We develop a general algebraic and proof-theoretic study of substructural logics that may lack associativity, along with other structural rules. Our study extends existing work on substructural logics over the full Lambek Calculus , Galatos and Ono , Galatos et al. ). We present a Gentzen-style sequent system that lacks the structural rules of contraction, weakening, exchange and associativity, and can be considered a non-associative formulation of . Moreover, we introduce an equivalent Hilbert-style system and show that the logic associated (...) with and is algebraizable, with the variety of residuated lattice-ordered groupoids with unit serving as its equivalent algebraic semantics. Overcoming technical complications arising from the lack of associativity, we introduce a generalized version of a logical matrix and apply the method of quasicompletions to obtain an algebra and a quasiembedding from the matrix to the algebra. By applying the general result to specific cases, we obtain important logical and algebraic properties, including the cut elimination of and various extensions, the strong separation of , and the finite generation of the variety of residuated lattice-ordered groupoids with unit. (shrink)
Along the same line as that in Ono (Ann Pure Appl Logic 161:246–250, 2009), a proof-theoretic approach to Glivenko theorems is developed here for substructural predicate logics relative not only to classical predicate logic but also to arbitrary involutive substructural predicate logics over intuitionistic linear predicate logic without exponentials QFL e . It is shown that there exists the weakest logic over QFL e among substructural predicate logics for which the Glivenko theorem holds. Negative translations of substructural predicate logics are (...) studied by using the same approach. First, a negative translation, called extended Kuroda translation is introduced. Then a translation result of an arbitrary involutive substructural predicate logics over QFL e is shown, and the existence of the weakest logic is proved among such logics for which the extended Kuroda translation works. They are obtained by a slight modification of the proof of the Glivenko theorem. Relations of our extended Kuroda translation with other standard negative translations will be discussed. Lastly, algebraic aspects of these results will be mentioned briefly. In this way, a clear and comprehensive understanding of Glivenko theorems and negative translations will be obtained from a substructural viewpoint. (shrink)
Glivenko-type theorems for substructural logics are comprehensively studied in the paper [N. Galatos, H. Ono, Glivenko theorems for substructural logics over FL, Journal of Symbolic Logic 71 1353–1384]. Arguments used there are fully algebraic, and based on the fact that all substructural logics are algebraizable 279–308] and also [N. Galatos, P. Jipsen, T. Kowalski, H. Ono, Residuated Lattices: An Algebraic Glimpse at Substructural Logics, in: Studies in Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics, vol. 151, Elsevier, 2007] for the details). As (...) a complementary work to the algebraic approach developed in [N. Galatos, H. Ono, Glivenko theorems for substructural logics over FL, Journal of Symbolic Logic 71 1353–1384], we present here a concise, proof-theoretic approach to Glivenko theorems for substructural logics. This will show different features of these two approaches. (shrink)
The present paper deals with the predicate version MTL of the logic MTL by Esteva and Godo. We introduce a Kripke semantics for it, along the lines of Ono''s Kripke semantics for the predicate version of FLew (cf. [O85]), and we prove a completeness theorem. Then we prove that every predicate logic between MTL and classical predicate logic is undecidable. Finally, we prove that MTL is complete with respect to the standard semantics, i.e., with respect to Kripke frames on the (...) real interval [0,1], or equivalently, with respect to MTL-algebras whose lattice reduct is [0,1] with the usual order. (shrink)
Substructural logics have received a lot of attention in recent years from the communities of both logic and algebra. We discuss the algebraization of substructural logics over the full Lambek calculus and their connections to residuated lattices, and establish a weak form of the deduction theorem that is known as parametrized local deduction theorem. Finally, we study certain interpolation properties and explain how they imply the amalgamation property for certain varieties of residuated lattices.
We will give here a purely algebraic proof of the cut elimination theorem for various sequent systems. Our basic idea is to introduce mathematical structures, called Gentzen structures, for a given sequent system without cut, and then to show the completeness of the sequent system without cut with respect to the class of algebras for the sequent system with cut, by using the quasi-completion of these Gentzen structures. It is shown that the quasi-completion is a generalization of the MacNeille completion. (...) Moreover, the finite model property is obtained for many cases, by modifying our completeness proof. This is an algebraic presentation of the proof of the finite model property discussed by Lafont  and Okada-Terui . (shrink)
We prove that certain natural sequent systems for bi-intuitionistic logic have the analytic cut property. In the process we show that the (global) subformula property implies the (local) analytic cut property, thereby demonstrating their equivalence. Applying a version of Maehara technique modified in several ways, we prove that bi-intuitionistic logic enjoys the classical Craig interpolation property and Maximova variable separation property; its Halldén completeness follows.
In this paper, we will develop an algebraic study of substructural propositional logics over FLew, i.e. the logic which is obtained from intuitionistic logics by eliminating the contraction rule. Our main technical tool is to use residuated lattices as the algebraic semantics for them. This enables us to study different kinds of nonclassical logics, including intermediate logics, BCK-logics, Lukasiewicz’s many-valued logics and fuzzy logics, within a uniform framework.
It is well known that classical propositional logic can be interpreted in intuitionistic propositional logic. In particular Glivenko's theorem states that a formula is provable in the former iff its double negation is provable in the latter. We extend Glivenko's theorem and show that for every involutive substructural logic there exists a minimum substructural logic that contains the first via a double negation interpretation. Our presentation is algebraic and is formulated in the context of residuated lattices. In the last part (...) of the paper, we also discuss some extended forms of the Kolmogorov translation and we compare it to the Glivenko translation. (shrink)
In this paper, a theorem on the existence of complete embedding of partially ordered monoids into complete residuated lattices is shown. From this, many interesting results on residuated lattices and substructural logics follow, including various types of completeness theorems of substructural logics.
For each ordinal $\alpha > 0, L(\alpha)$ is the intermediate predicate logic characterized by the class of all Kripke frames with the poset α and with constant domain. This paper will be devoted to a study of logics of the form L(α). It will be shown that for each uncountable ordinal of the form α + η with a finite or a countable $\eta (> 0)$ , there exists a countable ordinal of the form β + η such that L(α (...) + η) = L(β + η). On the other hand, such a reduction of ordinals to countable ones is impossible for a logic L(α) if α is an uncountable regular ordinal. Moreover, it will be proved that the mapping L is injective if it is restricted to ordinals less than ω ω , i.e. α ≠ β implies L(α) ≠ L(β) for each ordinal $\alpha,\beta. (shrink)
An intermediate predicate logicS + n (n>0) is introduced and investigated. First, a sequent calculusGS n is introduced, which is shown to be equivalent toS + n and for which the cut elimination theorem holds. In § 2, it will be shown thatS + n is characterized by the class of all linear Kripke frames of the heightn.
This paper shows a role of the contraction rule in decision problems for the logics weaker than the intuitionistic logic that are obtained by deleting some or all of structural rules. It is well-known that for such a predicate logic L, if L does not have the contraction rule then it is decidable. In this paper, it will be shown first that the predicate logic FLec with the contraction and exchange rules, but without the weakening rule, is undecidable while the (...) propositional fragment of FLec is decidable. On the other hand, it will be remarked that logics without the contraction rule are still decidable, if our language contains function symbols. (shrink)
We show that the variety of residuated lattices is generated by its finite simple members, improving upon a finite model property result of Okada and Terui. The reasoning is a blend of proof-theoretic and algebraic arguments.
The paper deals with involutive FL e -monoids, that is, commutative residuated, partially-ordered monoids with an involutive negation. Involutive FL e -monoids over lattices are exactly involutive FL e -algebras, the algebraic counterparts of the substructural logic IUL. A cone representation is given for conic involutive FL e -monoids, along with a new construction method, called twin-rotation. Some classes of finite involutive FL e -chains are classified by using the notion of rank of involutive FL e -chains, and a kind (...) of duality is developed between positive and non-positive rank algebras. As a side effect, it is shown that the substructural logic IUL plus t ↔ f does not have the finite model property. (shrink)
Hundred years ago, vernacular architecture once triumphed. Unfortunately, poverty and low education bring people facing difficulties in understanding their own culture, building techniques, and village management. This problem then leads them to a bigger issue regarding the alteration of culture and traditional architecture. Among all vernacular architecture in Indonesia, Sasak traditional architecture is one of the unique architectures that still exist until now. However, globalization issue leads the alteration of vernacular architecture includes Sasak tribe culture and traditional village in Lombok (...) island, including the traditional houses. This paper takes Sade Traditional Hamlet as a research subject to provide a deeper understanding of the importance of cultural values of Sasak’s living space and settlement. This research shows that the living space and culture of the Sasak tribe in Sade hamlet has evolved and transformed due to the space necessity and financial ability. Among the total 68 houses, 55.8% are the original houses of Sasak people in Sade hamlet, Bale Tani, 38.2% are the traditional modified houses, Bale Bontar, and 6% are the transitional houses, Bale Kodong. Gradually, Bale Tani change to Bale Bontar house. However, Bale Tani could still be preserved by the system of pattern relatives in the family and awiq-awiq as customary law. A deeper understanding of the house preservation, traditional material, and cultural values of Bale Tani should be taken to create a sustainable conservation method. (shrink)
LetL be any modal or tense logic with the finite model property. For eachm, definer L (m) to be the smallest numberr such that for any formulaA withm modal operators,A is provable inL if and only ifA is valid in everyL-model with at mostr worlds. Thus, the functionr L determines the size of refutation Kripke models forL. In this paper, we will give an estimation ofr L (m) for some linear modal and tense logicsL.
A semantical proof of Craig's interpolation theorem for the intuitionistic predicate logic and some intermediate prepositional logics will be given. Our proof is an extension of Henkin's method developed in . It will clarify the relation between the interpolation theorem and Robinson's consistency theorem for these logics and will enable us to give a uniform way of proving the interpolation theorem for them.
Abstract Some aspects of the coverage of bioethical issues in Japanese (11) and German (10 series) biology textbooks for lower secondary school have been investigated, concentrating on the treatment of environmental issues. It was found that German textbooks devote more space to these problems than the Japanese ones and that the style of presentation in German books is aimed at appealing to the emotions of the pupils, whereas that of the Japanese ones is a more traditional scientific one. The inclusion (...) of ethical view points in biology teaching is discussed in this context. (shrink)
In this paper, a semantics for predicate logics without the contraction rule will be investigated and the completeness theorem will be proved. Moreover, it will be found out that our semantics has a close connection with Beth-type semantics.
In this paper we will discuss constraints on the number of (non-dummy) players and on the distribution of votes such that local monotonicity is satisfied for the Public Good Index. These results are compared to properties which are related to constraints on the redistribution of votes (such as implied by global monotonicity). The discussion shows that monotonicity is not a straightforward criterion of classification for power measures.