The paper first presents the necessary background to appreciate al-Fârâbî’s views and his originality. It explains the issues Anicent philosophers faced: the natural vs. the conventional origin of language, the problem of ambiguous words, and the difficulty to express Greek thought into Latin. It then sketches andcontrasts the views of Christianity and Islam on the origin of language and the diversity of idioms. It argues that al-Fârâbî follows the philosophical tradition butdevelops it in sophisticated and original manner by telling the (...) story of the origin and development of language and giving little place to the Islamic tradition. Foral-Fârâbî language emerges naturally but develops by convention in three phases: The constitution of utterances and crafts to ensure basic necessities; The development of rhetoric, poetry, memorizing, writing, and the language arts; the development of dialectic, sophistical reasoning and demonstration that leads to philosophy reaching its perfection with with Aristotle. Religion for him is posterior to philosophy and derives form it. As for al-Fârâbî philosophy in Islamic lands was imported from Greece, he includes rules to translate technical philosophical terms from one language into another. (shrink)
In this essay, I will sketch how from specializing in Greek philosophy, and Plato in particular, I came to learn Arabic and to know more about Islamic Studies. The focus will be on how philosophy can transcend linguistic, cultural, and religious differences, while still taking into account the linguistic, cultural, and religious particularities, as this leads to a richer philosophical approach.
As for Avicenna the human soul is a complete substance which does not inhere in the body nor is imprinted in it, asserting its survival after the death of the body seems easy. Yet, he needs the body to explain its individuation. The paper analyzes Avicenna's arguments in the De anima sections, V, 3 & 4, of the Shifā ' in order to explore the exact causal relation there is between the human soul and its body and confronts these arguments (...) with relevant passages in the Metaphysics. It argues that the causal relation between body and soul remains obscure and that, though Avicenna claims that there is a personal immortality and that the disembodied soul remains individuated, he does not provide a satisfactory ontological account for it. (shrink)
The current study examines patterns of attachment/self-protective strategies and rates of unresolved loss/trauma in children and adolescents presenting to a multidisciplinary gender service. Fifty-seven children and adolescents presenting with gender dysphoria participated in structured attachment interviews coded using dynamic-maturational model discourse analysis. The children with gender dysphoria were compared to age- and sex-matched children from the community and a group of school-age children with mixed psychiatric disorders. Information about adverse childhood experiences, mental health diagnoses, and global level of functioning was (...) also collected. In contrast to children in the non-clinical group, who were classified primarily into the normative attachment patterns and who had low rates of unresolved loss/trauma, children with gender dysphoria were mostly classified into the high-risk attachment patterns and had a high rate of unresolved loss/trauma. Comorbid psychiatric diagnoses and a history of self-harm, suicidal ideation, or symptoms of distress were also common. Global level of functioning was impaired. There were no differences between children with gender dysphoria and children with mixed psychiatric disorders on attachment patterns and rates of unresolved loss and trauma. Post hoc analyses showed that lower SES, family constellation, ACEs—including maltreatment —increased the likelihood of the child being classified into a high risk attachment pattern. Akin to children with other forms of psychological distress, children with gender dysphoria present in the context of multiple interacting risk factors that include at-risk attachment, unresolved loss/trauma, family conflict and loss of family cohesion, and exposure to multiple ACEs. (shrink)
Avant de qualifier la th?orie du 'radical' de Rosenzweig de messianisme, il me semble important de localiser le 'registre du sacrifice' dans ce syst?me de connaissance. Du reste, c'est la premi?re innovation de Rosenzweig par rapport? la tradition. Rosenzweig n'a ni essay? ni eu le temps de th?matiser en d?tail la figure du 'sacrifice' ou du korban comme le nom le plus g?n?rique d'une telle activit?. Tout ce que nous poss?dons se r?sume? quelques fragments r?partis sur plusieurs ann?es de correspondance (...) avec ses amis, auxquels Rosenzweig enseigne la pens?e du sacrifice et ses limites, et? quelques-unes de ses notes sur la difficult? de traduire et d'effacer le mot allemand Opfer. Cependant, depuis le tout d?but, lorsqu'il 'traduit' et 'pense' le sacrifice comme 'don' ou 'offrande', son effort est tout? fait transparent: Rosenzweig ne fait qu'interroger le rapprochement de Dieu ou d'Autrui. Pre nego se 'teorija o radikalnom' Franza Rosencvajga prepozna kao mesijanizam i mozda kao jedna komplikovana i sistematska zurba ka novom vremenu, cini mi se da je vazno da lociramo 'registar zrtvovanja' u ovom sistemu spoznaje. Uostalom, to je prva Rozencvajgova novina u odnosu na tradiciju. Rozencvajg nije ni pokusao niti je imao vremena da detaljno tematizuje figuru 'zrtvovanja' ili korban kao najopstije ime za ovu delatnost. Sve sto imamo jeste nekoliko fragmenata iz razlicitih godina u pismima prijateljima koje Rozencvajg poducava o granicama i smislu zrtvovanja, i nekoliko njegovih zabelezaka o teskoci prevodjenja i brisanja nemacke reci Opfer. Ipak, od samog pocetka, i kada on 'prevodi' i 'misli' zrtvovanje kao 'poklon' ili 'prinos', njegov napor je sasvim transparentan. Sve sto Rozencvajg ispituje jeste priblizavanje Bogu ili drugom. (shrink)
learning about language is an exciting and ambitious new series of introductions to fundamental topics in language, linguistics and related areas. The books are designed for students of linguistics and those who are studying language as part of a wider course. In Realms of Meaning Thomas Hofmann provides an introduction to semantics that will be accessible to a student without any formal knowledge of the subject. This book provides an understanding of the way meaning works in natural languages against a (...) background of how we communicate with language. Thomas Hofmann has designed his text with particular attention to the needs and interests of the layman, whether student or interested general reader. To that end he avoids theoretical terminology and elaborate technical apparatus, and his survey also avoids commitment to specific linguistic theories which might limit the general usefulness of the book, or be vulnerable to the changes and developments over time. Contentious issues are mentioned only lightly but analysis of meaning is taken nevertheless to the frontiers of current knowledge, and the book has new ideas and perspectives that will be of real interest to specialists of semantics, linguistics and neighbouring areas especially psychology, philosophy and sociology. The fifteen chapters of the book cover many different aspects of the subject and how meaning is conveyed in linguistic communication. Examples are chosen mainly from English to provide material for the wider discussion of the principles in the subject, but European, East Asian and other languages also provide illuminating examples. (shrink)
The problem of the Qibla was one of the central issues in the scientific culture of Medieval Islam, and to solve it properly, one needed mathematics and observation. The mathematics consisted of two parts: plane trigonometry and spherical trigonometry . Observation and its instruments were needed to find the geographical coordinates of Mecca and the given location; these coordinates will be the input data in the formulas of the Qibla . In his Almagest , Ab?? al-Waf???? produced a brilliant work (...) to solve the problem. He worked on both mathematics and observation, and reached accurate and easy ???modern??? solutions. In plane trigonometry, he introduced the trigonometric functions with new definitions, proved the formulas for sines, approximated the sine of degree one, and thus constructed the tables of sines and tangents with high accuracy. In spherical trigonometry, he proved four new spherical theorems, including the tangent rule . In observation, he described three instruments which he used over several years in Baghdad. This paper is a detailed technical and analytical description of Ab?? al-Waf????'s mathematical methods and the Qibla determinations, supplemented with many important original Arabic texts with translation and commentary. R??sum?? Le probl??me de la d??termination de la Qibla est l'une des questions cruciales qui se posent ?? la culture scientifique de l'Islam m??di??val; le r??soudre correctement n??cessite tant des th??ories math??matiques que des observations. Les math??matiques rel??vent de deux chapitres: la trigonom??trie plane et la trigonom??trie sph??rique . L'observation et les instruments d'observation sont indispensables ?? la d??termination des coordonn??es g??ographiques de La Mecque et du lieu donn??; ces coordonn??es sont en effet les donn??es que l'on entre dans les formules donnant la Qibla . Dans son Almageste , Ab?? al-Waf???? r??sout brillamment ce probl??me. Son travail porte tant sur les math??matiques que sur l'observation; il obtient des solutions modernes, ad??quates et faciles. En trigonom??trie plane, il donne de nouvelles d??finitions des fonctions trigonom??triques, d??montre les formules des sinus, donne une approximation de sin??1?? gr??ce ?? laquelle il construit des tables de sinus et de tangentes d'une grande pr??cision. En trigonom??trie sph??rique, il d??montre quatre nouveaux th??or??mes dont la r??gle des tangentes ; cette r??gle lui permet de trouver, comme nous le montrerons, des solutions simples au probl??me de la d??termination de la Qibla . En ce qui concerne les observations, il d??crit trois instruments utilis??s par lui plusieurs ann??es de suite ?? Bagdad. Cet article, nourri de nombreux textes arabes originaux traduits et comment??s, donne une description d??taill??e, technique et analytique, des m??thodes math??matiques d'Ab?? al-Waf???? pour la d??termination de la Qibla. (shrink)
High-hope and low-hope research participants (males and females), as preselected on the basis of a dispositional self-report scale, choose freely between brief audiotaped messages that varied in depressive content. In the first experiment, the messages were of either positive or negative content. Highhope as compared to low-hope persons preferred listening to the positive tapes (no differences related to Gender), and this Hope main effect remained after the shared variance related to depression and positive and negative affectivity were removed. In a (...) modified replication, the contents of the tapes were comprised of successful or unsuccessful goal-attainment statements related to hopeful thinking. High-hope as compared to low-hope persons again preferred to listen to the successful goal pursuit messages (no differences related to Gender), and this Hope main effect on listening choices remained after the shared variances related to depression, positive and negative affectivity, and self-esteem were removed. Implications are discussed. (shrink)
ABSTRACTThe Norwegian government implemented a comprehensive welfare reform in 2012 to better manage an increasingly care-demanding patient demography while meeting budgetary constraints. This article discusses interdiscursive relationships between policy strategies and language use among rehabilitation professionals. It is based on a synthesis of textual analyses of policy documents and of transcribed interviews to produce complex insights into current rehabilitation discourse. The synthetic product is expressed in the form of two nodal discourses which subsume and articulate in particular ways the constituent (...) discourses of the policies and interviews. One nodal discourse approaches rehabilitation as a clinical practice; the other concerns rehabilitation as a management practice. These discourses serve different purposes. One is based in traditional medical science as a means for political action and relates to the body as an object of government policies and practices. The other relies on the individual... (shrink)
The View from Here is a study of our must fundamental attitudes toward the past. The book explores the dynamics of affirmation and regret, tracing the connections of each to our ongoing attachments. The focus is on situations in which our attachments commit us to affirming events or decisions that we know to have been unfortunate or regrettable.
We extend the discussion in the target article about distinctions between extrinsic coding and the alternative we and the target article both favor, intrinsic coding. Central to our thinking about intrinsic coding is population coding and the concept of high-dimensional neural response spaces.
The target article does not consider neural data on primate spatial representations, which we suggest provide grounds for believing that navigational space may be three-dimensional rather than quasi–two-dimensional. Furthermore, we question the authors' interpretation of rat neurophysiological data as indicating that the vertical dimension may be encoded in a neural structure separate from the two horizontal dimensions.
The "religious and secular divide" cannot be understood unless we think about the way sex gets mobilized on both sides of this supposed divide. In our joint writing, we have resisted thinking of the religious and the secular as a divide; we have rather been interested to think them relationally—as relations. Thus, the larger suggestion of this paper is that we cannot truly imagine and practice democratic politics—to name some keywords for this discussion—unless we rethink the relations between sex, secularism, (...) and religion. (shrink)
The paper first presents the necessary background to appreciate al-Fârâbî’s views and his originality. It explains the issues Anicent philosophers faced: the natural vs. the conventional origin of language, the problem of ambiguous words, and the difficulty to express Greek thought into Latin. It then sketches andcontrasts the views of Christianity and Islam on the origin of language and the diversity of idioms. It argues that al-Fârâbî follows the philosophical tradition butdevelops it in sophisticated and original manner by telling the (...) story of the origin and development of language and giving little place to the Islamic tradition. Foral-Fârâbî language emerges naturally but develops by convention in three phases: (1) The constitution of utterances and crafts to ensure basic necessities; (2) The development of rhetoric, poetry, memorizing, writing, and the language arts; (3) the development of dialectic, sophistical reasoning and demonstration that leads to philosophy reaching its perfection with with Aristotle. Religion for him is posterior to philosophy and derives form it. As for al-Fârâbî philosophy in Islamic lands was imported from Greece, he includes rules to translate technical philosophical terms from one language into another. (shrink)
In 1966, island biogeographer Sherwin Carlquist published a list of 24 principles governing long-distance dispersal and evolution on islands. The 24 principles describe many aspects of island biology, from long-distance dispersal and establishment to community change and assemblage. Although this was an active period for island biogeography, other models and research garnered much more attention than did Carlquist’s. In this review, over 40 years of support for or against Carlquist’s principles is presented. Recent work has supported most of the 24 (...) principles, and improved methodologies have generally substantiated his initial claims. However, Carlquist’s original work and ideas remain relatively under-represented in the biogeographic literature. Use of philosophical model domains provides one explanation as to why Carlquist’s work has received little attention. Carlquist’s principles are largely natural history tests, and don’t translate well into the theoretical, design of preserves, or the experimental domains—whereas other competing models do well in such domains. (shrink)
Perceived behavioral integrity involves the employee’s perception of the alignment of the manager’s words and deeds. This meta-analysis examined the relationship between perceived behavioral integrity of managers and the employee attitudes of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, satisfaction with the leader and affect toward the organization. Results indicate a strong positive relationship overall (average r = 0.48, p<0.01). With only 12 studies included, exploration of moderators was limited, but preliminary analysis suggested that the gender of the employees and the number of (...) levels between the employee and the manager are potential moderators of the relationship. In the current sample of studies, country where the research was conducted did not seem to have any moderating effects. In addition to suggesting further investigation of potential moderators, we call for research that examines the relationship between behavioral integrity and outcomes that include individual behavior and organizational performance. (shrink)
L'A. esamina il tema dei primi principi nel pensiero di Alfarabi. In particolare evidenzia la presenza di primi principi «pratici», fondamento dell'etica. Queste premesse universali e necessarie fondano per Alfarabi l'etica come scienza, contrariamente a quanto afferma Aristotele, per il quale l'etica rientra nell'ambito della filosofia pratica. L'A. propone esempi di primi principi etici, distinguendo nell'ambito di questi tra concetti e principi necessari.