Results for 'The 'Ontological Argument''

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  1.  59
    Deuteros Plous, the Immortality of the Soul and the Ontological Argument for the Existence of God.Rafael Ferber - 2018 - In Gabriele Cornelli, Thomas M. Robinson & Francisco Bravo (eds.), Plato's Phaedo.Selected papers from the eleventh Symposium Platonicum. Baden Baden: Academia Verlag. pp. 221-230.
    The paper deals with the "deuteros plous", literally ‘the second voyage’, proverbially ‘the next best way’, discussed in Plato’s "Phaedo", the key passage being Phd. 99e4–100a3. The second voyage refers to what Plato’s Socrates calls his “flight into the logoi”. Elaborating on the subject, the author first (I) provides a non-standard interpretation of the passage in question, and then (II) outlines the philosophical problem that it seems to imply, and, finally, (III) tries to apply this philosophical problem to the "ultimate (...)
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  2.  35
    On the Contrary: Inferential Analysis and Ontological Assumptions of the A Contrario Argument.Damiano Canale & Giovanni Tuzet - 2008 - Informal Logic 28 (1):31-43.
    We remark that the A Contrario Argument is an ambiguous technique of justification of judicial decisions. We distinguish two uses and versions of it, strong and weak, taking as example the normative sentence “Underprivileged citizens are permitted to apply for State benefit”. According to the strong version, only underprivileged citizens are permitted to apply for State benefit, so stateless persons are not. According to the weak, the law does not regulate the position of underprivileged stateless persons in this respect. We (...)
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  3.  47
    Anselm and the Ontological Argument.Graham Oppy - 2011 - In Jeff Jordan (ed.), Philosophy of Religion: The Key Thinkers. Continuum. pp. 22-43.
    This chapter gives an exposition and critique of Anselm's Proslogion II argument.
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  4. Kant on the Ontological Argument.Ian Proops - 2015 - Noûs 49 (1):1-27.
    The article examines Kant's various criticisms of the broadly Cartesian ontological argument as they are developed in the Critique of Pure Reason. It is argued that each of these criticisms is effective against its intended target, and that these targets include—in addition to Descartes himself—Leibniz, Wolff, and Baumgarten. It is argued that Kant's most famous criticism—the charge that being is not a real predicate—is directed exclusively against Leibniz. Kant's argument for this thesis—the argument proceeding from his example of a hundred (...)
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  5. Hegel and the Ontological Argument for the Existence of God.Paul Redding & Paolo Diego Bubbio - 2014 - Religious Studies 50 (4):465-486.
    We reconstruct Hegel’s implicit version of the ontological argument in the light of his anti-representationalist idealist metaphysics. For Hegel, the ontological argument had been a peculiarly modern form of argument for the existence of God, presupposing a ‘representationalist’ account of the mind and its concepts. As such, it was susceptible to Kant’s famous refutation, but Kant himself had provided a model for an alternative conception of concept, one developed by Fichte with his notion of the I=I. We reconstruct an Hegelian (...)
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  6. Kant's Critique of the Ontological Argument: FAIL.Steven M. Duncan - manuscript
    In this paper, I argue that Kant's famous critique of the Ontological Argument largely begs the question against that argument, and is no better when supplemented by the modern quantificational analysis of "exists." In particular, I argue that the claim, common to Hume and Kant, that conceptual truths can never entail substantive existential claims is false,and thus no ground for rejecting the Ontological Argument.
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  7. Kant and Frege on Existence and the Ontological Argument.Michael E. Cuffaro - 2012 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 29 (4):337-354.
    I argue that Kant's and Frege's refutations of the ontological argument are more similar than has generally been acknowledged. As I clarify, for both Kant and Frege, to say that something exists is to assert of a concept that it is instantiated. With such an assertion one expresses that there is a particular relation between the instantiating object and a rational subject - a particular mode of presentation for the object in question. By its very nature such a relation cannot (...)
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  8. The Ontological Argument: Past, Present, and Future?Shaun Smith - 2013 - Sententias.
    This article serves to explore the historical development of the ontological argument from Anselm to Present. Initially, the main goal is to introduce the lay reader to one of the most perplexing arguments for the theistic conception of God. Logically, this is an a priori argument, similar to one of a mathematical proof. Oddly, the argument has sort of fallen out of place in contemporary philosophy, apart from a reboot from Alvin Plantinga. The goal is to illustrate that the initial (...)
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  9.  94
    The Ontological Argument as an Exercise in Cartesian Therapy.Lawrence Nolan - 2005 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 35 (4):521 - 562.
    I argue that Descartes intended the so-called ontological "argument" as a self-validating intuition, rather than as a formal proof. The textual evidence for this view is highly compelling, but the strongest support comes from understanding Descartes's diagnosis for why God's existence is not 'immediately' self-evident to everyone and the method of analysis that he develops for making it self-evident. The larger aim of the paper is to use the ontological argument as a case study of Descartes's nonformalist theory of deduction (...)
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  10. Giving the Ontological Argument Its Due.C’Zar Bernstein - 2014 - Philosophia 42 (3):665-679.
    In this paper, I shall present and defend an ontological argument for the existence of God. The argument has two premises: possibly, God exists, and necessary existence is a perfection. I then defend, at length, arguments for both of these premises. Finally, I shall address common objections to ontological arguments, such as the Kantian slogan, and Gaunilo-style parodies, and argue that they do not succeed. I conclude that there is at least one extant ontological argument that is plausibly sound.
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  11.  85
    In Search of the Ontological Argument.Richard Oxenberg - manuscript
    We can attend to the logic of Anselm's ontological argument, and amuse ourselves for a few hours unraveling its convoluted word-play, or we can seek to look beyond the flawed logic, to the search for God it expresses. From the perspective of this second approach the Ontological Argument might be seen as more than a mere argument - indeed, as something of a contemplative exercise. One can see in the argument a tantalizing attempt to capture in logical form the devotee’s (...)
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  12. How is the Question 'is Existence a Predicate?' Relevant to the Ontological Argument?J. William Forgie - 2008 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 64 (3):117 - 133.
    It is often said that the ontological argument fails because it wrongly treats existence as a first-level property or predicate. This has proved a controversial claim, and efforts to evaluate it are complicated by the fact that the words ‘existence is not a property/predicate’ have been used by philosophers to make at least three different negative claims: (a) one about a first-level phenomenon possessed by objects like horses, stones, you and me; (b) another about the logical form of assertions of (...)
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  13. Review: Daniel A. Dombrowski: Rethinking the Ontological Argument: A Neoclassical Theistic Response. [REVIEW]G. Oppy - 2008 - Mind 117 (467):690-693.
    Critical review of Daniel Dombrowski's "Rethinking the Ontological Argument".
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  14.  51
    The Ontological Argument of Diogenes of Babylon.Michael Papazian - 2007 - Phronesis 52 (2):188-209.
    An argument for the existence of gods given by the Stoic Diogenes of Babylon and reported by Sextus Empiricus appears to be an ancient version of the ontological argument. In this paper I present a new reconstruction of Diogenes' argument that differs in certain important respects from the reconstruction presented by Jacques Brunschwig. I argue that my reconstruction makes better sense of how Diogenes' argument emerged as a response to an attack on an earlier Stoic argument presented by Zeno of (...)
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  15.  30
    The Ontological Argument in the Tractatus.Felipe Ledesma - 2007 - Metaphysica 8 (2):179-201.
    The intention of this article is to show that the Tractatus deals with the problem of the relation between reality, possibility, and necessity as traditionally considered in the ontological argument, that is, in relation to the idea of limit, and that in Section 5.5521, we find an especially clarifying formulation of this question; the formulation itself, however, is not at all clear, so that a lengthy commentary of it is justified.
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  16. "Kant's Fourfold Critique of the Ontological Argument: Conceptual Containment, Predication, and the Portents of Free Logic".Lawrence Pasternack - forthcoming - In Graham Oppy (ed.), The Ontological Argument (Cambridge Classic Philosophical Arguments Series). Cambridge University Press.
  17.  65
    Lowe on "The Ontological Argument".Graham Oppy - 2013 - In Chad Meister, J. P. Moreland & K. Sweus (eds.), Debating Christian Theism. Oxford University Press. pp. 72-84.
    This paper is a discussion of an ontological argument defended by E. J. Lowe in the *Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Religion* (edited by C. Meister and P. Copan, at pp.332-40). The volume to which this paper belongs contains an article by Lowe which defends a different ontological argument from the one that I discuss.
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  18.  40
    Makin on the Ontological Argument.Graham Oppy - 1991 - Philosophy 66 (255):106 - 114.
    This paper is a critique of Stephen Makin's ontological argument. To some extent, the argument of this paper is recapitulated in *Ontological Arguments and Belief in God* (CUP, 1996).
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  19. Anselm and the Question of God's Existence: Interrogating the Ontological Argument.Damian Ilodigwe - 2017 - Nigerian Journal of Theology 31:96-110.
    St Anselm is one of the major thinkers of the medieval epoch of the history of philosophy. Interest in Anselm usually focuses on his discussion of the problem of the existence of God especially as contained in the Proslogion. Indeed Anselm is mostly known for his attempt to proof the existence of God in the Proslogion. The argument he advances here which goes by the name ontological argument has been a point of reference all through the history of Western philosophy (...)
     
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  20.  21
    The Ontological Argument and Russell's Antinomy.Sara L. Uckelman - 2009 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 18 (3-4):309-312.
    In this short note we respond to the claim made by Christopher Viger in [4] that Anselm’s so-called ontological argument falls prey to Russell’s paradox. We show that Viger’s argument is based on a flawed premise and hence does not in fact demonstrate what he claims it demonstrates.
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  21.  69
    Stephen Davis’s Objection to the Second Ontological Argument.Bashar Alhoch - 2016 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 80 (1):3-9.
    Stephen Davis has argued that the second ontological argument fails as a theistic proof because it ignores the logical possibility of what he calls an ontologically impossible being. By an “ontologically impossible being” he means a being that does not exist, logically-possibly exists, and would exist necessarily if it existed. In this brief essay, I argue, first, that even if an OIB is logically possible, its logical possibility is irrelevant to the OA at issue; and second, that an OIB is (...)
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  22. The Ontological Form of Tropes - Refuting Douglas Ehring’s Main Argument Against Standard Trope Nominalism.Jani Hakkarainen & Markku Keinänen - 2017 - Philosophia 45 (2):647-658.
    According to standard trope nominalism, there are simple tropes that do not have parts or multiply distinct aspects. Douglas Ehring’s reductio ad absurdum against this standard view concludes that there are no simple tropes. In this paper, we provide a response to Ehring defending the standard view. Ehring’s argument may be refuted by (1) distinguishing the ontological form of tropes from their contribution to the ontological content of the world, and (2) construing tropes as having primitive identity. At the same (...)
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  23. The Ontological Argument.Graham Oppy - 2008 - In Paul Copan & Chad V. Meister (eds.), Philosophy of Religion: Classic and Contemporary Issues. Blackwell.
    General discussion of ontological arguments. (Extended the discussion of ontological arguments in the then current version of my SEP entry on ontological arguments.).
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  24. Rethinking the Ontological Argument: A Neoclassical Theistic Response.Daniel A. Dombrowski - 2006 - Cambridge University Press.
    In recent years, the ontological argument and theistic metaphysics have been criticised by philosophers working in both the analytic and continental traditions. Responses to these criticisms have primarily come from philosophers who make use of the traditional, and problematic, concept of God. In this volume, Daniel A. Dombrowski defends the ontological argument against its contemporary critics, but he does so by using a neoclassical or process concept of God, thereby strengthening the case for a contemporary theistic metaphysics. Relying on the (...)
  25. Alvin Plantinga on the Ontological Argument.William L. Rowe - 2009 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 65 (2):87 - 92.
    By taking ‘existence in reality’ to be a great-making property and ‘God’ to be the greatest possible being, Plantinga skillfully presents Anselm’s ontological argument. However, since he proves God’s existence by virtue of a premise, “God (a maximally great being) is a possible being”, that is true only if God actually exists; his argument begs the question of the existence of God.
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  26.  56
    The Ontological Argument From Descartes to Hegel.Kevin J. Harrelson - 2009 - Humanity Books.
    Proof and perception : the context of the argumentum cartesianum -- Refutations of atheism : ontological arguments in English philosophy, 1652-1705 -- Being and intuition : Malebranche's appropriation of the argument -- An adequate conception : the argument in Spinoza's philosophy -- Ontological arguments in Leibniz and the German enlightenment -- Kant's systematic critique of the ontological argument -- Hegel's reconstruction of the argument.
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  27. Thought Experimenting with God. Revisiting the Ontological Argument.Yiftach J. H. Fehige - 2009 - Neue Zeitschrift für Systematicsche Theologie Und Religionsphilosophie 51 (3):249-267.
    The ontological argument is one of the most intriguing lines of reasoning in Western thought. Leaving behind debates over the proper relation between science and religion, it makes a simple move from conceptual analysis to existence in order to prove the existence of god. The ontological argument will be reviewed against the background of the contemporary debate on thought experiments. Assuming that the ontological argument fails as a philosophical proof, I will argue that its move from concept to existence might (...)
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  28. On the Logic of the Ontological Argument.Paul E. Oppenheimer & Edward N. Zalta - 1991 - Philosophical Perspectives 5:509-529.
    In this paper, the authors show that there is a reading of St. Anselm's ontological argument in Proslogium II that is logically valid (the premises entail the conclusion). This reading takes Anselm's use of the definite description "that than which nothing greater can be conceived" seriously. Consider a first-order language and logic in which definite descriptions are genuine terms, and in which the quantified sentence "there is an x such that..." does not imply "x exists". Then, using an ordinary logic (...)
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  29.  58
    The Ontological Argument.Brian Leftow - 2005 - In William J. Wainwright (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Religion. Oxford University Press.
    This chapter presents and critically discusses the main historical variants of the “ontological argument,” a form of a priori argument for the existence of God pioneered by Anselm of Canterbury. I assess the contributions of Anselm, Descartes, Leibniz, and Gödel, and criticisms by Gaunilo, Kant, and Oppy among others.
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  30. A Computationally-Discovered Simplification of the Ontological Argument.Paul Oppenheimer & Edward N. Zalta - 2011 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 89 (2):333 - 349.
    The authors investigated the ontological argument computationally. The premises and conclusion of the argument are represented in the syntax understood by the automated reasoning engine PROVER9. Using the logic of definite descriptions, the authors developed a valid representation of the argument that required three non-logical premises. PROVER9, however, discovered a simpler valid argument for God's existence from a single non-logical premise. Reducing the argument to one non-logical premise brings the investigation of the soundness of the argument into better focus. Also, (...)
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  31. The Ontological Argument Simplified.Gareth B. Matthews & Lynne Rudder Baker - 2010 - Analysis 70 (2):210-212.
    The ontological argument in Anselm’s Proslogion II continues to generate a remarkable store of sophisticated commentary and criticism. However, in our opinion, much of this literature ignores or misrepresents the elegant simplicity of the original argument. The dialogue below seeks to restore that simplicity, with one important modification. Like the original, it retains the form of a reductio, which we think is essential to the argument’s great genius. However, it seeks to skirt the difficult question of whether 'exists' is a (...)
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  32.  82
    On the Logical Structure of the Ontological Argument.R. M. Martin - 1973 - The Monist 57 (3):297-311.
    The ontological argument of Saint Anselm, one of the most famous in the entire history of philosophy, has fascinated men’s minds for centuries. And yet, as Hartshorne makes abundantly clear, much of its subtlety has been missed by some of the keenest commentators. Although it has been discussed again and again, little work seems to have been done, even up to the moment, in exploring the logical forms or deep structures needed for an exact statement. Part of this is due (...)
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  33. The Ontological Argument From Descartes to Hegel (Review). [REVIEW]Graham Oppy - 2010 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 48 (2):pp. 243-245.
    Kevin Harrelson's book commences with the following words: This book provides a philosophical analysis of the several debates concerning the "ontological argument" from the middle of the seventeenth to the beginning of the nineteenth century. My aim in writing it was twofold. First, I wished to provide a detailed and comprehensive account of the history of these debates, which I perceived to be lacking in the scholarly literature. Second, I wanted also to pursue a more philosophically interesting question concerning the (...)
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  34.  50
    Ibn Sina Avicenna and Malcolm and the Ontological Argument.Parviz Morewedge - 1970 - The Monist 54 (2):234-249.
    It has generally been assumed that Anselm was the originator of the ontological argument. Notwithstanding the fact that it has received much criticism, Malcolm defends its so-called second version. In this paper we shall examine some features of ibn Sina’s notion of the Necessary Existent which show that prior to Anselm, ibn Sina formulated a version of this argument which corresponds in some senses to Malcolm’s version, and that a close examination of ibn Sina’s peculiar version enables us to criticize (...)
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  35.  63
    The Metaphysics of Thinking Necessary Existence: Kant and the Ontological Argument.Brayton Polka - 2012 - The European Legacy 17 (5):583 - 591.
    I argue in my paper that, when the ?twofold standpoint,? in terms of which Kant undertakes to set metaphysics upon the revolutionary path of critical reason, is truly assessed, we discover that the fundamental distinction that he makes between subject and object, between thinking (together with desiring and willing) and knowing, between thinking the thing in itself and knowing objects of possible experience, or between freedom and nature, recapitulates the ontological argument demonstrating the necessary relationship between thought and existence.
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  36.  17
    The Ontological Argument. Anselm Vs. Descartes.Laura Stifter - 2017 - Annals of the University of Bucharest - Philosophy Series 65 (2).
    Among the rational arguments for God’s existence there is the ontological argument, originally put forth – in its classical form – by the scholastic theologian and philosopher Anselm of Canterbury and subsequently reiterated, in slightly altered versions, by some of the modern thinkers. The present paper aims to outline a comparative presentation of the ontological argument as formulated by Anselm and Descartes, respectively, and to investigate the ways in which the two Christian philosophers perceived the relationship between faith and reason, (...)
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  37. Kant on the Dependency of the Cosmological Argument on the Ontological Argument.Donald P. Smith - 2003 - European Journal of Philosophy 11 (2):206–218.
    Immanuel Kant’s well known and thoroughly discussed criticism of the cosmological argument, hereafter ‘CA’, is that it presupposes or depends upon the cogency of the ontological argument, hereafter ‘OA’. Call this criticism ‘the Dependency Thesis’. It is fair to say that the received view on the matter is that Kant failed to establish the Dependency Thesis.1 In what follows, I argue that the received view is mistaken. I begin by rehearsing the standard objection to what is typically taken to be (...)
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  38. Kant’s Neglected Objection to the Ontological Argument.Michael R. Slater - 2014 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 6 (2):179--184.
    This paper argues that Kant’s most famous objection to the ontological argument -- that existence is not a real predicate -- is not, in fact, his most effective objection, and that his ”neglected objection’ to the argument deserves to be better known. It shows that Kant clearly anticipates William Rowe’s later objection that the argument begs the question, and discusses why Kant himself seems to have overlooked the force of this criticism in his attempt to demolish the traditional proofs for (...)
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  39.  48
    Idealism and the Ontological Argument.William J. Mander - 2012 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 20 (5):993-1014.
    The ontological proof became something of a signature argument for the British Idealist movement and this paper examines how and why that was so. Beginning with an account of Hegel's understanding of the argument, it looks at how the thesis was picked up, developed and criticized by the Cairds, Bradley, Pringle-Pattison and others. The importance of Bradley's reading in particular is stressed. Lastly, consideration is given to Collingwood's lifelong interest in the proof and it is argued that his attention is (...)
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  40. Millican on the Ontological Argument.Yujin Nagasawa - 2007 - Mind 116 (464):1027-1040.
    Peter Millican (2004) provides a novel and elaborate objection to Anselm's ontological argument. Millican thinks that his objection is more powerful than any other because it does not dispute contentious 'deep philosophical theories' that underlie the argument. Instead, it tries to reveal the 'fatal flaw' of the argument by considering its 'shallow logical details'. Millican's objection is based on his interpretation of the argument, according to which Anselm relies on what I call the 'principle of the superiority of existence' (PSE). (...)
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  41.  6
    God and Cogito: Semen Frank on the Ontological Argument.Paweł Rojek - 2019 - Studies in East European Thought 71 (2):119-140.
    Semen Frank was one of the first and most ardent advocates of the ontological argument in the twentieth century. He proposed an original interpretation of the ontological argument based on its analogy to Descartes’ Cogito. Frank believed that it is possible to develop Cogito ergo sum into Cogito ergo est ens absolutum. In this paper, I analyze his version of the ontological argument. First, I propose a simple reconstruction of his reasoning, paying attention to its hidden premise. Second, departing from (...)
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  42. Reflections on the Logic of the Ontological Argument.Edward N. Zalta - 2007 - Studia Neoaristotelica 4 (1):28-35.
    Forma logica argumenti ontologici reconsiderataHac in tractatione auctores veritatem praemissarum argumenti ontologici, quod in dissertatione sua anno 1991 publicata proposuerunt, examinant. Auctores praesertim de prima Anselmi praemissa, qua asseritur, dari cogitabile quid, quo maius cogitari nequit, dubitant. Primo scilicet argumentum, quod Anselmus pro hac assertione astruit, reiciunt; deinde ostendunt, aliam interpretationem formalem huius praemissae dari posse, secundum quam vera evenit. Haec interpretatione adhibita, argumentum Anselmi non solum validum, sed etiam efficax esse constat. Reconstructio praecisa argumenti in hoc sensu intellectinihilominus revelat, (...)
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  43. The Ontological Argument and the Devil.Yujin Nagasawa - 2010 - Philosophical Quarterly 60 (238):72-91.
    The 'parody objection' to the ontological argument for the existence of God advances parallel arguments apparently proving the existence of various absurd entities. I discuss recent versions of the parody objection concerning the existence of 'AntiGod' and the devil, as introduced by Peter Millican and Timothy Chambers. I argue that the parody objection always fails, because any parody is either (i) not structurally parallel to the ontological argument, or (ii) not dialectically parallel to the ontological argument. Moreover, once a parody (...)
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  44.  19
    Predication and Modality in Kant’s Critique of the Ontological Argument.Lawrence Pasternack - 2018 - Kant Yearbook 10 (1):149-170.
    There is perhaps no more famous objection to the Ontological Argument than Kant’s contention that existence is not a predicate. However, this is not his only objection against the Ontological Argument. It is rather part of a more comprehensive attack on the OA, one that contains at least four distinct arguments, only one of which involves. It is the purpose of this paper to explore Kant’s case for, consider three contemporary strategies used to reinforce it, assess their merits, and then (...)
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  45.  72
    Is There a Shallow Logical Refutation of the Ontological Argument?Yujin Nagasawa - 2012 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 4 (2):87--99.
    The beauty of Anselm’s ontological argument is, I believe, that no matter how one approaches it, one cannot refute it without making a significant metaphysical assumption, one that is likely to be contentious in its own right. Peter Millican disagrees. He introduces an objection according to which one can refute the argument merely by analysing its shallow logical details, without making any significant metaphysical assumption. He maintains, moreover, that his objection does not depend on a specific reading of the relevant (...)
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  46.  20
    On Collingwood's Rehabilitation of the Ontological Argument.Giuseppina D'Oro - 2000 - Idealistic Studies 30 (3):173-188.
    The paper is divided in two parts. In the first I consider the nature of Ryle's attack on Collingwood's appropriation of the ontological argument and Collingwood's defence in the unpublished correspondence. In the second, I go beyond the confines of the Ryle-Collingwood exchange in the mid 'thirties to say something much more general about the nature of Collingwood's metaphysics as well as to advance an explanation of the compatibility of Collingwood's combined defence of descriptive metaphysics and the ontological proof.
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  47.  66
    Kant on Existence, Predication, and the Ontological Argument.Jaakko Hintikka - 1981 - Dialectica 35 (1):127-146.
    The ontological argument fails because of an operator order switch between (1) “necessarily there is an perfect being” and (2) “there is a being which necessarily is perfect”. Here (1) is trivially true logically but (2) problematic. Since Kant's criticisms were directed at the notion of existence, not at the step from (1) to (2), they are misplaced. They are also wrong, because existence can be a predicate. Moreover, Kant did not anticipate Frege's claim that “is” is ambiguous between existence, (...)
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  48.  20
    How is the Question ‘Is Existence a Predicate?’ Relevant to the Ontological Argument?J. William Forgie - 2008 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 64 (3):117-133.
    It is often said that the ontological argument fails because it wrongly treats existence as a first-level property or predicate. This has proved a controversial claim, and efforts to evaluate it are complicated by the fact that the words 'existence is not a property/predicate' have been used by philosophers to make at least three different negative claims: one about a first-level phenomenon possessed by objects like horses, stones, you and me; another about the logical form of assertions of existence; and (...)
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  49.  46
    Hartshorne and Findlay on ‘Necessity’ in the Ontological Argument.W. Gregory Lycan - 1968 - Philosophical Studies 17:132-141.
    CHARLES HARTSHORNE, in Anselm’s Discovery, begins his attempt to save the Ontological Argument by claiming that its latter half has been ‘conveniently ignored’ by its critics through nine centuries of debate. His own contentions center around a slightly updated version of Anselm’s ‘second’ Argument, as found in Proslogium III I paraphrase his reasoning as follows.
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    Does the Ontological Argument Beg the Question?: P. J. MCGRATH.P. J. McGrath - 1994 - Religious Studies 30 (3):305-310.
    In his paper ‘Has the Ontological Argument Been Refuted?’, 97–110) William F. Vallicella argues that my attempt to show that the Ontological Argument begs the question is unsuccessful. 1 I believe he is wrong about this, but before endeavouring to vindicate my position I must first make clear what precisely is the point at issue between us. The Ontological Argument is not a single argument, but a family of arguments. Newly devised formulations of the argument are frequently put forward by (...)
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