakwan Lau & Richard Brown - 2019 - In Adam Pautz & Daniel Stoljar (eds.), Blockheads! Essays on Ned Block's Philosophy of Mind and Consciousness. MIT Press.
    We discuss cases where subjects seem to enjoy conscious experience when the relevant first-order perceptual representations are either missing or too weak to account for the experience. Though these cases are originally considered to be theoretical possibilities that may be problematical for the higher-order view of consciousness, careful considerations of actual empirical examples suggest that this strategy may backfire; these cases may cause more trouble for first-order theories instead. Specifically, these cases suggest that (I) recurrent feedback loops to V1 are (...)
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  13.  66
    Consciousness Science: Real Progress and Lingering Misconceptions.Ned Block, David Carmel, Stephen M. Fleming, Robert W. Kentridge, Christof Koch, Victor A. F. Lamme, Hakwan Lau & David Rosenthal - 2014 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 18 (11):556-557.
  14.  3
    Phenomenology and Intercultural Understanding.Kwok-Ying Lau - 2016 - Springer Verlag.
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  15.  38
    Medial Frontal Cortex: From Self-Generated Action to Reflection on One's Own Performance.Richard E. Passingham, Sara L. Bengtsson & Hakwan C. Lau - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (1):16-21.
  16. A Higher Order Bayesian Decision Theory of Consciousness.Hakwan Lau - 2008 - In Rahul Banerjee & B. K. Chakrabarti (eds.), Models of Brain and Mind: Physical, Computational, and Psychological Approaches. Elsevier.
    It is usually taken as given that consciousness involves superior or more elaborate forms of information processing. Contemporary models equate consciousness with global processing, system complexity, or depth or stability of computation. This is in stark contrast with the powerful philosophical intuition that being conscious is more than just having the ability to compute. I argue that it is also incompatible with current empirical findings. I present a model that is free from the strong assumption that consciousness predicts superior performance. (...)
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  17.  21
    Domain-General and Domain-Specific Patterns of Activity Support Metacognition in Human Prefrontal Cortex.Jorge Morales, Hakwan Lau & Stephen M. Fleming - 2018 - The Journal of Neuroscience 38 (14):3534-3546.
    Metacognition is the capacity to evaluate the success of one's own cognitive processes in various domains; for example, memory and perception. It remains controversial whether metacognition relies on a domain-general resource that is applied to different tasks or if self-evaluative processes are domain specific. Here, we investigated this issue directly by examining the neural substrates engaged when metacognitive judgments were made by human participants of both sexes during perceptual and memory tasks matched for stimulus and performance characteristics. By comparing patterns (...)
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  18.  46
    The Theory of Reflexive Modernization.Ulrich Beck, Wolfgang Bonss & Christoph Lau - 2003 - Theory, Culture and Society 20 (2):1-33.
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  19. Volition and the Function of Consciousness.Hakwan Lau - 2009 - Faith and Philosophy 26 (5):537-552.
    People have intuitively assumed that many acts of volition are not influenced by unconscious information. However, the available evidence suggests that under suitable conditions, unconscious information can influence behavior and the underlying neural mechanisms. One possibility is that stimuli that are consciously perceived tend to yield strong signals in the brain, and this makes us think that consciousness has the function of sending such strong signals. However, if we could create conditions where the stimuli could produce strong signals but not (...)
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  20.  16
    Hyper-Active Gap Filling.Akira Omaki, Ellen F. Lau, Imogen Davidson White, Myles L. Dakan, Aaron Apple & Colin Phillips - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  21. Are We Studying Consciousness Yet?Hakwan Lau - 2008 - In Lawrence Weiskrantz & Martin Davies (eds.), Frontiers of Consciousness. Oxford University Press. pp. 2008--245.
    It has been over a decade and half since Christof Koch and the late Francis Crick first advocated the now popular NCC project (Crick and Koch, 1990), in which one tries to find the neural correlate of consciousness (NCC) for perceptual processes. In his chapter in this book Chris Frith provides a splendid review of how neuroimaging has contributed greatly to this project. For the sake of contrast, this chapter takes a more critical stance on what we have actually learned. (...)
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  22.  14
    A Socio-Historical Take on the Meta-Problem of Consciousness.H. Lau & M. Michel - 2019 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 26 (9-10):136-147.
    The intuition that consciousness is hard to explain may fade away as empirically adequate theories of consciousness develop. We review socio-historical factors that account for why, as a field, the neuroscience of consciousness has not been particularly successful at developing empirically adequate theories. Based on this we argue that the meta-problem may be a self-fulfilling prophecy, created in part because we inadvertently focused too much on the so-called 'hard problem', limiting scientific progress.
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  23.  19
    Corporate Social Responsibility in China: A Corporate Governance Approach.ChungMing Lau, Yuan Lu & Qiang Liang - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 136 (1):73-87.
    This study examines the effects of corporate governance mechanisms on CSR performance in an emerging economy, China. Because of the need of gaining legitimacy in the new institutional context, Chinese firms have to adopt global CSR practices in order to remain competitive. Using the corporate governance framework, this study examines how board composition, ownership, and TMT composition influence corporate social performance. The propositions are tested using data gathered from 471 firms in China. By and large, empirical findings supported the hypothesized (...)
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  24. Externalism About Mental Content.Joe Lau - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Externalism with regard to mental content says that in order to have certain types of intentional mental states (e.g. beliefs), it is necessary to be related to the environment in the right way.
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  25.  47
    Direct and Multiplicative Effects of Ethical Dispositions and Ethical Climates on Personal Justice Norms: A Virtue Ethics Perspective.Victor P. Lau & Yin Yee Wong - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 90 (2):279-294.
    From virtue ethics and interactionist perspectives, we hypothesized that personal justice norms (distributive and procedural justice norms) were shaped directly and multiplicatively by ethical dispositions (equity sensitivity and need for structure) and ethical climates (egoistic, benevolent, and principle climates). We collected multisource data from 123 companies in Hong Kong, with personal factors assessed by participants’ self-reports and contextual factors by aggregations of their peers. In general, LISREL analyses with latent product variables supported the direct and multiplicative relationships. Our findings could (...)
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  26. Controlling for Performance Capacity Confounds in Neuroimaging Studies of Conscious Awareness.Jorge Morales, Jeffrey Chiang & Hakwan Lau - 2015 - Neuroscience of Consciousness 1:1-11.
    Studying the neural correlates of conscious awareness depends on a reliable comparison between activations associated with awareness and unawareness. One particularly difficult confound to remove is task performance capacity, i.e. the difference in performance between the conditions of interest. While ideally task performance capacity should be matched across different conditions, this is difficult to achieve experimentally. However, differences in performance could theoretically be corrected for mathematically. One such proposal is found in a recent paper by Lamy, Salti and Bar-Haim [Lamy (...)
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  27.  6
    Mencius.D. C. Lau - 1972 - Philosophy East and West 22 (1):113-114.
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  28.  13
    Awareness Versus Un-Clinging: Which Matters in Mindfulness?Siu-man Ng, King Wo Chow, Hi Po Lau & Qi Wang - 2017 - Contemporary Buddhism 18 (2):277-291.
    Awareness and un-clinging have been emphasised in Buddhist discourse as important facets of mindfulness practice for over 2500 years. However, there is a lack of rigorous research examining the relationship between these two elements and their importance to well-being. To evaluate these abstract constructs, the current study adopted multiple assessment modalities; namely, a self-report scale, experience sampling, and semi-structured interviews. A total of 415 participants completed the questionnaire survey. Among them, 71 participants further took part in the experience sampling procedure (...)
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  29. Pietroski on Possible Worlds Semantics for Belief Sentences.Joe Lau - 1995 - Analysis 55 (4):295.
    Pietroski (1993) offers a semantics for belief sentences that is supposed to address the problem of equivalence. This paper argues that his proposal fails to solve the problem.
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  30.  46
    Toward an Analytical Model of Ethical Decision Making in Plagiarism.Gervas K. K. Lau, Allan H. K. Yuen & Jae Park - 2013 - Ethics and Behavior 23 (5):360-377.
    Plagiarism by students is a common and worldwide phenomenon with a significant impact on our society. Numerous studies on the pervasive nature of plagiarism among students have focused on the behavioral aspects of plagiarism and how to prevent it. Based on an empirical study of a sample of 463 eighth graders in Hong Kong, this article offers an analytical model to understand the ethical decision-making process in plagiarism among students. Using this model, students' plagiaristic behavior can be analyzed in terms (...)
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  31.  10
    What Type of Awareness Does Binocular Rivalry Assess?Nathan Giles, Hakwan Lau & Brian Odegaard - 2016 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 20 (10):719-720.
  32.  24
    The Experience of Freedom in Decisions – Questioning Philosophical Beliefs in Favor of Psychological Determinants.Stephan Lau, Anette Hiemisch & Roy F. Baumeister - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 33:30-46.
  33.  38
    Direct Assessment of Qualia in a Blindsight Participant.Navindra Persaud & Hakwan Lau - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (3):1046-1049.
    Experimenters generally infer whether participants have visual experiences based on metacognitive responses. We showed a well-studied blindsight participant, GY, several definitions of the term “qualia” and then questioned him about whether he felt or he experienced qualia in his normal and blind fields. We found, contrary to others who have used different methods for measuring qualia, that GY does not have qualia for stationary stimuli in his blind field. This novel method for directly assessing qualia embraces the idea that experiences (...)
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  34.  30
    Knowing Your Ability.Tszyuen Lau & Yanjing Wang - 2016 - Philosophical Forum 47 (3-4):415-423.
    In this article, we present an attempt to reconcile intellectualism and the anti-intellectualist ability account of knowledge-how by reducing “S knows how to F” to, roughly speaking, “S knows that she has the ability to F demonstrated by a concrete way w.” More precisely, “S has a certain ability” is further formalized as the proposition that S can guarantee a certain goal by a concrete way w of some method under some precondition. Having the knowledge of our own ability, we (...)
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  35.  14
    Semantic Richness Effects in Spoken Word Recognition: A Lexical Decision and Semantic Categorization Megastudy.Winston D. Goh, Melvin J. Yap, Mabel C. Lau, Melvin M. R. Ng & Luuan-Chin Tan - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  36.  64
    Enfranchising Incompetents: Suretyship and the Joint Authorship of Laws.Robert E. Goodin & Joanne C. Lau - 2011 - Ratio 24 (2):154-166.
    Proposals to lower the age of voting, to 15 for example, are regularly met with worries that people that age are not sufficiently ‘competent’. Notice however that we allow people that age to sign binding legal contracts, provided that those contracts are co-signed by their parents. Notice, further, that in a democracy voters are collectively ‘joint authors’ of the laws that they enact. Enfranchising some less competent voters is no worry, the Condorcet Jury Theorem assures us, so long as the (...)
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  37.  69
    Non-Linear Mixed Logit.Steffen Andersen, Glenn W. Harrison, Arne Risa Hole, Morten Lau & E. Elisabet Rutström - 2012 - Theory and Decision 73 (1):77-96.
    We develop an extension of the familiar linear mixed logit model to allow for the direct estimation of parametric non-linear functions defined over structural parameters. Classic applications include the estimation of coefficients of utility functions to characterize risk attitudes and discounting functions to characterize impatience. There are several unexpected benefits of this extension, apart from the ability to directly estimate structural parameters of theoretical interest.
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  38.  21
    Does Interaction Matter? Testing Whether a Confidence Heuristic Can Replace Interaction in Collective Decision-Making.Dan Bang, Riccardo Fusaroli, Kristian Tylén, Karsten Olsen, Peter E. Latham, Jennifer Y. F. Lau, Andreas Roepstorff, Geraint Rees, Chris D. Frith & Bahador Bahrami - 2014 - Consciousness and Cognition 26:13-23.
    In a range of contexts, individuals arrive at collective decisions by sharing confidence in their judgements. This tendency to evaluate the reliability of information by the confidence with which it is expressed has been termed the ‘confidence heuristic’. We tested two ways of implementing the confidence heuristic in the context of a collective perceptual decision-making task: either directly, by opting for the judgement made with higher confidence, or indirectly, by opting for the faster judgement, exploiting an inverse correlation between confidence (...)
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  39.  43
    Transcendental Concepts, Transcendental Truths and Objective Validity.Chong-Fuk Lau - 2015 - Kantian Review 20 (3):445-466.
    Kant insists that the use of concepts must be subject to empirical conditions if they are to have objective validity. This article analyses Kants distinction between empirical and transcendental truths. Since transcendental concepts are pure concepts without spatio-temporal content, their objective validity is of the same second-order kind as that of unschematized categories. This characteristic of transcendental concepts implies that the cognitive powers picked out by them are not particular psychological mechanisms, but rather abstract functional structures. Transcendental concepts owe their (...)
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  40. Dissociating Response Selection and Conflict in the Medial Frontal Surface.Hakwan Lau - manuscript
    aFunctional Imaging Laboratory, Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, University College London, 12 Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK bDepartment of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, UK cOxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain, UK dDepartment of Psychiatry and Oxford Centre for Clinical Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Oxford, UK..
     
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  41.  21
    Is It Fallacious to Talk of Self-Generated Action?: Response to Nachev and Husain.Richard E. Passingham, Sara L. Bengtsson & Hakwan C. Lau - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (5):193-194.
  42.  40
    The Higher-Order View Does Not Require Consciously Self-Directed Introspection: Response to Malach.Hakwan Lau & David Rosenthal - 2011 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 (11):508-509.
  43. Teaching Engineering Ethics to First-Year College Students.Andrew Lau - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (2):359-368.
    One of the methods used at Penn State to teach engineering students about ethics is a one-credit First-Year Seminar entitled “How Good Engineers Solve Tough Problems.” Students meet in class once a week to understand ethical frameworks, develop ethical problem-solving skills, and to better understand the professional responsibilities of engineers. Emphasis is on the ubiquity of ethical problems in professional engineering. A learning objective is the development of moral imagination, similar to the development of technical imagination in engineering design courses. (...)
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  44. Low Attention Impairs Optimal Incorporation of Prior Knowledge in Perceptual Decisions.Jorge Morales, Guillermo Solovey, Brian Maniscalco, Dobromir Rahnev, Floris P. de Lange & Hakwan Lau - 2015 - Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics 77 (6):2021-2036.
    When visual attention is directed away from a stimulus, neural processing is weak and strength and precision of sensory data decreases. From a computational perspective, in such situations observers should give more weight to prior expectations in order to behave optimally during a discrimination task. Here we test a signal detection theoretic model that counter-intuitively predicts subjects will do just the opposite in a discrimination task with two stimuli, one attended and one unattended: when subjects are probed to discriminate the (...)
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  45.  92
    An Empirical Study of Software Piracy.Eric Kin Wai Lau - 2003 - Business Ethics 12 (3):233–245.
  46. Measuring Away an Attentional Confound?Jorge Morales, Yasha Mouradi, Claire Sergent, Ned Block, Vincent Taschereau-Dumouchel, David Rosenthal, Piercesare Grimaldi & Hakwan Lau - 2017 - Neuroscience of Consciousness 3 (1):1-3.
    A recent fMRI study by Webb et al. (Cortical networks involved in visual awareness independent of visual attention, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2016;113:13923–28) proposes a new method for finding the neural correlates of awareness by matching atten- tion across awareness conditions. The experimental design, however, seems at odds with known features of attention. We highlight logical and methodological points that are critical when trying to disentangle attention and awareness.
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  47.  11
    Measuring the Role of Conditioning and Stimulus Generalisation in Common Fears and Worries.Anneke D. M. Haddad, Mengran Xu, Sophie Raeder & Jennifer Y. F. Lau - 2013 - Cognition and Emotion 27 (5):914-922.
  48. Jan Patočka: Critical Consciousness and Non-Eurocentric Philosopher of the Phenomenological Movement.Kwok-Ying Lau - 2007 - Studia Phaenomenologica 7:475-492.
    By his critical reflections on the crisis of modern civilization, Jan Patočka, phenomenologist of the Other Europe, incarnates the critical consciousness of the phenomenological movement. He was in fact one of the first European philosophers to have emphasized the necessity of abandoning the hitherto Eurocentric propositions of solution to the crisis when he explicitly raised the problems of a “Post-European humanity”. In advocating an understanding of the history of European humanity different from those of Husserl and Heidegger, Patočka directs his (...)
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  49. The Nature of Emotions: Comments on Martha Nussbaum's Upheavals of Thought.Joe Lau - 2007 - In Martha Craven Nussbaum, Joseph Chan, Jiwei Ci & Joe Lau (eds.), The Ethics and Politics of Compassion and Capabilities. Hong Kong: Faculty of Law, The University of Hong Kong.
    Nussbaum’s theory of the emotions draws heavily on the Stoic account. In her theory, emotions are a kind of value judgment or thought. This is in stark contrast to the well-known proposal from William James, who took emotions to be bodily feelings. There are various motivations for taking emotions as judgments. One main reason is that emotions are intentional mental states. They are always about something, directed at particular objects or state of affairs. For example, fear seems to involve the (...)
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  50.  12
    Tao Te Ching.D. C. Lau - 1985 - Philosophy East and West 35 (2):213-215.
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