BackgroundPrevious studies have found that the decision-making process for stored unused frozen embryos involves much emotional burden influenced by socio-cultural factors. This study aims to ascertain how Japanese patients make a decision on the fate of their frozen embryos: whether to continue storage discard or donate to research.MethodsTen Japanese women who continued storage, 5 who discarded and 16 who donated to research were recruited from our infertility clinic. Tape-recorded interviews were transcribed and analyzed for emergent themes.ResultsA model of patients’ decision-making (...) processes for the fate of frozen embryos was developed, with a common emergent theme, “coming to terms with infertility” resulting in either acceptance or postponing acceptance of their infertility. The model consisted of 5 steps: 1) the embryo-transfer moratorium was sustained, 2) the “Mottainai”- embryo and having another child were considered; 3) cost reasonability was taken into account; 4) partner’s opinion was confirmed to finally decide whether to continue or discontinue storage. Those discontinuing, then contemplated 5): the effect of donation. Great emotional conflict was expressed in the theme, steps 2, 4, and 5.ConclusionsPatients’ 5 step decision-making process for the fate of frozen embryos was profoundly affected by various Japanese cultural values and moral standards. At the end of their decision, patients used culturally inherent values and standards to come to terms with their infertility. While there is much philosophical discussion on the moral status of the embryo worldwide, this study, with actual views of patients who own them, will make a significant contribution to empirical ethics from the practical viewpoint. (shrink)
Al-Kind la littcrivant sur les mcouverte des trcrivit sur ce sujet a survditions et des traductions de l'un et l'autre textes, ainsi que les deux traductions latines faites du chapitre dans Les quarantes chapitres et des commentaires de la proce par al-Kindī.
This collection of essays reflects the wide range of David Pingree's expertise in the scientific texts of Ancient Mesopotamia, Greece, India, Persia, and the medieval Arabic, Hebrew and Latin traditions. Both theoretical aspects and the practical applications of the exact sciences-in time keeping, prediction of the future, and the operation of magic-are dealt with. The book includes several critical editions and translations of hitherto unknown or understudied texts, and a particular emphasis is on the diffusion of scientific learning from one (...) culture to another, and through time. Above all, the essays show the variety and sophistication of the exact sciences in non-Western societies in pre-modern times. (shrink)
Ethics education for professionals has become popular in Japan over the last two decades. Many professional schools now require students to take an applied ethics or professional ethics course. In contrast, very few courses of professional ethics for teaching exist or have been taught in Japan. In order to obtain suggestions for teacher education, this paper reviews and examines practices of ethics education for engineers and nurses in Japan that have been successfully implemented. The paper concludes that difficulties in professional (...) ethics education in Japan are caused by the fact that both teachers and students lack experience in leading and participating in discussion-based classes and misunderstand the effectiveness of a case-based pedagogy. It also suggests that we need to offer teachers systematic opportunities to be trained to be proficient in enabling students to be active and critical in class. (shrink)
Born in 1898, Zubiri’s life unfolds at the same time as the XX century. Though alreadyfully formed intellectually, during the decade of the twenties Zubiri is influenced by thephilosophies of life then in vogue in Europe and, especially is influenced by his teacher inMadrid, José Ortega and Gasset. This leads him to focus on the subject of God based onthe category of life. Religion is not a danger for the fullness of life, as Nietzsche argued, butjust the opposite: it is (...) the aspiration of the human being to a full and endless life. The contrast between this and the historical expression of religions, especially Catholicism, provoked a deep interior crisis for Zubiri. This crisis disappears toward the mid-thirties, afterhis sojourn in Germany and the influence of several authors, especially Heidegger. At thispoint he begins to focus on the topic of the religion in a new way that will no longer varysubstantially throughout the rest of his life. The formula of this change he expounded inhis university course university “Hellenism and Christianity” , opposing the“religion of life” to the “religation of life”. Life is not the original category. Life is religated.To what? To something that is difficult to define based on philosophy, but which Christiantheology expressed, through St. Paul, in the category of mysterion.Nacido el año 1898, la vida de Zubiri transcurre a la par que la del siglo XX. En plenaformación intelectual, durante la década de los años veinte, Zubiri recibe el influjo de lasfilosofías de la vida entonces en boga en Europa y, sobre todo, sufre la influencia de sumaestro más directo en Madrid, José Ortega y Gasset. Esto le lleva a enfocar el tema deDios desde la categoría de vida. La religión no es un peligro para la vitalidad, como defendióNietzsche sino todo lo contrario, la aspiración del ser humano a la vida plena e inacabable.El contraste entre esto y la expresión histórica de las religiones, en especial de la católica,le produjo una profunda crisis interior. Esta crisis desaparece hacia la mitad de los añostreinta, tras su permanencia en Alemania y el influjo de varios autores, en especial de Heidegger. A partir de aquí comienza a enfocar el tema de la religión de un nuevo modo, que yano variará sustancialmente a lo largo de su vida. La fórmula de este cambio la expresó en elcurso universitario “Helenismo y Cristianismo” , contraponiendo la “religión dela vida” a la “religación de la vida”. La vida no es la categoría originaria. La vida está religada. ¿A qué? A algo que desde la filosofía es difícil de definir, pero que la teología cristianaexpresó, a través de Pablo de Tarso, en la categoría de mysterion. (shrink)
Recent interest in maximal proper acceleration as a possible principle generalizing the theory of relativity can draw on the differential geometry of tangent bundles, pioneered by K. Yano, E. T. Davies, and S. Ishihara. The differential equations of geodesics of the spacetime tangent bundle are reduced and investigated in the special case of a Riemannian spacetime base manifold. Simple relations are described between the natural lift of ordinary spacetime geodesics and geodesics in the spacetime tangent bundle.
The aim of this text is to develop an epistemological-technique approach which permit analyze the work of Juan Downey, and his use of technical medias and also include the struggle against the State in the political and cultural model of the primitive societies of the Yano- mani, particularly by the work of Pierre Clastres and Jacques Lizot, and also their point of view of the methods of production in the societies of abundance, as theorized the anthropologist Marshall Sahlins, considering (...) these anthropological paradigms as a medium to understand the mediatic interaction and the technique development in the works of Juan Downey. (shrink)