Results for 'Thaddeus Kotarbinski'

657 found
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  1.  26
    The Importance of Free Expression: Some Closing Remarks.Thaddeus Kotarbinski - 1963 - World Futures 2 (sup001):90-93.
  2. Meaning in Life: An Analytic Study.Thaddeus Metz - 2013 - Oxford University Press.
    What makes a person's life meaningful? Thaddeus Metz offers a new answer to an ancient question which has recently returned to the philosophical agenda. He proceeds by examining what, if anything, all the conditions that make a life meaningful have in common. The outcome of this process is a philosophical theory of meaning in life. He starts by evaluating existing theories in terms of the classic triad of the good, the true, and the beautiful. He considers whether meaning in (...)
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  3. Recent Work on the Meaning of Life.Thaddeus Metz - 2002 - Ethics 112 (4):781-814..
    A critical overview of mainly Anglo-American philosophical literature addressing the meaning of life up to 2002.
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  4.  6
    Tadeusz Kotarbinski-Reism and Science.I. Tadeusz Kotarbinski - 2001 - In Władysław Krajewski (ed.), Polish Philosophers of Science and Nature in the 20th Century. Rodopi. pp. 3--47.
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  5. Ancillary Care Obligations in Light of an African Bioethic: From Entrustment to Communion.Thaddeus Metz - 2017 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 38 (2):111–126.
    Henry Richardson has recently published the first book ever devoted to ancillary care obligations, which roughly concern what medical researchers are morally required to provide to participants beyond what safety requires. In it Richardson notes that he has presented the ‘only fully elaborated view out there’ on this topic, which he calls the ‘partial-entrustment model’. In this article, I provide a new theory of ancillary care obligations, one that is grounded on ideals of communion salient in the African philosophical tradition (...)
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  6.  22
    Tadeusz Kotarbiński's Action Theory - Reinterpretive Studies.Piotr Tomasz Makowski - 2017 - New York, USA: Palgrave-Macmillan.
    The book introduces Tadeusz Kotarbiński’s philosophy of action into the mainstream of contemporary action-theoretical debates. Piotr Makowski shows that Kotarbiński–Alfred Tarski’s teacher and one of the most important philosophers of the renowned Lvov-Warsaw school—proposed a groundbreaking, original, and (in at least a few respects) still fresh perspective in action theorizing. The book examines and develops Kotarbiński’s ideas in the context of the most recent discussions in the philosophy of action. The main idea behind Kotarbiński’s action theory—and thus, behind this book—is (...)
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  7. African Conceptions of Human Dignity: Vitality and Community as the Ground of Human Rights.Thaddeus Metz - 2012 - Human Rights Review 13 (1):19-37.
    I seek to advance enquiry into the philosophical question of in virtue of what human beings have a dignity of the sort that grounds human rights. I first draw on values salient in sub-Saharan African moral thought to construct two theoretically promising conceptions of human dignity, one grounded on vitality, or liveliness, and the other on our communal nature. I then argue that the vitality conception cannot account for several human rights that we intuitively have, while the community conception can (...)
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  8.  78
    Higher Education, Knowledge For Its Own Sake, and an African Moral Theory.Thaddeus Metz - 2009 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 28 (6):517-536.
    I seek to answer the question of whether publicly funded higher education ought to aim intrinsically to promote certain kinds of ‘‘blue-sky’’ knowledge, knowledge that is unlikely to result in ‘‘tangible’’ or ‘‘concrete’’ social benefits such as health, wealth and liberty. I approach this question in light of an African moral theory, which contrasts with dominant Western philosophies and has not yet been applied to pedagogical issues. According to this communitarian theory, grounded on salient sub-Saharan beliefs and practices, actions are (...)
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  9. Assessing Lives, Giving Supernaturalism Its Due, and Capturing Naturalism: Reply to 13 Critics of Meaning in Life (Repr.).Thaddeus Metz - 2015 - In Masahiro Morioka (ed.), Reconsidering Meaning in Life: A Philosophical Dialogue with Thaddeus Metz. Waseda University. pp. 228-278.
    A lengthy reply to 13 critical discussions of _Meaning in Life: An Analytic Study_ collected in an e-book and reprinted from the _Journal of Philosophy of Life_. The contributors are from a variety of philosophical traditions, including the Anglo-American, Continental and East Asian (especially Buddhist and Japanese) ones.
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  10. An African Theory of Moral Status: A Relational Alternative to Individualism and Holism.Thaddeus Metz - 2012 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (3):387-402.
    The dominant conceptions of moral status in the English-speaking literature are either holist or individualist, neither of which accounts well for widespread judgments that: animals and humans both have moral status that is of the same kind but different in degree; even a severely mentally incapacitated human being has a greater moral status than an animal with identical internal properties; and a newborn infant has a greater moral status than a mid-to-late stage foetus. Holists accord no moral status to any (...)
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  11. African and Western Moral Theories in a Bioethical Context.Thaddeus Metz - 2010 - Developing World Bioethics 10 (1):49-58.
    The field of bioethics is replete with applications of moral theories such as utilitarianism and Kantianism. For a given dilemma, even if it is not clear how one of these western philosophical principles of right (and wrong) action would resolve it, one can identify many of the considerations that each would conclude is relevant. The field is, in contrast, largely unaware of an African account of what all right (and wrong) actions have in common and of the sorts of factors (...)
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  12.  15
    Thematic Origins of Scientific Thought: Kepler to Einstein.Thaddeus J. Trenn - 1974 - Philosophy of Science 41 (4):415-418.
  13.  49
    The African Ethic of Ubuntu.Thaddeus Metz - 2019 - 1000-Word Philosophy: An Introductory Anthology.
    Online reprint of part of an encyclopedia entry (from the Encyclopaedia of Quality of Life and Well-being Research 2014).
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  14.  10
    Life Worth Living (Rev. Edn).Thaddeus Metz - 2021 - In Filomena Maggino (ed.), Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research, 2nd edn. Springer. pp. 1-4.
    An updated version of this encyclopedia entry on the concept of what, if anything, makes life worthwhile.
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  15.  71
    The Meaningful and the Worthwhile: Clarifying the Relationships.Thaddeus Metz - 2012 - Philosophical Forum 43 (4):435-448.
    The question I seek to answer is what the relationship is between judgments of people’s lives as meaningful, on the one hand, and as worth living, on the other. Several in the analytic and Continental literature, including the likes of Albert Camus and Ludwig Wittgenstein, and more recently, Robert Solomon and Julian Baggini, have maintained that the two words mean the same thing, in that they have the same referents or even the same sense. My primary aim is to refute (...)
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  16.  47
    Distributive Justice as a Matter of Love: A Relational Approach to Liberty and Property.Thaddeus Metz - 2019 - In Ingolf Dalferth & Trevor Kimball (eds.), Love and Justice. Mohr Siebeck. pp. 339-352.
    Usually a relational approach, such as one appealing to care or love, is contrasted with an account of justice. In this chapter, however, I argue that distributive justice is well conceived as itself a matter of honouring people in virtue of their capacity to love and to be loved. After spelling out a familiar conception of love, I explain how treating people with respect in light of this capacity provides a plausible basis for human rights, one that rivals influential individualist (...)
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  17.  4
    Ubuntu: The Good Life (Rev. Edn).Thaddeus Metz - 2021 - In Filomena Maggino (ed.), Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research, 2nd edn. Springer.
    Moderately updated version of this encyclopaedia entry.
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  18. De-Facto Science Policy in the Making: How Scientists Shape Science Policy and Why It Matters (or, Why STS and STP Scholars Should Socialize).Thaddeus R. Miller & Mark W. Neff - 2013 - Minerva 51 (3):295-315.
    Science and technology (S&T) policy studies has explored the relationship between the structure of scientific research and the attainment of desired outcomes. Due to the difficulty of measuring them directly, S&T policy scholars have traditionally equated “outcomes” with several proxies for evaluation, including economic impact, and academic output such as papers published and citations received. More recently, scholars have evaluated science policies through the lens of Public Value Mapping, which assesses scientific programs against societal values. Missing from these approaches is (...)
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  19. Definitions of Terms.Thaddeus Metz, Alejandro Adler, Ilona Boniwell, Evelyn Gibson, Martin Seligman, Yukiko Uchida & Zhanjun Xing - 2017 - In Centre for Bhutan Studies (ed.), Happiness: Transforming the Development Landscape. Centre for Bhutan Studies and GNH. pp. 21-38.
    Definitions of terms that are central to a theoretical understanding of the Royal Government of Bhutan's policy of Gross National Happiness.
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  20.  68
    The Final Ends of Higher Education in Light of an African Moral Theory.Thaddeus Metz - 2009 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 43 (2):179-201.
    From the perspective of an African ethic, analytically interpreted as a philosophical principle of right action, what are the proper final ends of a publicly funded university and how should they be ranked? To answer this question, I first provide a brief but inclusive review of the literature on Africanising higher education from the past 50 years, and contend that the prominent final ends suggested in it can be reduced to five major categories. Then, I spell out an intuitively attractive (...)
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  21.  51
    Ubuntu: The Good Life.Thaddeus Metz - 2014 - In Alex Michalos (ed.), Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-being Research. Springer. pp. 6761-65.
    An overview of a characteristically African approach to the human good.
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  22.  46
    Censure Theory and Intuitions About Punishment.Thaddeus Metz - 2000 - Law and Philosophy 19 (4):491-512.
    Many philosophers and laypeople have the following two intuitions about legal punishment: the state has a pro tanto moral reason to punish all those guilty of breaking a just law and to do so in proportion to their guilt. Accepting that there can be overriding considerations not to punish all the guilty in proportion to their guilt, many philosophers still consider it a strike against any theory if it does not imply that there is always a supportive moral reason to (...)
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  23.  61
    African Values, Human Rights and Group Rights: A Philosophical Foundation for the Banjul Charter.Thaddeus Metz - 2014 - In Oche Onazi (ed.), African Legal Theory and Contemporary Problems: Critical Essays. Springer. pp. 131-51.
    A communitarian perspective, which is characteristic of African normative thought, accords some kind of primacy to society or a group, whereas human rights are by definition duties that others have to treat individuals in certain ways, even when not doing so would be better for others. Is there any place for human rights in an Afro-communitarian political and legal philosophy, and, if so, what is it? I seek to answer these questions, in part by critically exploring one of the most (...)
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  24.  49
    Spinoza on the Vacuum and the Simplicity of Corporeal Substance.Thaddeus S. Robinson - 2009 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 26 (1):63 - 81.
  25.  32
    What Can the Capabilities Approach Learn From an Ubuntu Ethic? A Relational Approach to Development Theory.Nimi Hoffmann & Thaddeus Metz - 2017 - World Development 97 (September):153–164.
    Over the last two decades, the capabilities approach has become an increasingly influential theory of development. It conceptualises human wellbeing in terms of an individual's ability to achieve functionings we have reason to value. In contrast, the African ethic of ubuntu views human flourishing as the propensity to pursue relations of fellowship with others, such that relationships have fundamental value. These two theoretical perspectives seem to be in tension with each other; while the capabilities approach focuses on individuals as the (...)
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  26.  8
    Conversations About the Meaning of Life.David Benatar & Thaddeus Metz - 2021 - Obsidian Worlds Publishing.
    Interviews with David Benatar and Thaddeus Metz about some core aspects of their views about meaning in life, including debate between them. Accessible to a generally educated audience. Edited by Mark Oppenheimer and Jason Werbeloff.
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  27.  50
    An African Theory of Bioethics: Reply to Macpherson and Macklin.Thaddeus Metz - 2010 - Developing World Bioethics 10 (3):158-163.
    In a prior issue of Developing World Bioethics, Cheryl Macpherson and Ruth Macklin critically engaged with an article of mine, where I articulated a moral theory grounded on indigenous values salient in the sub-Saharan region, and then applied it to four major issues in bioethics, comparing and contrasting its implications with those of the dominant Western moral theories, utilitarianism and Kantianism. In response to my essay, Macpherson and Macklin have posed questions about: whether philosophical justifications are something with which bioethicists (...)
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  28.  5
    The Buddhist Teaching of Totality: The Philosophy of Hwa Yen Buddhism.Thaddeus J. Gurdak - 1974 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 94 (4):525.
  29.  45
    Kotarbiński's Theory of Pseudo-Names.Vito F. Sinisi - 1965 - Theoria 31 (3):218-241.
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  30.  40
    Kotarbiński's Theory of Genuine Names.Vito F. Sinisi - 1964 - Theoria 30 (2):80-95.
  31.  14
    Kotarbiński as a Scientific Realist.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2002 - Erkenntnis 56 (1):63-82.
    Tadeusz Kotarbiski is widely recognized as a major philosopher of theLvov–Warsaw school. His reism, which is a contribution to semantics andontology, is still discussed and debated, and his most original creation, praxiology,has grown into an entire research field. However, Kotarbiski's philosophy ofscience has not received much attention by later commentators. This paper attemptsto correct this situation by considering the hypothesis that Kotarbiski succeededalready in 1929 in formulating a position that can be regarded as an early version ofscientific realism. Unlike most (...)
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  32.  31
    Certified Patient Decision Aids: Solving Persistent Problems with Informed Consent Law.Thaddeus Mason Pope - 2017 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 45 (1):12-40.
    The legal doctrine of informed consent has overwhelmingly failed to assure that the medical treatment patients get is the treatment patients want. This Article describes and defends an ongoing shift toward shared decision making processes incorporating the use of certified patient decision aids.
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  33.  96
    Respect for Persons and Perfectionist Politics.Thaddeus Metz - 2001 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 30 (4):417–442.
    Can a state seek to promote a thick conception of the good (such as fostering a kind of meaning or excellence in people's lives) without treating its citizens disrespectfully? The predominant answer among friends of the principle of respect for persons is "no." The most powerful Kantian objection to non-liberalism or perfectionism is the claim that citizens who do not share the state's conception of the good would be wronged in that the state would treat a certain way of life (...)
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  34.  13
    The Best Interest Standard for Health Care Decision Making: Definition and Defense.Thaddeus Mason Pope - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (8):36-38.
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  35. The Best Interest Standard: Both Guide and Limit to Medical Decision Making on Behalf of Incapacitated Patients.Thaddeus M. Pope - 2011 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 22 (2):134.
     
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  36. Kotarbinski's Early Criticism of Utilitarianism.Wlodek Rabinowicz - 2000 - Utilitas 12 (1):79.
    Apart from a short introduction, this contribution consists of a translation of Tadeusz Kotarbinski’s “Utilitarianism and The Ethics of Pity”. In that very concise and relatively unknown early note, written before he embarked on his long and influential career as a nominalist logician and philosopher of science, Kotarbinski had formulated four astonishingly ‘modern’ objections to utilitarianism. Unlike Christian ‘ethics of pity’, utilitarian ethics disregards the normative importance of the distinction between preventing suffering and promoting happiness, leaves no room (...)
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  37.  10
    Informed Consent Requires Understanding: Complete Disclosure Is Not Enough.Thaddeus Mason Pope - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (5):27-28.
    Volume 19, Issue 5, May 2019, Page 27-28.
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  38. Confucianism and Ubuntu: Reflections on a Dialogue Between Chinese and African Traditions.Daniel A. Bell & Thaddeus Metz - 2011 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (s1):78-95.
    In this article we focus on three key precepts shared by Confucianism and the African ethic of Ubuntu: the central value of community, the desirability of ethical partiality, and the idea that we tend to become morally better as we grow older. For each of these broad similarities, there are key differences underlying them, and we discuss those as well as speculate about the reasons for them. Our aim is not to take sides, but we do suggest ways that Ubuntu (...)
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  39.  21
    Legal Briefing: The Unbefriended: Making Healthcare Decisions for Patients Without Surrogates (Part 2).Thaddeus Pope & Tanya Sellers - 2012 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 23 (2):177-192.
    This issue’s “Legal Briefing” column continues coverage of recent legal developments involving medical decision making for unbefriended patients. These patients have neither decision-making capacity nor a reasonably available surrogate to make healthcare decisions on their behalf. This topic has been the subject of recent articles in JCE. It has been the subject of major policy reports. Indeed, caring for the unbefriended has even been described as the “single greatest category of problems” encountered in bioethics consultation. Moreover, the scope of the (...)
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  40.  59
    Review of Ethics & AIDS in Africa. [REVIEW]Thaddeus Metz - 2006 - South African Journal of Philosophy 25 (4):369-71.
  41.  95
    Life, Meaning Of.Thaddeus Metz - 2020 - In Elinor Mason & Tim Crane (eds.), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Routledge.
    A 4000 word critical overview of recent Anglo-American philosophical books devoted to life's meaning. Online only.
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  42. Toward an African Moral Theory.Thaddeus Metz - 2007 - Journal of Political Philosophy 15 (3):321–341.
    In this article I articulate and defend an African moral theory, i.e., a basic and general principle grounding all particular duties that is informed by sub-Saharan values commonly associated with talk of "ubuntu" and cognate terms that signify personhood or humanness. The favoured interpretation of ubuntu (as of 2007) is the principle that an action is right insofar as it respects harmonious relationships, ones in which people identify with, and exhibit solidarity toward, one another. I maintain that this is the (...)
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  43. The Meaning of Life (Textbook).Thaddeus Metz - 2015 - In Duncan Pritchard (ed.), What Is This Thing Called Philosophy? Routledge. pp. 319-358.
    A three chapter part of a textbook for undergraduate philosophy majors.
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  44. Ubuntu as a Moral Theory and Human Rights in South Africa.Thaddeus Metz - 2011 - African Human Rights Law Journal 11 (2):532-559.
    There are three major reasons that ideas associated with ubuntu are often deemed to be an inappropriate basis for a public morality. One is that they are too vague, a second is that they fail to acknowledge the value of individual freedom, and a third is that they a fit traditional, small-scale culture more than a modern, industrial society. In this article, I provide a philosophical interpretation of ubuntu that is not vulnerable to these three objections. Specifically, I construct a (...)
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  45.  6
    Medical Futility and Potentially Inappropriate Treatment: Better Ethics with More Precise Definitions and Language.Thaddeus Mason Pope - 2018 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 60 (3):423-427.
    Like the authors of some of the other responses to Schneiderman, Jecker, and Jonsen, I too was one of the group that produced “An Official ATS/AACN/ACCP/ESICM/SCCM Policy Statement: Responding to Requests for Futile and Potentially Inappropriate Treatments in Intensive Care Units”. Furthermore, ethical and legal issues surrounding futile and potentially inappropriate medical treatment have been a primary focus of my scholarship for more than a decade. Schneiderman, Jecker, and Jonsen offer a strong critique of the Multiorganization Statement, but they do (...)
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  46. Legal Briefing: POLST: Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment.Thaddeus Mason Pope & Melinda Hexum - 2012 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 23 (4):353-76.
    This issue’s “Legal Briefing” column covers recent legal developments involving POLST POLST has been the subject of recent articles in JCE. It has been the subject of major policy reports and a recent New York Times editorial. And POLST has been the subject of significant legislative, regulatory, and policy attention over the past several months. These developments and a survey of the current landscape are usefully grouped into the following 14 categories: 1. Terminology 2. Purpose, function, and success 3. Status (...)
     
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  47. Legal Briefing: Organ Donation.Thaddeus M. Pope - 2010 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 21 (3).
     
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  48. The Politics of Doing Philosophy in Africa: A Conversation.Ward E. Jones & Thaddeus Metz - 2015 - South African Journal of Philosophy 34 (4):538-550.
    The background to the present discussion is the prevalence of political and personal criticisms in philosophical discussions about Africa. As philosophers in South Africa—both white and black—continue to philosophise seriously about Africa, responses to their work sometimes take the form of political and personal criticisms of, if not attacks on, the philosopher exploring and defending considerations about the African continent. One of us (TM) has been the target of such critiques in light of his work. Our aim in this conversation (...)
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  49.  97
    Meaning in Life.Thaddeus Metz - 2017 - In Benjamin Matheson & Yujin Nagasawa (eds.), The Palgrave Handbook on the Afterlife. Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 353-370.
    This chapter critically explores contemporary philosophical understandings of whether meaning in life might depend on the presence or absence of an afterlife. After distinguishing various kinds of afterlife, it focuses most on the potential relevance of an eternal one, and considers at length the extreme but common views amongst philosophers that an eternal afterlife would be either necessary for a meaningful life or, conversely, sufficient for a meaningless one. It concludes by considering the plausibility of a more moderate view, that (...)
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  50.  27
    Legal Briefing: Healthcare Ethics Committees.Thaddeus Mason Pope - 2011 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 22 (1):74-93.
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