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  1.  28
    Sustainable Development and Norwegian Genetic Engineering Regulations: Applications, Impacts, and Challenges. [REVIEW]Anne Ingeborg Myhr & Terje Traavik - 2003 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 16 (4):317-335.
    The main purpose of The NorwegianGene Technology Act (1993) is to enforcecontainment of genetically modified organisms(GMOs) and control of GMO releases.Furthermore, the Act intends to ensure that``production and use of GMOs should take placein an ethically and socially justifiable way,in accordance with the principle of sustainabledevelopment and without detrimental effects tohealth and the environment.'' Hence it isobvious that, for the Norwegian authorities,sustainable development is a normativeguideline when evaluating acceptableconsequences of GMO use and production. Inaccordance with this, we have investigated theextent (...)
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  2.  41
    Genetically Modified (GM) Crops: Precautionary Science and Conflicts of Interests. [REVIEW]Anne Ingeborg Myhr & Terje Traavik - 2003 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 16 (3):227-247.
    Risk governance of GM plants and GMfood products is presently subject to heatedscientific and public controversies. Scientistsand representatives of the biotechnologyindustry have dominated debates concerningsafety issues. The public is suspicious withregard to the motives of scientists, companies,and political institutions involved. Thedilemmas posed are nested, embracing valuequestions, scientific uncertainty, andcontextual issues. The obvious lack of data andinsufficient information concerning ecologicaleffects call for application of thePrecautionary Principle (PP). There are,however, divergent opinions among scientistsabout the relevance of putative hazards,definition of potential ``adverse effects,'' (...)
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  3.  51
    The Precautionary Principle: Scientific Uncertainty and Omitted Research in the Context of GMO Use and Release. [REVIEW]Anne Ingeborg Myhr & Terje Traavik - 2002 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 15 (1):73-86.
    Commercialization of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have sparked profound controversies concerning adequate approaches to risk regulation. Scientific uncertainty and ambiguity, omitted research areas, and lack of basic knowledge crucial to risk assessmentshave become apparent. The objective of this article is to discuss the policy and practical implementation of the Precautionary Principle. A major conclusion is that the void in scientific understanding concerning risks posed by secondary effects and the complexity ofcause-effect relations warrant further research. Initiatives to approach the acceptance or (...)
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